« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
itarianism was the long error of Louis | rulers, by the marriage of Leopold with Philippe's reign. He fell therefore more Louis Philippe's daughter, will be descendunregretted than if he had committed the ants of Mary Stuart; and if they follow most flagrant crimes. Perhaps as his, the example of sagacious statesmanship father Egalité had been ostentatiously' which Leopold has offered them, they may reckless, and had paid the price of his reck raise Belgium to a political importance lessness to the guillotine, Louis Philippe equal to its manufacturing and commercial thought that he could not cultivate too energy. exclusively the prudential virtues; but if The Duke d'Enghien's mother was sishe had considered his father's path as a ter to the Duke of Orleans, citizen Egalité. path to be shunned, he might have learned. That poor murdered prince thus swells our something of adaptation to French peculi- long and illustrious list. With him let it arities from his ancestor the regent, who, for the present close. however corrupt, was not more corrupt These memoranda have been drawn up than his times, and who had exalted qual- from most imperfect materials, and those ities flashing through his vices, to which more learned than I in royal and other neither Louis XIV., the unrivalled egotist, genealogies may be able to detect both nor Louis XV., the unrivalled sensualist, omissions and inaccuracies. But where I, could pretend.
from no skill in workmanship, but merely If Belgium is destined to remain an in- from the fullness of my heart, have raised dependent kingdom, and not to be, as is a cairn of rude stones, may others build a more probable, absorbed by France, its | temple.
From the Athenæum.
JANE AU S T E N.*
MORE than thirty years ago, The Quar- | their advertisement in No. 568), have beterly Review and Sir Walter Scott ex- gun to do so, by issuing Pride and Prejucited a new interest in these works, by dice. their strong recommendations. At that To the delightful society created by this time they were reprinted in the United author, we shall be glad to introduce all States, and we had our first copies, which our readers. How many hours of weariwere worn out, borrowed, vanished. Then ness, sickness and anxiety have been another copy in octavo, containing all in soothed for us by these people. Elizabeth one volume, came into our possession. Bennet is a dear friend--and for her sake This was too heavy, and from long use is as well as his own we respect Mr. Darcy, now in tatters. Then a set, in pretty little after she has corrected and improved him. volumes, came from England—but this has His aunt, Mr. and Mrs. Bennet, and the nearly disappeared. We have often Rev. Mr. Collins have other kinds of inthought of publishing a good edition, each terest. We have read the whole series volume to contain one of the novels, and twenty times, and should like to read it are very glad that Messrs. Bunce & again now. But we must wait for some Brother, of New-York, (as appears by half sickness which needs recreation ; and
then, unable to read the new novels, we * Pride and Prejudice; Sense and Sensibility;
turn to these or to the Waverlys. And Emma; Northanger Abbey; Persuasion; Mansfield perhaps we like these better than even Sir Park.
Walter's. We copy a Biographical notice, which originally appeared in a posthumous performances of her previous life. For work, probably Northanger Abbey. though in composition she was equally
rapid and correct, yet an invincible disBIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF Miss JANE AUSTEN,
trust of her own judgment induced her to
withhold her works from the public, till Originally issued, we think, with Northanger Abbey, time and many perusals had satisfied her after her death,
that the charm of recent composition was The following pages are the production dissolved. The natural constitution, the of a pen which has already contributed in regular habits, the quiet and happy occuno small degree to the entertainment of pations, of our authoress, seemed to prothe public. And when the public, which mise a long succession of amusement to has not been insensible to the merits of the public, and a gradual increase of repu“Sense and Sensibility,” “Pride and Pre- tation to herself. But the symptoms of a judice,” “Mansfield Park,” and “Emma," decay, deep and incurable, began to show shall be informed that the hand which themselves in the commencement of 1816. guided that pen is now mouldering in the Her decline was at first deceitfully slow; grave, perhaps a brief account of Jane and until the spring of this present year, Austen will be read with a kindlier senti- those who knew their happiness to be inment than simple curiosity.
volved in her existence could not endure Short and easy will be the task of the to despair. But in the month of May, mere biographer. A life of usefulness, 1817, it was found advisable that she literature, and religion, was not by any should be removed to Winchester for the means a life of events. To those who la- benefit of constant medical aid, which ment their irreparable loss, it is consola- none even then dared to hope would be tory to think that, as she never deserved permanently beneficial. She supported, disapprobation, so, in the circle of her during two months, all the varying pain, family and friends, she never met reproof; irksomeness, and tedium, attendant on dethat her wishes were not only reasonable, caying nature, with more than resignation, but gratified; and that to the little disap- with a truly elastic cheerfulness. She repointments incidental to human life was tained her fáculties, her memory, her fancy, never added, even for a moment, an her temper, and her affections, warm, abatement of good will from any who clear, and unimpaired, to the last. Neither knew her.
