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to say, and in the present case, the re idea that it is possessed is frightful, exmark germinated, expanded, bore cruciating, a perpetual torment. fruit-a great deal too much fruit and And who is the happy man? He is of an injurious kind. On ne badine pas one—“aye, there's the rub!"--one who avec la gloire.
seems not to appreciate in the very I do not pretend greatly to blame the least the worth of the beloved object; friend of the young criminal for his who treats it with familiarity and even yarn about the authenticity of the hat. contempt, as an ordinary article of doIf he had said nothing, the result mestic furniture. It is not to be borne! would have been the same. There it Rape, under such circumstances, bewas
the glorious triangle, with its comes a simple act of justice; or rather fine, clear, imperial contours, which of homage richly due and basely withtook the heart of the young enthusiast held. It concerns the honor of the great by storm. The "psychic evolution"—as Napoleon, that his hat should be in the the learned say-was inevitable. The possession of one who esteems it at its dreaming youth could by no means es true worth. cape his destiny. He became a thief A duty is to be performed, and no through his capacity for disinterested man of true delicacy would hesitate for affection.
a moment. O sophistry of passion! I find it interesting also as a psycho- This is what "crystallization" comes logical student, to trace the mental to! processes of this highly sympathetic But let us reflect a moment. Do we kleptomaniac. The phenomena resem not all go through the same process of ble those of "crystallization,” as de- reasoning-or rather of unreasoningscribed by Stendhal. They begin with regard to something? Do we not with simple curiosity.
all, by the terrible help of the imagina"What is that hat?":
tion, pass from admiration to passion, "Oh, nothing."
from passion to an ungovernable desire "What do you mean by nothing?" of possession, and from that desire to
“Why it is just a Bonaparte-hat. a deep conviction that we alone are the Nothing more.” (Reflection. Revery: true and lawful owners of what we with a gradual tendency toward the covet? The history of the young pickfixed idea.
pocket is the history of mankind. "See here! That hat-"
Mutato nomine de te "Well, what of it?"
Fabula narratur. "Did it belong to Napoleon I?"
Each one of us has always by him "What if it did ?"
his little three-cornered hat. There are "Ah, ha! You never told me that!" degrees, of course, and we do not all
(He never told me that. I had to go so far as to appropriate it. There tear the precious secret out of him. He are many chapters in the hat-story, really has the immortal General's little and they are not all tragic. But three-cornered hat!)
who lives has someAnd now jealousy comes in-that in thing in common with our culpable calculable aid to love, which imparts young hero. to the tender passion invincible force, Herein are to be found many and and insatiable concupiscence. Hence grave reasons for not being too hard forth a vulgar bit of head-covering upon one poor earth-worm gone mad will be regarded as the rarest treasure about a star. Why should not a head be under the sun. Its possessor must of turned by a hat? It seems peculiarly course be perfectly happy; and yet the fitting in a case like this, where the
hat is strong and the head weak! The us freely forgive the head thus domitwo may not have been made for one nated. All about us, in obedience to another, but the ascendancy of the one perpetual cervical flexions, heads are over the other is easily understood. turning hats, for bows or smiles. It Never before, it may be, was a head so must inevitably happen now and again completely taken captive by a hat. Let that a hat turns a head. Les Appales.
THE AVERAGE MAN.
What has the Master of Balliol to do the ordinary souls are unequal to it, we with the average man? The master of should unhesitatingly put down all Balliol had very little to do with him. such sermons as these to irony. As And Dr. Caird, though standing spon such it would be very effective sor for him, recommends "The Average rhetoric, though lost on all but those Man” precisely because its author was for whom it was not intended; for not an average man, but something, as every quite ordinary man present these sermons themselves sufficiently would take it as obviously true, and go show, very far above him. The preach away from church soothed and comer in this case was evidently a man of fortable at hearing what fine fellow he large heart and fine sympathies, which, was. The pecular insidiousness of this joined to high intellectual powers, re very favorite sermon (popular alike moved him so far from the average with congregation and preacher) is that man that he simply did not know him, it is truth with a twist. That the averand so was brought by the breadth of age man is the most conspicuous figure his charity to describe him in favorable of the world in these democratic days terms. As is often the case, the is abundantly true, but the preacher's greater and therefore the simpler man way of stating it suggests that he is so took the inferior at his own estimate because he deserves to be; and that it and, doing out of generosity what is his abiding misfortune that his imother writers and talkers do out of portance is not recognized. Fancy a self-recommendation, described the spiritual teacher imagining that it is average man as the prime mover of good for a man's soul to be told that he everything that happens, the winner of is the special object of Heaven's solicievery battle, the pillar of every State, tude, and that the world neglects him the backbone of every Church, the pe- only because it has not the Divine inculiar object of God's favor. Cæsar is tuition to perceive his worth. And yet not in the running with him; S. Augus- that is exactly what the "we cannot all tine is of no account beside him. Great be great" sermon amounts to. Its men in fact are a trifle; the real thing ethics are appalling; its ignorance of in the whole world is just the average human nature astounding. man. Were it not that the finer souls The average man neglected! The disdain sarcasm in the pulpit, while average man unhappy at his lot! Why,
in the very nature of things he stands The Average Man: and other Sermons.
to be of all men the most pleased with By the late Rev. William Granger. With a
himself. Not high enough to "look preface by the Master of Balliol. Paisley and London: Alexander Gardner. 1899.
