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ary, every man has in his own hands slow and gradual process, opened the the carving of his own fortune. The eyes of Chinamen to the fact that there stories in the "Arabian Nights," which are other and more advanced civilizadescribe how men from the lowest tions than their own. The translation dregs of the population rise on occa- of European works into Chinese has sion to become Grand Viziers, have placed within the reach of the intellectheir parallels every day in China, and tual classes a vast amount of knowlcountless examples might be given of edge which is entirely new to them, men who, by their ability and industry and which has created a feeling of dishave been raised from cottage-life to satisfaction with the political régime viceregal thrones. It is a political under which they live. Then came the axiom that the will of the people is the Japanese war, with all its humiliations supreme law, and thus we have in and consequent penal clauses. This China an excellent example of an es- added fuel to the fire, the Emperor sentially democratic State.

eagerly adopted suggestions for reIn piping times of peace the system form, and, for a time, it seemed as works smoothly enough, and while it is though we were to have repeated in the ambition of every youth to enter China a similar transformation scene the ranks of the Mandarinate, it is the to that by which Japan was converted object of the Mandarins so to rule as from the condition of Oriental not seriously to conflict with the feel- feudal State into an advanced monings and convictions of the people. At archy of the newest type. the present time the existing social dis- But the dreams of the reformers tinctions are complicated by racial were not destined to be realized, at the antipathy. Since the assumption of time at least. With the return of power supreme power by the Manchus in the of the Dowager Empress the reaction year 1644 there has been a more or less set in, and although it is difficult to smothered hatred, at times more acute turn the hands of the clock backwards, than at others, between themselves and that redoubtable old lady did her ut. the Chinese. So long as a reasonable most to accomplish the feat. In this proportion of power was given to the enterprise she was actively supported Chinese the friction was diminished. by the Manchu faction whom she had But of late the wheels of the Imperial called to her counsels. Prominent chariot have dragged heavily, and by among these men were Kang-i and the injudicious action of the Dowager Jung Lu, both of whom were comEmpress the antagonism between the mitted to her cause by her antecedents. two races has become markedly devel- It was Kang-i who had induced her to oped. A widely extended cleavage has send six of the leading reformers to the thus been created within the official scaffold without trial, and it was at class itself, with results which must, his suggestion that a large reward was unless the provoking cause be removed, offered for the apprehension of K'ang prove fatal to the existence of the Yuwei dead or alive. On Jung Lu she dynasty.

had another hold. When a death war. With some show of reason the Court rant had been issued by the Emperor party trace back the origin of the pres- against that officer he threw himself ent disturbed condition of affairs to at the feet of the Empress, who exthe arrival of foreigners in the empire. tended her protection to him. With The new ideas, political, historical and these two were associated Prince scientific, which were introduced into Ching and Li Hungchang, both of the country by the treaties have, by a whom were able, if they had been so

were

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minded, to offer more enlightened coun- lion had some months previously sel than their colleagues. Prince Ching broken out in the province of Kangsu, had for some time been President of and a certain General Tung Fubsiang the Tsungli-Yamên and though not ad. was sent to suppress it. In this he was vanced in his views was

open to

successful, and, with his blushing hon. reason. Li Hungchang, on the other ors fresh upon him, he led his victori. band, is an opportunist of the worst ous troops to Peking at the bidding of kind. He is thoroughly anti-foreign at the Empress. Tung was a man after heart, although he often poses as a her own heart, truculent, untutored liberally-minded statesman. His word and innately cruel. Accustomed to is not to be trusted for an instant, and command, his conduct was hectoring he is in the habit of darkening counsel and brutal, and, with a devoted army by his disingenuousness.

at his back, he soon shared with Kang-i The composition of thi council the mastery of the position. Under boded ill for foreigners, as was quickly the fostering care of these men and demonstrated. An hostility which had with the full approval of the Empress, till then been confined to words now the Boxers, who had already forced found expression in deeds. Mission themselves into prominence by their stations were attacked, converts were antagonism to everything foreign in murdered, and some few foreign mis. Shantung,

