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you was so nice as to come so far to the old thing to her face that it was imsee me, and me never knowin' you, nor pertinence, but I didn't say that to her. askin' you to come, nor nothin'.” The No doubt she meant well, poor old fine sarcasm of this was unintentional, thing." and was lost on Lady Allerton.
“My dear, she did to you exactly "And brought me such fine tea, too,” what you had done to her. She called Betty added. “I'ud have liked to bring upon you uninvited, only she had some you a little trifie, ma'am, but you will excuse. You had appeared to desire her excuse it, I know, we bein' a pore acquaintance, seeing that you called woman, so I just brought you this." upon her first," Lord Allerton said,
She held out the red rose in her band drily. to the smartly-dressed lady, and smiled “Don't be absurd, Dick-as if the two ber kind old smile into the pretty petu- cases were in the least allke! You are lant face.
80 ridiculous about the poor, but of "You brought me a rose? Dear me, course she knew no better, poor soul." wbat a funny thing to do, but very Lady Allerton shrugged her shoulkind of you, I am sure, only I am sorry ders and smiled. you spent your money."
Meanwhile old Betty, after fumbling The little careless words did strike with the latch of the front door, bad Betty as lacking in courtesy, only she finally got herself out into the street. did not put it quite in those words in "Well, to be sure," she said to herself her mind. “Pore thing," she thought thoughtfully, as with tired feet she to herself; "nobody didn't take much wearily wended her way home again, heed to her manners when she was a "the manners of the quality is stranger girl, that's plain to be seen."
than I could ever a' thought they would “And now I'm afraid I can't stop any a' bin. I'd never have guessed itmore," Lady Allerton went on. “I never! She never even asked me to sit have friends upstairs. You know your down, nor to take a cup of tea, though way out, don't you?"--and she nodded I could hear as the tea was ready, the towards the front door.
cups a-clinking and all. And me come “Yes, thank you, ma'am, I can find all that way just for to see her! Well, my way out, and good day to you." well, it ain't for me to judge; perhaps
Betty's manners were those of a well- she don't know no better, pore thingbred duchess.
she didn't never learn no manners Lady Allerton rustled upstairs again,
when she was a girl, that's quite plain, and in her smart drawing-room regaled and if you don't learn 'em as a girl, her friends with an account of her first why, you don't never learn 'em, that's experience of "slumming" in the Boro', my idea. But maybe she meant better whilst they ate thin bread-and-butter than she acted, pore thing-it ain't for and cake.
me to judge." "Fancy that queer old person coming Which shows that old Betty and her to see me because I had been to see her. ladyship had curiously similar views Did you ever hear of such a thing? I about each other, from across that don't know what the lower classes will great gulf fixed between them! do next! Some people might have told
L. G. Moderly. Temple Bar.
THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT.
In last week's issue we discussed the administration of justice is left in the constitution of the Central Government hands of the ordinary officials, who at Peking. It now remains to treat combine this with their other functions. briefly the provincial administrations The district magistrate, for instance, and the relations in which they stand who is the lowest official on the proto the Central Government.
vincial scale, is at once collector of Excluding Manchuria, Mongolia and revenue, judge, coroner, head of police the Central Asian dominions, China is and public prosecutor, and he may on divided into eighteen provinces. At occasions be required to take the field the head of each is a governor, and in in person against rebels. The same several cases two or three are grouped functions may fall to the lot of any together under a still higher official, official on the scale up to the Viceroy whose proper title is governor-general, himself. Any officer is supposed to be but who is more often spoken of as capable of undertaking any public duty viceroy. The most important viceroy- whatsoever. Death sentences require alties are the three that lie in the basin in ordinary circumstances to be rati. of the Yang-tze, having their head- fied from Peking, but each viceroy or quarters at Nanking, Wuchang and governor is armed with extraordinary Chengtu respectively. The first pre- powers which he may use at discresided over at present by Liu Kun yi tion in times of public danger, and controls the three provinces of Kiangsu which enable him to deal out summary Anhwei and Kiangsi; the second, with justice at the shortest notice. He is the well-known Chang Chih-tung at its invested, in fact, with a share of that head, controls the two central provin- absolute and autocratic power which is ces of Hupeh and Hunan, and the third inherent in the Central Government, to controls the large and wealthy province whom, however, he remains responsiof Szechuen, the head of which is a ble. The charge of each governor is Manchu named Kwei Chun. Of almost to maintain peace and order within his equal importance is the viceroyalty of own bounds. So long as he does that Canton, at the head of which is Li and carries on the government in acHung Chang, controlling the two prov- cordance with the established rules, inces of Kwang-tung and Kwang-si. the Central Government does not interThese eight provinces contain a popu- fere with him. He is not concerned lation of over 200 millions and con- with what may be going on in a neightribute three-fourths of the revenue of boring province nor bound to spend his the Empire.
