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of intrigue and cabal on the part of the himself too near that period."* Spring king's friends, with subserviency to the brought no improvement of the King's predominant party and disregard of each disorder. In a note of Lord Ellenborough, other, on the part of the physicians. As April 3d, he speaks of the king's “deluin the illness of 1788, the policy of the sions and irregularities and extravagances tories was to stave off the regency by re- of plans and projects of which we hear presenting the attack as speedily curable, daily.”4. May 25th, the Duke of York while the whigs were equally strenuous in had an interview with him, in which his precipitating this measure. But the re- mental condition was pretty fairly exsult appeared so doubtful, and the exi- hibited. “He appeared,” he says, “at
” gencies of the country were so pressing, first, very much affected at seeing me, that it could not long be evaded; and, and expressed himself in the kindest and accordingly, the Prince of Wales was most affectionate manner upon my re-apmade regent in February, 1811—an event pointment to the chief command of the which enabled the Whig party, as is well army; but soon flew off from that subject, known to all who are acquainted with the and then ran on, in perfect good humor, history of that period, to verify the scrip- but with the greatest rapidity, and with tural declarations respecting the faithless- little or no connection, upon the most ness of princes.*
trifling topics, at times hinting at some of The progress of the disease may be the subjects of his delusion, in spite of all gathered from casual notices in the me- our endeavors to change the conversamoirs, correspondence, diaries, etc., of the tion.” | Robert Willis expressed to the time, but not so exactly as it might be on duke his alarm at the king's “frivolity, or some interesting points. On the 26th of rather imbecility, of mind.” January, Eldon spent an hour with him. Until July, the cloud which enveloped “He is not well,” says the Chancellor, the mind of the King occasionally lifted “and I fear he requires time. In the up, and thus were strengthened the hopes midst of this state it is impossible to con- of his complete restoration. It was one ceive how right, how pious, how religious, of the curious traits in his case, that, at how every thing that he should be he is, those times, he became conscious of his with the distressing aberrations I allude infirmity, though he sometimes manifested to.”+ In his clearer intervals he became this consciousness in rather an uncommon somewhat impatient of restraint, and was
An instance is related by Franrather importunate to be restored to his cis Horner, in a letter to his father, in the regal state. The physicians, in their re- spring of 1811. “There was a very affectport to the chancellor, which must have ing proof of the King's melancholy state, been about the first of February, say that given last week at the concert of ancient “he appears to be going on in the most music; it was the Duke of Cambridge's favorable manner. It is right to mention, night, who announced to the directors and we do not think it an unfavorable that the King himself had made the seleccircumstance, that he has occasionally tion. This consisted of all the finest pasadverted to the subject of his former de sages to be found in Handel descriptive lusion, but in so slight a manner as to in- of madness and blindness; particularly crease our confidence in its gradual subsi- those in the opera of Samson; there was dence from his majesty's mind.”Ị. The one also upon madness from love, and the queen, in a note to Lord Eldon, soliciting lamentation of Jephtha upon the loss of his the attendance of the council at Windsor, daughter, and it closed with “God save at least once a week, says: “The king is the King,” to make sure the application constantly asking if not one of the council of all that went before.” is coming to do so, [to receive the report Dr. Simmons and Dr. John Willis, who of the physicians, and seems to feel that had attended the King in former attacks, putting it off procrastinates his recovery, had not been employed in this, the Queen as his majesty (she is sorry to say) thinks fearing that it might awaken disagreeable
emotions. A year having passed without * Romily (Memoirs, ii. 177) says that the prince any improvement, these two physicians was determined to make no change in the cabinet in consequence of the strong representations of one of the king's physicians of the probability of his re- * Twiss, i, 359.
+ Ibid., i. 363. covery.
1 Ibid., i. 363. | Twiss, i. 359. # Ibid i. 359.
Memoirs and Correspondence, ii. 70.
were joined to the medical corps on the so far as I am concerned, that you kill 9th of October, together with Dr. Munro, your patients. Yes, Dr. Baillie but, then visiting physician at Bethlehem. Baillie, Baillie,' pursued he with resumed They were all examined touching the gravity, 'I do n't know. He is an anatoKing's condition, both by a committee of mist; he dissects his patients; and then the Lords and a committee of the Com- it would not be a resuscitation merely, but mons, towards the middle of January, a recreation; and that, I think, is beyond 1812.