developed into sionaries were assassinated, at the power, and were invited to march on same time the visits of the foreign rep- Peking to take their part in the camresentatives to the Tsungli-Yamên be- paign which had been determined came experiences of greater pain than upon. The result of this combination ever. At the treaty ports the consuls of forces is too well known to need reexperienced increased difficulty in capitulation, and has culminated in the transacting business with the local au- committal of one of the greatest and thorities on reasonable lines, and most unpardonable atrocities of modern found it next to impossible to gain any times. compensation for wrongs done to their It is impossible to regard the action countrymen. These "pin-pricks," how- of the Empress and her clique in this ever, were not such as to satisfy the matter without loathing and horror, animosity of the Empress, who learnt and more especially do these feelings to lean more and more towards the ex- attach to the conduct of the Empress treme wing of her party. Under the herself. It will be remembered that Influence of Kang-i Prince Ching was on two occasions she received in audiremoved from the Tsungli-Yamên, and ence the foreign ladies in Peking, and Prince Tuan, the father of the heir-ap- greeted them with embraces and tears; parent to the throne, was appointed in and yet she could find it in her heart his place. A worse appointment could to condemn her helpless and unfortunot have been made, and with the re- nate guests to massacre at the hand of moval of Jung Lu, who had attempted the mob. No sort of extenuation can to cool down his Imperial mistress's possibly be pleaded for this outrageous rancor, to a distance from the court, crime, which has shocked the whole the power drifted entirely into the civilized world. But she does not stand hands of the ultra-reactionaries. When alone in this condemnation. Apart matters had reached this condition from her immediate council, there are there came upon the scenes a man who throughout the provinces many men within the last few days has earned who have supported the action of the for himself indelible infamy. A rebel- extreme reactionary, even to the length

sources

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of murder and assassination.

But

to beginning the railway in question, happily there are others who have done all in his power to advance the taken a different view of the situation, well-being of the people within his and there are signs of the existence of jurisdiction and to gain enlightenment more than one party in the State who for them. He has engaged the serheartily condemn the recent proceed- vices of foreigners to develop the reings at Peking.

of
the

country, and has When the Court party were bestow- opened mines and factories for the proIng their patronage on the Boxers, and duction of minerals and the manufacencouraging them in their murderous ture of steel and Iron, But he has done career, two men stood prominently for- more than this. Having become acward in the cause of law and order. quainted with the society which has These were Chang Chihtung, Viceroy been established for the translation of of the two Hu Provinces, and Liu valuable European works into Chinese, K'unyi, Viceroy of the two Kiang and having studied the literature so Provinces. These two officials govern produced, he has thrown all his weight the two most important viceroyalties on the side of the movement. He has in the Empire. Their territories border subscribed to its funds, promoted the on the Yangtze Kiang, and cover an circulation of its works, and generally

of over 300,000 square miles. given it all the support in his power. Over these provinces their power is su- But the most distinct expression of preme, and their recent action has his views is to be found in an shown that it extends beyond the tremely interesting work which he has boundaries of their Government, and lately published dealing with the presthat they are able to hold their own in ent needs of China. In the first inopposition even to the mandates of the stance he would strengthen the army, Central Government. Though by no which "is to the States what the breath means pro-foreign in their views, they is to the body." If, he adds, China had yet have statesmanship and honor a strong army, “the world would fear enough to recognize that the State is her, the world would cultivate her bound by its engagements, and wisdom friendship, and she would then control enough to see that the integrity of the the destinies of Europe and Asia," Empire can only be maintained by a realizing the dreams of Mr. Pearson! judicious advance along the lines of This is the gist of the book. He ridi. progress. Chang Chihtung was one of cules the idea of international law in the first officials of high rank who ad- relation to China, when, at the bidding vocated the introduction of railways of the Treaty Powers, she is forbidinto the Empire, and, when Viceroy of den to regulate their own tariffs, and the two Kwang provinces, he went the to try foreigners in her own courts. A length of memorializing the throne in strong army would, he considers, remsupport of the construction of a grand edy these wrongs, and an enlightened trunk line from Peking to Hankow. people would refuse to be hoodwinked This scheme was considered by the by those whose interest it is to withGovernment of the day to be too hold the knowledge of their degradachimerical for adoption, but, as Chang tion from them. Western learning

persistent, he was transferred comes next as a requirement to a from Canton to Hankow, with orders strong army in his program, and he ad. to construct the railway in which he vocates the establishment of colleges had so much faith. Since his arrival and schools throughout the country at at his present post, he has, in addition which, on a basis of Confucian learn.

was

ing, a superstructure of scientific and ing to recognize, the good that is in historical knowledge should be raised. them. They have the confidence of the He would encourage newspapers and people, as is proved by the way in exhorts bis readers not to be angry at which the two great viceroys have, by the lack of these sources of informa- a single word, preserved peace in the tion, "but rather vigorously to correct midst of anarchy. The nation would the deficiencies." He scoffs at the idea therefore, rally to them and to any of religious intolerance, and holds that cause which they represent, and readChristianity will go the

way of

ily accept a yoke which would be light Buddhism and Taoism if only it be left and a burden which would be easy. alone. “Just now," he writes-and it The second party which stands opis a strong testimony—“Christianity is posed to the Empress's clique is that in the ascendant; Buddhism and Tao- of K'ang Yuwei and his fellow reformism are decadent; their influence can- ers. Of these men the best that can not hold its own. Buddhism has long be said is that they are enthusiasts, since passed its meridian; Taoism has and though enthusiasm may be a great only demons, not gods," and so, he im- power, it lacks the solidity which is plies, it will be with Christianity. required for a political basis. A glance Why, therefore, persecute its adher. at the reforms which, in the plenitude ents? What harm can they do?