resources in its defence. Special orders, For all purposes of internal ad- of course, may be sent from Peking ministration, the various provincial directing him to assist, but the safety governments are practically indepen- of his own province is his first charge, dent. Each collects its own revenue, and any steps he may take will be subpays its own army and Civil Service, ordinated to that paramount consider and in the riverine and seaboard prov- ation. inces maintains a flotilla of war ves- The principal hold which the Peking sels and constructs coast defences. The Government has over the provincial officials is the right of appointment and a bureaucracy which stands in a middismissal. All officials hold office dur- dle position between the Crown and ing the pleasure of the Crown and can the people. Springing on the one hand be dismissed at any time with or with- from the multitude and looking on the out reason assigned. No instance has other hand to the Crown, they are been known of an official, however friendly to both. As governing the peohighly placed, refusing to lay down ple they are the recognized medium for office and hand over the seals to his the redress of grievances and for forsuccessor at the bidding of the Emperor mulating fresh legislation. As a whole or Empress. This power it should seem they carry on the government of China is sufficient to ensure prompt obedience both provincial and central, and they to any orders from the Court, but it is constitute a check, and a very efficient checked by the fact that the successor check on the vagaries of the autocratic to a viceroy or governor so removed power of the
peror. At the same must be selected from among the regu- time the relations between them and lar members of the Civil Service, who the Imperial House have for many are all imbued with the same traditions years been thoroughly cordial. There of government and the same bureau- is no question of their loyalty to the cratic spirit. The Crown has never dynasty, and on the other hand advice ventured to put into high office a mere tendered by the great viceroys and gove creature of its own, or one who has not ernors has carried the greatest weight regularly entered the service by some with the Central Government. Until recognized channel and risen through the unhappy events of the last few the ranks. Such an attempt would, un- years the distinction between Manchu doubtedly raise a storm of indignation and Chinamen seemed to be disappear. throughout the whole of the country ing, and even yet it cannot be doubted such as no government could face. that at the present moment a Manchu
This leads us to say a word as to the emperor is the only one who would mode in which the official ranks are re- command general recognition. cruited-a system which has perhaps The relations between the Central as much as anything else contributed and Provincial Governments are well to the general stability and moderation illustrated by the system of finance. of the Government and prevented it The Peking Government has no revfrom degenerating into a military dic- enues peculiarly its own, but is depentatorship. Entrance to office is ob- dent on the sums it can draw from the tained, as is generally known, by a provinces. The Imperial Maritime Cussystem of public examinations open to toms revenue may be deemed an excepthe humblest as well as the highest. tion, but even that is received in the Within recent years a certain number first instance by the provincial treashave been admitted by purchase, but uries, and in any case the whole of it only to junior rank. All practically is now pledged to foreign bondholders. have to begin at the foot of the ladder The money for the support of the Manand work their way up, and all the chu troops, as well as for the support high posts in the provinces and nearly of the Imperial household itself, must all those in Peking are filled with men be drawn from the provinces. The cuswho have so risen. Admission is free tomary practice has hitherto been for to Manchus and to Chinese alike and the Board of Revenue in Peking, which until recent years there has been no has nominal control over the finances preference shown in selection.
of the Empire, to indent annually for The great body of officials thus forms such sums as were required for the use of the central government, a certain of course, be dismissed, but the soli. amount being assessed on each prov- darity of interest that pervades the ince according to its supposed means service will prompt his successor to do and so long as the amount did not vary the same thing and for the same reagreatly from year to year it was paid sons, though perhaps in a more guarded with reasonable punctuality, but as form, more and more was asked for, it was To apply these remarks to the present only got with increasing difficulty. The position of affairs in Peking, the pay expenses of local government were nat- for the Manchu troops and the large urally the first charge on the provincial bodies of Chinese troops now surroundexchequer and the Peking demands ing Tien-tsin must be drawn from the could only be met out of the surplus. provinces of the Yang-tze basin and of If there was no surplus, demands could the Canton River. If this money is be met only by increased taxation with not forthcoming, as under the present its attendant unpopularity and risk of temper of the Viceroy it is not likely to rebellion. Finance brings out in a be the troops now opposing the allied marked manner the strength and weak- advance must in no long time dissolve ness of the Imperial Government. So for want of food or break up into predfar as legislation goes the Central Gov. atory bands. Of the two forces which ernment can impose taxes to any extent. lie at the back of all governments—the An Imperial decree being the highest power of the purse and the power of the form of legislation, it has only to issue sword-the Peking Government can the decree and the law is complete. But only wield one and that by reason of to carry such a law into execution is a the existence of the hereditary Manchu different matter. It can only be done army which is at its call. The power through the constituted provincial au- of the purse is in the hands of the great thorities and if these decline to co- viceroys and is only available to the operate or declare it to be impossible, Central Government by their concur it cannot be done at all. The particular rence. governor or viceroy so refusing may, The Saturday Review.
A VISION OF THE DEAD.
They fly forgotten; as a dream
Dies at the opening day.
So keep them, God, safe in the Quiet Land,
Of the unnumbered Dead.
From scenes of vanished glory once they came,
All the forgotten Dead.
From happy homesteads, where the ruddy light
The once beloved Dead.
From mothers arms, and tender parent care,
Of little ones long dead.
And here are saints who lived and prayed of yore,
Though holy, honored Dead.
And warriors, who to save their country died,
All, all the vanished Dead.
They stretch mute hands to us across the years;
That vision of the Dead!
Peace! they are free of human slight or wrong;
of the forgotten Dead!
Forgotten! yet be sure they understand,
E. L. Thomas.
CHRISTIANITY A RELIGION OF GROWTH.
This week has witnessed the gather- vaguer. There is, too, a certain "note" ing in London of several thousands of of effervescent self-advertisement in persons, mostly British and American, the movement which strikes us as less connected with an organization called Christian than modern and commerthe Society of Christian Endeavor. cial. But we do not doubt that the inThe objects of this body appear to be fluence of the movement as a whole a little vague, and some of the ad- upon the young people who take part dresses delivered at the meetings even in it is for good, probably for great