my power.""* From this examination we gather that, The following memoranda of his condiduring the months of April, May, and tion from 1812 till his death, are given by June, the King was apparently improving, an anonymous writer, but are well authen“very little disorder being exhibited,” says ticated, I believe, and comprise all that I Heberden. It was characterized by ex- have been able to find respecting this pealtation, extravagance, and frivolity-false riod. "At intervals he still took a lively
“a reasoning upon real facts. About the interest in politics. His perception was middle of July the disorder assumed a new good, though mixed up with a number of character, gross delusions being exhibited erroneous ideas; his memory was tenain connection with the last-mentioned cious, but his judgment unsettled; and traits. His sight and hearing were quite the loss of royal authority seemed congone, but the other senses were as acute stantly to prey upon his mind. His mala
He retained a consciousness of dy seemed rather to increase than abate his regal state, and during the latter part up to the year 1814; when, at the time of the year, when there seemed to be a the allied sovereigns arrived in England, little improvement, he bore his part in he evinced indications of returning reason, conversation very correctly, for a few and was made acquainted with the asminutes, and related anecdotes of the past. tonishing events which had recently ocThe physicians were all as confident in the curred. The Queen, one day, found the opinion that his recovery, though not afflicted monarch engaged in singing a hopeless, was highly improbable, as they hymn, and accompanying himself on the were, the year before, in the opinion that harpsichord. After he had concluded the he would recover. This change in their hymn, he knelt down, prayed for his prognosis they attributed chiefly to the family and the nation, and earnestly supchange in the phasis of the disorder, which plicated for the complete restoration of occurred in July.*
his mental powers. He then burst into This report leaves us entirely in the tears, and his reason suddenly left him. dark respecting the nature of the delusions But he afterwards had, occasionally, lucid which possessed the King's mind; but the moments. One morning, hearing a bell
; following passage from Lord Eldon's pa- toll
, he asked who was dead. Please pers indicates one of them: “It was your Majesty,' said an attendant, Mrs. S.' agreed that, if any strong feature of the Mrs. S.” rejoined the King, she was a King's malady appeared during the pres- linen-draper, at the corner of street, ence of the council
, Sir Henry Halford and brought up her family in the fear of should, on receiving a signal from me, en-God. She has gone to heaven; I hope I deavor to recall him from his aberrations; shall soon follow her. He now became and, accordingly, when his Majesty ap- deaf, imbibed the idea that he was dead, peared to be addressing himself to two of and said: “I must have a suit of black, in the persons whom he most favored in his memory of George III., for whom I know early life, long dead, Sir Henry observed: there is a general mourning. In 1817, he Your Majesty has, I believe, forgotten appeared to have a faint glimmering of that and both died many years reason again; his sense of hearing returned ago.' "True,' was the reply, “died to more acute than ever, and he could disyou and to the world in general, but not tinguish persons by their footsteps. He to me. You, Sir Henry, are forgetting likewise recollected that he had made a that I have the power of holding inter- memorandum many years before, and it course with those whom you call dead. was found exactly where he indicated. Yes, Sir Henry Halford, continued he, After 1818, he occupied a long suite of assuming a lighter manner, “it is in vain,
Camphell's "Lives of the Lord Chancellors," art. * Hansard, xxj. 73.
“Eldon,” vii, 222.
He of treason.
rooms, in which were placed several pianos Hadfield was brought to trial, and it being on an acand harpsichords; at these he would fre- tion of treason, his counsel was allowed to speak in quently stop during his walk, play a few his defense ; for, until quite recently, this privilege
was never permitted in criminal cases, except those notes from Handel, and stroll on.
It was on this occasion that Erskine seemed cheerful, and would sometimes made his greatest forensic effort; and it is a fact talk aloud, as if addressing some noble- that may abate our pride of progress, that it has never man; but his discourse bore reference only of the phenomena of insanity, in its plain
been equalled in the clear apprehension it displays to past events, for he had no knowledge views of responsibility, and its triumphant demoof recent circumstances, either political or lition of those principles which had been regarded, domestic. Towards the end of 1819, his from the earliest times till that moment, as the setlled appetite began to fail. In January, 1820, law of England respecting insanity. it was found impossible to keep him warm;
Like every thing connected with State affairs, the his remaining teeth dropped out, and he incidents of King George's attacks have been enwas almost reduced to a skeleton. On veloped in secrecy and mystification, and hence the the 27th, he was confined wholly to his difficulty of distinguishing between the true and the bed; and on the 29th of January, 1820, together with others less improbable, had their ori
false. Some of them are obviously fabulous, and, he died, aged eighty-two years."*
gin, undoubtedly, in that sort of gossip which would
naturally spring from such an interesting event as NOTE.—It is a curious coincidence, that this mon the insanity of the Sovereign. Considering that the arch, who suffered so much from mental disease, should purposes of this narrative could be answered only by have been pursued, as if by a kind of fatality, by in the strictest historical accuracy, I have been careful, sane people. In 1786, an old woman (Margaret Nich- in every instance, to indicate the source of my mateolson) attempted to stab him, as he was alighting from rials, and to make use of none that could not be well his carriage; in 1790, a lieutenant of the army (John authenticated. The necessity of this kind of caution Frith) threw a stone at him through the window of can scarcely be appreciated by those who have never the carriage in which he was riding; and, in 1800, a learned, from their own inquiries into past events, soldier (James Hadfield) shot at him with a pistol how the false, the fabulous, the exaggerated and the in the theatre. Miss Burney says that, during his true become blended together beyond the power of illness in 1788, they were often annoyed by insane the most patient research to separate. To relate a persons, who contrived to elude the restrictions of striking incident or a pointed anecdoto is an easy the palace and to roam over the grounds. The per- and agreeable duty, but to search out the authority sons who committed the first two assaults were so on which they rest—in other words, to perform a obviously insane that, without any further action, the great deal of fruitless labor-is a task often difficult Privy Council sent them to Bethlehem Hospital. I and disagreeable.
