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(as follows) in the Emperor's own to have been that the Empress intended name

to depose Kwang Su, make Pu Chun

Emperor, and constitute herself Regent While yet in our infancy we were by during the new minority. The anticigrace of the Emperor Tung Che chosen

pation evoked an outburst of loyalty to succeed him in the heavy responsi

to Kwang Su which surprised those bilities of Head of the whole Empire,

who had doubted the existence of any and when His Majesty died we sought day and night to be deserving of such

public opinion among the Chinese. Kin kindness by energy and faithfulness in Lienshan, district manager of the Imour duties. We were also indebted to perial Telegraphs-whose name seems the Empress-Dowager, who taught and destined to come into notoriety along cherished us assiduously, and to her

with that of Kang. Yu-wei-promptly we owe our safety to the present day.

despatched, on behalf of 1,231 literati Now, be it also known, that when we were selected to the Throne it was then

and gentry of Shanghai and the neighagreed that if ever we should have a borhood, a telegram to the Princes son that son should be proclaimed heir and Ministers of the Tsungli-Yamen, to the Throne. But ever since last year in the following terms:(1898) we have been constantly ill, and it was for this reason that, in the 8th

When we received the edict of the month of that year (the date of the 24th inst., in which the Emperor procoup d'état), the Empress-Dowager gra- posed to abdicate on account of illness, ciously acceded to our urgent prayers, we were amazed; and the mandarins, and took over the reins of government gentry and merchants from all the in order to instruct us in our duties. A

provinces residing in Shanghai became year has now passed, and still we find

full of anxiety, and discussed the matourselves an invalid; but ever keeping ter everywhere in the streets. We, in our mind that we do not belong to therefore, wire to you to beg of you to the direct line of succession, and that, be loyal and faithful, and, on behalf for the sake of the safety of the Em- of the nation, to implore the Emperor pire of our ancestors, a legal 'heir not to think of abdicating, even though should be selected to the Throne, we he should be unwell; so that the Emagain prayed the Empress-Dowager to

press-Dowager, at her advanced age, carefully choose from amongst the

may not have the extra burden of rulmembers of the Imperial Clan such an

ing a distracted Empire, and so that one; and this she has done in the per

the spirits of our ancestors may be at son of Pu Chun, son of Tsai Yi, Prince

rest, and the people live in peace. Tuan. We hereby command accordingly (he

It was said that a number of the continues) that Pu Chun, the son of

officials and gentry of Hupeh had taken Tsai Yi, Prince Tuan, be made heir to

similar action; and that the chief milithe late Emperor Tung Che.

tary officials at Nanking had protested Now the bearing of these utterances to the Viceroy that they acknowledged depends, like those of Captain Bunsby, only Kwang Su, and offered to take on the application of them. The mean- active measures on his behalf. It is ing read into them by all China seems significant, at any rate, “that a procla

• There may be a certain academic interest in noting that the new heir is a great-grandson of the Emperor Tao Kwang. Prince Tuan is a son of Prince Tun, who was a brother of the Emperor Hien Fung and of Prince Chun (the father of Kwang Su); he is of the same generation, therefore, as Tung Che and Kwang Su, and any son of his would be eligible for adoption to either of the two. The reigning family have,

however, a still clearer method of exhibiting the genealogical sequence. The children of a given generation have all the same appellative. The song of Kiaking, for instance, were all Mien; the song of Tao Kwang are all Yih; the sons of these Yih are all Tsai, and the sons of the Tsai are all Pu. Tung Che and Kwang Su were both Tsal.

Any Pu is, therefore, eligble for adoption by either as BOD.

.

mation purporting to emanate from traitors and their partisans forever
one Hsu, who declares himself to be from the Government.
secretly ordered by

the
Emperor

It is less surprising, perhaps, that Chi. Kwang Su to “call on patriotic men to

nese residing in the Straits Settleexterminate evil people," was widely

ments," in Australia and in California distributed in Hankow. "The Emperor

should have protested with equal emhad (it is declared), ever since he held

phasis against the deposition of a monthe reins of government, done his ut

arch whose only offence had been the most to perform his duty, and the

advocacy of reforms which they had people are satisfied. ... Recently be

learned to appreciate and admire. was forced to abdicate the throne by

Such an explosion of remonstrance a number of treasonable men, who fas

seems to have caused astonishment, as cinated the Empress-Dowager. On

well as alarm and anger, at Peking. eeing that the press-Dowager is

But the Empress was shrewd enough tyrannizing over the people, and giving

to perceive reason for pause. Instead away the territory to Russia, (Hsu)