down upon the hate of those below," no
contending tempests blowing round his square with your habits. Outside your head, he is yet at a comfortable alti daily work never do anything but tude which enables him pleasantly to amuse yourself, and never let amuserealize that there are others less fortu ment have any connection with mind. nate than he. He is not lonely, for the Perhaps the supreme moment of satisgreat majority are like himself. His faction to the average man of the setone real trouble is that there are his tled time of life comes about three betters; to their existence he is not quite o'clock on Saturday afternoons. Havstupid enough to be blind. It is the ing lunched solidly, with the prospect one thing which mars his equanimity, of thirty-six hours' inaction before him, for it compels him to have an idea, the he takes up The Moralizer. There he idea of reducing these superior beings finds himself faithfully reflected week to his own level. That becomes the by week; he can read and understand average man's life work from age to without even an attempt at thought. age, and slowly he succeeds. Not be There he finds every one of his worldly cause of his own ability; but from time ambitions recommended on the most to time, amongst the more than aver moral grounds, so that his conscience is age men, one arises base enough to soothed and yet not a desire forbidden. buy the commonplace man's support by He reads: "Let it be remembered that assisting him with his superior ability if the world were flat it would not be to pull down the nobler sort to the round." He pauses for a moment to average level. Such traitors abound in ponder the striking generalization. this day.
“Yes,” he says, “it is true, if the world But apart from that perennial dis were flat, it would not be round. What turbance, the average man is a slow a wonderful paper the Moralizer is!" animal; he can comprehend nothing He reads on: “Depend upon it, if the but himself and wants only to meet world were made flat to morrow, extrahimself. His particular aversion is the ordinary things would happen." Then clever man. In the first place it is an follows bold speculation and descripinsult that there should be any one so tion exactly suited to the average unlike himself; in the second place the man's capacity, being in its improbable clever man troubles him by the sugges and absolutely irresponsible adventure tion, not successfully stifled, that his just broad farce told in solemn lanfixed persuasion that the clever man is guage, suggestive of much wisdom. of no account compared with the aver Finally, the reader sinks to sleep a age man may not be quite sound. happy and wholly self-satisfied man. Similarly, a book or a journal which re So far from the average man being quires thought to be understood is an neglected or made little of, it is just he offence to him. Of course if he cannot who calls the tune to which the world understand it, it is a worthless book, hastens to dance. It is the average but still there it is, there is something man who makes good drama well nigh he can't understand. It has ruffled the impossible on the stage; who makes the stagnant waters of his mind; his brain path of a Marie Corelli broad and easy, has almost been put in motion, and he of a George Meredith steep and naris annoyed. What he likes is his half row; who makes "Answers" and penny daily and his weekly Moralizer. "Comic Cuts," "Tit-Bits" and "SnapThis is the average man's rule of life. shots" the royal road to fortune; who Eat well, drink well, sleep well; don't crowds the Academy and thinks Sir work if you can help it, but if you William Richmond has improved s. must, do it regularly and make it Paul's; who rejoices when a prima
donna steps to the footlights and stops ing up against this grinding tyranny the whole action of the opera for an win their reward in the end, may be, encore. For the average man, the but if victorious in the struggle with genius must clip his wings, and be con- the average man, they come out of it tent to crawl instead of fly; the man of not the less broken, exhausted, spent; original thought must give up thinking as one whom a fever has left, but left and take to platitudes; the poet must weak unto death. It is very nearly write "Absent-minded Beggars;" the true, as Carlyle has said, that the drillstatesman must give up governing, and sergeant is the one soul the average grovel and temporize and apologize. man has left free.
The “noble fep" who insist on stand-
And here's her answer back to me;
My heart, my heart keep steady!
I'm King, I'm King already.
Alfred Perceval Graves.
There is nothing more vexing and take part in. In the secret chambers misleading than an arbitrary classifica- of our mind we still play, as we tion; but, after all, names are a neces- played when we were children, at besity, and it is impossible to talk about ing heroes and heroines, though we the modern novel with any chance of select the precise type of heroism (or distinctness unless one specifies the villany) with a little more discriminaclass of novel that is referred to. And, tion.' We do not aspire after the ensince prose fiction began to stand alone tirely incongruous; if our flesh has sucas a separate art, there have always cumbed under the ordeal of a Channel been two main types of story-the crossing, we avoid the identification of novel of incident and the novel of ob
ourselves with the young rescuer of servation. Naturally the types have the shipwrecked. But still, there is overlapped; human intelligence more scarcely a man so tied by custom in than anything else in the world refuses soul as well as body to his office-stool to be shut into watertight compart- that he does not conceive it possible, ments; but still there exists a broad and even desirable, that he too might distinction between the story told as a take a hand in bloodshed and feel the traveller may tell his adventures in lust of combat rise in his veins. The Abyssinia or Peru, and the story con- battle instinct survives in the sex that cerned from start to finish with cir- did the fighting long after there had cumstances familiar to the audience in ceased to be any fighting for it to do. their own daily life. And-broadly But woman, who in the old times speaking again—the novel of incident readily identified her emotions with commends itself to men, the novel of those of the valiant knight, and who observation to women. Our curiosity listened-or so one may suppose from is limited by our imagination, and the the old forms of literature with more bulk of us care most for the recital of interest to the recital of innumerable such actions as we can see ourselves tourneyings than to any love song
* 1. The Danvers Jewels. By Mary Cholmondeley. 5. Concerning Isabel Carnaby. By Ellen ThornLondon: Bentley, 1887.
eycroft Fowler. London; Hodder & Stoughton, 2. Sir Charles Danvers. By Mary Cholmondeley.
1898. London: Bentley, 1889.
6. The Double Thread. By Ellen Thorneycroft 3. Diana Tempest. By Mary Cholmondeley. Lon- Fowler. London: Hutchinson, 1899. don: Bentley, 1898.
7. The Farringdons. By Ellen Thorneycroft 4. Red Pottage, By Mary Cholmondeley. Lon- Fowler. London: Hutchinson, 1900. don: Arnold, 1899.