From tho Gentleman's Magazine.
THE DESCENDANTS OF MARY STUART.
One of my first enthusiasms was, one lasting is likely to be, that which I feel of my most lasting is likely to be, the love, for Queen Elizabeth, whom certain small the worship, the devotedness, the chivalry and would-be pictorial writers are at which the mere name of Mary Stuart present extravagantly puffing, thereby never fails to excite in my heart. One setting truth and decency alike at detiof my first hatreds was, one of my most ance. In spite of these chimpanzee Car
lyles, Elizabeth will always be a very
loathsome figure in history, while Mary * "Georgian Era," i. No authority is given for the statements in this work, and I am unable to verify
will shine immortally before souls abounding with passion, phantasy, and affection, as the most beautiful of earth's divine He passed his early youth and received array of martyrs. Mary finds in these his education in France. His career as a days many an able, eloquent, earnest vin- soldier began under Charles Duke of Lordicator. She needs not me as a champion, raine, the Emperor Leopold the First's even if I possessed that minute historical general, who was carrying on war against knowledge of England and Scotland in the Turks in Hungary. About a year the sixteenth century which my pursuits before that revolution which proved so and tastes have alike prevented me from fatal to his father, the Duke of Berwick acquiring. But as the expression of my returned to England. He fought valiantreverence for a calumniated memory, I ly on his father's side, especially in Ireintend to gather in miscellaneoris fashion land, where in 1689 he was wounded for a few particulars together regarding Ma- the first and only time. In 1692 he enry's descendants. I throw forth without tered into the service of France. Under order hints which others may elaborate if the Marshal de Luxembourg he was at the they think it worth the trouble.
battles of Steinkerque and of Neerwinde. The most notable of Mary's descend. Subsequently, after having had for comants was Frederick the Great. Born on mander the Duke of Burgundy, he followthe 24th January, 1712, coming to the ed the banner of Marshal de Villeroi. throne in 1740, and dying on the 17th In 1703 he received naturalization as a August, 1786, Frederick, during his long French subject. In 1704 he was placed reign of forty-six years might have done at the head of the French troops in Spain. still mightier things if he had had more Thence he was summoned to crush those effective instruments than stolid, heavy Protestant risings in the South of France, Germans to work with. Frederick's of which Louis the Fourteenth's obstinate mother was the Hanoverian princess So- bigotry had been the cause. Here he is phia Dorothea. But his grandfather accused of having given to cruel orders a Frederick the First had also married a still more cruel execution. In 1706, havHanoverian princess, the accomplished ing been created Marshal of France, he Sophia Charlotte, the friend of Leibnitz, returned to Spain, where in the following and the sister of our George the First. year he gained the famous and decisive The unfortunate Prince of the Palatinate, battle of Almanza. Grateful for so signal who lost almost before he could be said a victory, Philip the Fifth made him Duke to possess the kingdom of Bohemia, be- of Liria and Xeria. In 1708 Marshal de came through his marriage with James Berwick successively commanded in Spain, the First's daughter Elizabeth, the ances- in Flanders, on the Rhine, and on the tor of many kings, and among others of Moselle. He was then entrusted with the King 'Frederick the Great. In Fred- defence of Dauphiny, where he achieved erick's prosaic and passionless character much distinction. In 1713 a campaign in we trace nothing of Mary's rich, volup- Catalonia was marked by the capture of tuous, poetic nature. How romantic her Barcelona. In 1716 he was made military career-how unromantic his! We are governor of the province of Guyenne. In not drawn toward Frederick as toward 1718 and 1719 he had to combat in the Alexander, Cæsar, or Napoleon. He was Netherlands against that same Philip the a Franklin on a throne. His philosophy Fifth whose fortunes he had done so much was that which was common in his time, to restore and from whose throne he had and he never rose in any of his actions driven all assailants and rivals. His son above it. Whatever the clearest and was at the time in the Spanish service, most vigorous of intellects could do Fred- and he strenuously urged him to do his erick did: but that is far from either duty to his master. In 1733 the Duke de heroism or genius.