of deposing the Emperor, she requested wished, long ago, to ask the Emperor's

the Board of Ceremonies to decide upon permission to clear off the evil people

a fitting manner of observing his birthnear him, but hesitated to do so lest

day, and acquiesced in a demand by the the matter should leak out." Now,

Foreign Ministers to be allowed to pay however, as all know that the Empress

him their compliments on Chinese New really intends to depose him without

Year's Day (Feb. 19). But she turned ground, “it is time to swear that we are

her rage against the Reform Party, not standing under the sun with her

who are held responsible for the opand her villains." A committee repre

position. The first victim selected was senting 80,000 Chinese residents in

Kin Lien-shan, whose arrest and execuSiam telegraphed from Bangkok:

tion were ordered-whether for signing,

or only for forwarding, the Shanghai We, the loyal subjects of H.I.M.

message, is not clear. Kin got warnKuang Hsu in Siam, learn with sor- ing, and fled to Macao. The instrucrowful surprise that an attempt is be- tions were passed on, therefore, to ing made by certain traitors at Peking Canton; and the Viceroy, Li Hungto destroy by poison our beloved Sov- chang, lost no time in formulating a reereign, and we would hereby warn

quest for his extradition on a charge Your Excellencies [i.e., the Ministers of

of embezzling Tls. 38,000! The pretext the Tsung li Yamen), that, should our

is ingenious, as a political accusation Emperor be murdered or deposed, an Army of Revenge from Siam alone will

would have been ignored, whereas the immediately return to China for the Portuguese could not well refuse to sole purpose of serving out justice to detain him pending the offer of evithe two arch traitors, Prince Ching and dence on a civil charge. It is by no Kang Yi, whom we deem the chief au

means unlikely, even, that a man flying thors of all the sorrows and troubles

suddenly for his life may have left his of our beloved Emperor. We feel cer

accounts unsquared. Proof, however, tain that the inhabitants of the length

not only of a deficit, but of animus and breadth of the homeland will rejoice to help us in removing these furandi, will, doubtless, be required;

• The Chinese at Singapore telegraphed to the Tsungli-Yamen: "Urge upon the EmpressDowager the absolute necessity of sparing the Emperor's life, or else the Chinese here will gladly sacrifice their lives"'; and to the British,

American, and Japanese Ministers at Peking, individually: “All Chinese communities beg you to use your influence to protect Kwang Su's life." Forty-six protests in all are said to have reached Peking within a few days.

there is a general conviction in China tual persons of Kang Yu-wei and that Kin will receive short shrift if he Liang Chi-chao; or should these men be touches Chinese soil, and the Portu

slain, it will only be necessary to have

their bodies identified to receive the guese will hardly surrender a man to

same reward now offered. To show the death on a charge which they know to

sincerity of the Imperial Government be merely a cloak.

in its offer of reward, let the said Close upon the denunciation of Kin

amount of Tls. 100,000 be sent to the Lien-shan came a fresh exhortation to Shanghai Taotai, who is to hold the the great provincial officers to termi- money ready for immediate handing nate, no matter how, the career of Kang

over to the successful men as soon as Yu-wei.

the formality of identification be over,

in order that there may be no unnecesEver since the heinous crimes against

sary delay in giving the reward. Should the dynasty committed by Kang Yu

official rank be desired in preference to wei and Liang Chi-chao, and their con

this money, we will give high substansequent proscription, we have repeat

tial rank, far above the usual habit of edly commanded the Viceroys and Gov. granting such, which will satisfy the ernors of the maritime provinces to

desires of the most ambitious. [Even offer rewards for the capture of these

people found reading their writings are two men, and also to buy the services

to be punished, and the writings themof men to betray them to the author

selves are to be burnt), in order to ities; but, so far, it seems, without any

vindicate the dignity of the Imperial

dynasty and quiet the hearts of the success. In the meanwhile these two have been inciting the Chinese of the

people. sea coast and islands against us by Having regard to the theory that Chitheir writings, and have even pub-, nese civilization came originally from lished newspapers to propagate their