of their short-lived power, they proThese are the sentiments of a man posed for the Empire is, to say the who probably has more influence in least, enough to convict them of a deChina at the present day than any sire for hasty legislation. These were other official. He is a profound scholar as follows:-“(1) To abolish the essay - he was the third graduate of his year system of examination which has been throughout the whole Empire he is in vogue for 500 years. (2) To estabwell and widely informed and pos- lish a university for the study of Engsesses an indomitable will. His loyalty lish and of Western science in Peking. to the dynasty has never been ques- (3) To convert temples into schools for tioned, and he is notoriously free from Western education. (4) To establish a the almost universal vice of corruption. translation board for the translation of Liu K'unyi is another man of the same

books on Western learning into Chinese. sort, and the following in the Provinces (5) To establish a patent office. (6) To which obey the behests of these two protect Christianity without further men is as numerous as it is weighty. evasions. (7) To make the reform All the more enlightened and thought- paper, Chinese Progress, the official ful part of the community are on their organ of the Government. (8) To make side, and it is fair to assume that any young Manchus study foreign lancause which they champion will in all guages and travel abroad.”

It is probability be carried to a successful further stated that the Emperor acissue. When the present war is over,

tually discussed with his advisers the and when it will become the duty of desirability of adopting Christianity as the Treaty Powers to call into exist- the religion of State, and of discarding ence a settled form of government, it the pigtail with the national dress. is to these men that they should look. A Shanghai writer describes this list They are, speaking generally, devoted as a "cluster of brilliant edicts," but it patriots. They are in favor of intel. may well be doubted whether even lectual and mechanical reforms, and

this enthusiastic admirer would like to though they are not lovers of foreign

trust the administration of the Empire ers, they are able to see and are will- to such precipitate politicians.

Robert K. Douglas. The Speaker.

MR. FIRTH'S CROMWELL.*

This is an excellent book, a fascin- mirable elucidations and sketches of ating book, a decisive book. It tells the man and his times. There are also the life-history of our mighty Puritan perhaps a score of lives of Cromwell, hero with all the fulness and accuracy of greater or less merit, bulk and rewhich so many years of original re- search, which are not the result of a search have made the privilege of the long first-hand study of all the avail. writer. It tells the story with a lucid able material, whether manuscript or vigor which must hold the interest of printed. Carlyle labored on the orig. every reader, and it will pass with his- inal papers and memoirs, and gave us torians as the final estimate of the an invaluable commentary, but not a character and achievements of the Pro- real biography. Mr. S. R. Gardiner's tector. It is a book to study, a book monumental history, with all the moun. to enjoy, a book to live.

tains of research that he has condensed The outside public, which had heard into five volumes, has not yet reached of Mr. Firth mainly through his lives the close of the Protectorate; and his of Cromwell and the other Civil War two short studies of Oliver, however leaders and notables in the “Dictionary valuable as estimates, are neither of of National Biography,” his Clarke pa- them a complete biography. Mr. J. L. pers and other original documents Sandford, Mr. F. A. Inderwick, Q.C., edited by him for the Camden Society and others have published special and the Royal Historical Societystudies and useful documents, but they might have supposed that a new life have not written anything like continof Oliver, based on his “Dictionary" uous narratives. On the other hand, article and his other studies of docu- the many writers in England and in ments, would bear more traces of the America who have published substanlearned archivist than of the popular tive biographies of more or less in historian. The book before us justifies dustry and skill-some suggestive, the belief of all the friends and col- some eloquent, some dull, and many of leagues of Mr. Firth, that he was quite them worthless-have not professed to able to combine vivid narrative and base their histories on such exhaustive living portraiture with inexhaustible study of manuscript and contemporary research and thorough scholarship. The authorities as Carlyle and Gardiner result is a monograph in five hundred have done. Mr. Firth, with a firstpages which must satisfy the expecta- hand knowledge of the whole extant tions of the student no less than the material certainly not less than that of curiosity of the public.

either Carlyle or Gardiner, has for the The distinctive point about the book first time written an ample history of is this: Mr. Firth for the first time coin- the man and his comrades, every line bines a full and detailed narrative of of which bears the stamp of original Cromwell's entire career with exhaus- research. tive research into all the original The question as to which the reader sources. One or two very learned stu- will first desire to be satisfied is cer. dents of the documents have edited tainly this: What is Mr. Firth's general these, and have supplied us with ad. estimate of the character and achieve

*Oliver Cromwell and the Rule of the Puritans in England, by Charles Firth, M. A., Balliol Col

lege, Oxford; in Heroes of the Nations, edited by Evelyn Abbott, M. A. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.)

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