Berwick passed the Rhine at Strasburg That Marshal Duke of Berwick, who as generalissimo of the French forces. On had James the Second for father, and the 12th June, 1734 he was killed by a Arabella Churchill, Marlborough's sister, cannon ball at the siege of Philippsburg. for mother, was next to Frederick the On hearing this news Villars is said to Great, the most warlike of Mary's de- have exclaimed, “I always said that that scendants. He was unquestionably fore- man was more fortunate than I.” The most among the generals of his time. Marshal de Berwick seems to have inBorn on the 21st August, 1670, he mani- herited in a large degree his father's imfested early his military tastes and talents. passibility, and to have marched to his triumphs by prudence rather than by to the king. To this assertion Fitzjames daring. He left memoirs, which were repeatedly gave the fiercest contradiction, published about forty years after his death. regardless alike of family feelings and reMontesquieu honored him with a historical lations, of mercy to the vanquished, and eulogy.
of the scantiest and commonest decency. In our days the great-grandson of the During the reigns of Louis XVIII. and Duke of Berwick, Edward Duke de Fitz- Charles X. Fitzjames was the warmest james, was a man of note, with that fidel- supporter or the bitterest foe of Governity to convictions and that disposition to ment, according as it manifested a bigoted make sacrifices for them which cannot be and despotic character, or the contrary. denied to the Stuart race, and of which Rather to resentment at the moderate Mary herself, Charles I., and James II. attitude and tone which the Legitimist offered most memorable proofs. The reaction sometimes assumed than to any Duke de Fitzjames was born in 1776, and other cause must we ascribe his support éducated in those religious and political of a free press. To the astonishment both principles which were traditional in his of friends and enemies he enrolled himself, family. He left France 1787, and joined after the July revolution, among Louis the emigrants in the armed resistance Philippe's lieges. But he did not seem which they vainly offered to the French to regard the oath very binding, for he Revolution. Fixing his abode for a time speedily involved himself in the active and in England, he there married a lady called unscrupulous intrigues of which the DuchLatouche. During the consular govern- ess de Berri was the centre and the soul, ment he returned to France, where, and he was subjected in consequence to a though stripped of his property, and in short imprisonment in 1832. His hostility the most needy circumstances, he yet to the Government now became as fierce strenuously refused all Napoleon's offers. as hottest words and the most untiring His passionate love of absolutism, and his energies could make it. To give the zealous devotedness to the interests of the more determined and comprehensive emBourbons, impelled him to conduct which phasis to his proceedings, he deserted the cannot be excused even in the most vio- House of Peers to be elected into the lent partisan. Thus, towards the end of Chamber of Deputies. Next to Berryer, the imperial reign, he entered as officer he was considered the most eloquent orathe National Guard of Paris, for no other tor and most vigorous leader among the purpose, apparently, than to enfeeble its Legitimists, and his death in 1838 was felt allegiance to Napoleon. By an address as a great loss to his party. With him to his legion, in March, 1814, he induced the last real Jacobite faith and utterance it to remain totally inactive when the might be said to expire. What a hundred allies were advancing. During the first years before the Scotch had clothed with restoration various civil and military dig-wild, bold, stirring poetry, went out as nities were conferred on him by Louis French rhetoric. XVIII. During the second, as if, like But, if not a mightier, a much better the Bourbons, he had learnt nothing from known orator than the Duke de Fitzjames misfortune and exile, he demanded, with had Mary Stuart's blood in his veins. a fierceness that looked like personal hat- Charles James Fox had, through his red, the condemnation of Marshal Ney, mother, the profligate Charles II. as prowhose death was as detestable a cruelty genitor. I know not whether Fox will and as monstrous a blunder on the part of ultimately be placed among England's the Legitimists as the Duke d'Enghien's foremost and noblest sons; probably not ; execution had been on the part of Napo- for factious fighting has grown hateful, leon. That General Bertrand, who was and Whiggery is falling into discredit; one of Bonaparte's most intimate friends, and must it not be admitted that Fox was who accompanied him to Saint Helena, a chief Whig and a party battler rather and who remained with him till his death, than a true statesman ? Thrust, however, was the brother-in-law of Fitzjames. as you may Fox from the rank of EngWhen, early in 1816, Bertrand was men- land's demi-gods, he will still always reaced with proscription, he protested main one of England's favorites. His against the validity and justice of the act, generous character, amiable disposition, as he had never taken the oath of fidelity and jovial manners will be remembered,