Babylon, we may be pardoned, perhaps, treason for the success of their nefari

for recalling how Nebuchadnezzar, in ous designs. Language is insufficient to express our indignation and anger

his rage and fury, commanded to bring at the conduct of these men. We, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego betherefore, hereby again command the fore him because they refused to worViceroys and Governors of all our ship the image which he had set up; Provinces to issue proclamations giv

but how the punishment designed for ing out in clear and plain terms that

them miscarried, and the King fell, the Imperial Government guarantees a reward of Tls. 100,000 (about £15,000)

soon after, on evil days. The ladies of to anyone, without distinction of class

the Legations who were so impressed, or social standing, who shall be able sixteen months ago, by the Empress's to hand over to the Authorities the ac- affability may be surprised by the con

"The ceremony of the 13th instant passed off extremely well. The Empress-Dowager made a most favorable impression by her courtesy and affability. Those who went to the Palace under the idea that they would meet a cold and haughty person of strong, imperious manners, were agree. ably surprised to find Her Imperial Majesty a kind and courteous hostess, who displayed both the tact and softness of a womanly disposition. The ladies were at first received in a hall in the gardens of the Palace, where they found the Empress-Dowager and the Emperor seated on dais. A short speech of congratulation was read by Lady MacDonald as doyenne, and a brief reply made by the Empress-Dowager. The ladies then ascended the dais, and the Empress-Dowager spoke a few words to each in turn, embraced them, and placed a pearl ring on the finger of

each. Her Majesty subsequently sent to each lady bandsome presents of silk, a picture painted by herself, &c. The Emperor shook each lady by the hand. The ladies were afterwards entertained at a banquet in another hall by the ladies of the Court. The Empress-Dowager again appeared and drank a loving cup of tea with her guests. A letter of thanks for Her Majesty's gracious reception and presents was afterwards sent by Lady MacDonald to the Empress-Dowager on behalf of the foreign ladies attending the audience. The appreciation of the Empress-Dowager of this step on the part of the ladies was to-day conveyed to each Legation concerned by two of the secretaries of the Tsungli-Yamen, who were charged by Prince Ching to communicate Her Imperial Majesty's pleasure."-(China, No. 1 of 1900, p. 15.)

a

trast. But if Hell hold no fury like a orthodox books and classics for schools woman scorned, what may we not ex- and colleges, to promote and recompect from one whose position of power mend to the Throne really deserving and personal liberty have been men- scholars, but to summarily suppress all aced, as well as her reputation flétrie? who try to become boasting demagogues.

These major proscriptions were fol- after the inanner of such men as Kang lowed by a decree sentencing three dis- Yu-wei and Liang Chi-chao.tinguished members of the Hanlin Col- I was permitted, last year,' to depict lege (including one who was chiefly in- in these pages the political situation strumental in negotiating the Peking which appeared to me to have been Syndicate concessions) to imprisonment created by the combined effects of the for life, a fourth to surveillance, and Japanese War, of foreign encroachhanding over a fifth for penalties to be ments and pressure, and of a domestic subsequently determined-avowedly for policy hostile to reform. · The only "arrogant and boastful speech," "trea- change I would now make in that presonable ideas," "extraordinary and sentment is to deepen the shadows. crazy charges” against the Empress's The Empress's assurance that she was chief advisers, etc., but really for pro- not antagonistic to reform, but desired gressive tendencies. Fifty more are to carry it out along lines more consaid to have been since impeached, on sistent with Chinese thought, has been a hint from the Empress that she did discredited. The Reactionary policy of not believe those five could represent the clique with which she is identified all the iniquity in such a nest. Orders seems, rather, to have been accentuated, were, it is alleged, received by the local and the spirit of enmity towards all Authorities to arrest certain prominent who were associated with the reform Reformers who reside in the Foreign movement embittered. An evident conSettlement at Shanghai; but the Taotai sequence has been to widen the rift bewas more than unwilling to incur the tween the Capital and the Provinces friction which he knew the attempt that was caused by the Emperor's suwould entail. They might be seized on persession. The Empress thinks, evichance opportunities, or obtained, per- dently, that she can crush opposition; haps, on trumped-up charges, but the but experience has shown that moveForeign Municipal Authorities would ments of the kind are like rivers—which shield them, certainly, to the utmost of may be guided, as Yü is declared, in their power; and the Viceroy authorized Chinese legend, to have guided the him, apparently, to stay his hand pend- great rivers of China, by removing obing further reference to Peking. Cases stacles and deepening their channels might be cited, also, of pressure on the “till the waters flowed peacefully into families and kindred of men who are the Eastern sea;" but which are apt to living abroad. There has been a gen- burst through injudiciously constructed eral recrudescence of persecution, in barriers and overwhelm everything in fact, against persons suspected of lean- their course. The pressure to which ings to reform; and a decree published the Imperial Government had been in the Peking Gazette of the 20th Feb- subjected from without is somewhat ruary orders all the Provincial Mag- relaxed. Having ear-marked their renates throughout the Empire “to care- spective spheres of interest, and obfully nourish the scholars and students tained concessions of various privileges, within their jurisdictions, to provide the great European Powers chiefly in

By R. S. Gundry.

* Spheres of Interest and the Open Door. By R. 8. Gundry. Fortnightly Review, July,

1899. The Yangtze Region.
September, 1899.

was

terested have been content to await ity of the late Governor of Shantung in developments and events. But the the proceedings of The Boxers seems, autonomy of the eighteen Provinces however, beyond doubt; so much so appears to be in less danger from un- that when their misdeeds culminated provoked aggression than from the ig- lately in the murder of an English misnorance, corruption and incapacity of sionary, H.B.M. Minister demanded the Chinese Government itself. The and obtained his recall. Yet the Emremoval of the Emperor from power, press has bestowed upon him the charthe reversal of his decrees and the en- acter Fu, signifying happiness-a wellvenomed persecution of his advisers recognized mark of favor, which was have caused widespread dissatisfac- recorded in the Court Gazette--and has tion, which is only restrained from named him Governor of Shanse, where dangerous expression by want of cohe- he will be able to thwart the operations sion and leadership. There is unrest of the Peking Syndicate by various from Shantung in the north to the great methods, overt and covert, which a Kwang Viceroyalty in the south. The Mandarin in high position can always risk that some new freak of the Reac- employ. The appointment of the prestionaries may consolidate this fluent ent Governor, Yuan Shikai, matter is, at least, not negligible; nor thought to herald better things; for he can the risk that certain foreign Pow- not only ranks among the Empress's ers might be led to step in to maintain allies, but is credited with having at order, and gradually, perhaps, to as- his disposal the most efficient body of sume administrative responsibility in troops in the north. He appears to certain districts, in given contingencies, have done little, however, towards supbe ignored.

pressing the movement; and popular We have heard, quite recently, for report explains his inaction by affirming instance, of grave warnings addressed that the Empress told him he would be to the Imperial Government regarding held responsible if any disturbance enthe condition of affairs in the North, sued. It is scarcely surprising, under where an association, calling itself I Ho such circumstances, that the tacit symChuan (lit. Righteous Harmony Fists), pathy, at least, of the Empress and her familiarly known as The Boxers, has allies should be claimed for a Society been distinguishing itself by assault- whose program is avowedly anti-foring, pillaging and generally persecuting eign. Placards frankly claiming this Christian converts. I have endeavored, sympathy are said, indeed, to have upon former occasions, to explain some been posted at Peking; and, though of the underlying causes of the peren- placards be ever so fallible, placards nial antagonism to missionaries, espe- claiming to express the sympathies of cially Roman missionaries and their the Empress are strong evidence, at converts in China. The remedy may least, of popular belief; for we may be difficult to find, bụt it certainly does guess from the cases of Kang Yu-wei not lie in persecution; and it has always and Kin Lien-shan what might happen been believed that the trouble, anxiety to people who interpreted them awry. and diplomatic embarrassment which Gentlemen who have heard the Chi. riots superinduce must render the nese Minister descant pleasantly at our higher authorities, at least, unwilling great industrial centres, on the enlightto see them occur. The tacit complic. ened purposes of his government, hardly

conceived it possible, no doubt, that it • Chapters X. and XI., China, Present and Past.

should be so strangely engaged; but Ohapman & Ilall, 1895. V. also, Missionaries in China, by Alex. Michie: Stanford, 1891.

it is as well to realize that there are

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