her love of God nor of her fellow-creatures Jane Austen was born on the 16th of flagged for a moment. She made a point December, 1775, at Steventon, in the of receiving the sacrament before excesscounty of Hants. Her father was rector ive bodily weakness might have rendered of that parish upwards of forty years. her perception unequal to her wishes. There he resided in the conscientious and She wrote whilst she could hold a pen, and unassisted discharge of his ministerial du- with a pencil when a pen had become too ties, until he was turned of seventy years. laborious. The day preceding her death Then, he retired with his wife, our au- she composed some stanzas replete with thoress, and her sister, to Bath for the re- fancy and vigor. Her last voluntary mainder of his life, a period of about four speech conveyed thanks to her medical years. Being not only a profound scholar, attendant; and to the final question asked but possessing a most exquisite taste in of her, purporting to know her wants, she every species of literature, it is not won- replied: "I want nothing but death.” derful that his daughter Jane should, at a She expired shortly after, on Friday, very early age, have become sensible to the 18th of July, 1817, in the arms of her the charms of style, and enthusiastic in sister, who, as well as the relater of these the cultivation of her own language. On events, feels too surely that they shall never the death of her father, she removed, with look upon her like again. her mother and sister, for a short time, to Jane Austen was buried on the 24th of Southampton, and finally, in 1809, to the July, 1817, in the cathedral church
of pleasant village of Chawton, in the same Winchester, which, in the whole catalo gue county. From this place, she sent into of its mighty dead, does not contain the the world those novels, which, by many, 1 ashes of a brighter genius or a sincerer have been placed on the same shelf as the Christian. works of a D'Arblay and an Edgeworth. Of personal attractions she possessed a Some of these novels had been the gradual | considerable share. Her stature was that of true elegance. It could not have been without feeling a strong desire of obtainincreased without exceeding the middle ing her friendship, and cherishing a hope height. Her carriage and deportment of having obtained it. She was tranquil were quiet, yet graceful. Her features without reserve or stiffness; and commuwere separately good. Their assemblage nicative without intrusion or self-sufficienproduced an unrivalled expression of that cy. She became an authoress entirely cheerfulness, sensibility, and benevolence, from taste and inclination. Neither the which were her real characteristics. Her hope of fame nor profit mixed with her complexion was of the finest texture. It early motives. Most of her works, as bemight with truth be said, that her eloquent fore observed, were composed many years blood spoke through her modest cheek. previous to their publication. It was with Her voice was extremely sweet. She de- extreme difficulty that her friends, whose livered herself with fluency and precision. partiality she suspected, whilst she honored Indeed, she was formed for elegant and their judgment, could prevail on her to rational society, excelling in conversation publish her first work. Nay, so persuaded as much as in composition. In the present was she that its sale would not repay the age, it is hazardous to mention accom- expense of publication, that she actually plishments. Our authoress would proba- made a reserve from her very moderate bly have been inferior to few in such ac- income to meet the expected loss. She quirements, had she not been so superior could scarcely believe what she termed to most in higher things. She had nother great good fortune, when “Sense and only an excellent taste for drawing, but, Sensibility produced a clear profit of in her earlier days, evinced great power about £150. Few so gifted were so truly of hand in the management of the pencil. unpretending. She regarded the above Her own musical attainments she held sum as a prodigious recompense for that very cheap. Twenty years ago, they which had cost her nothing. Her readers, would have been thought more of, and perhaps, will wonder that such a work twenty years hence, many a parent will produced so little at a time when some expect her daughter to be applauded for other authors have received more guineas meaner performances. She was fond of than they have written lines. The works dancing, and excelled in it. It remains of our authoress, however, may live as long now to add a few observations on that as those which have burst on the world which her friends deemed more important; with more eclat. But the public has not on those endowments which sweetened been unjust; and our authoress was far every hour of their lives.
from thinking it so. Most gratifying to If there be an opinion current in the her was the applause which, from time to world, that perfect placidity of temper is time, reached her ears from those who not reconcilable to the most lively imagi- were competent to discriminate. Still, in nation and the keenest relish for wit, such spite of such applause, so much did she an opinion will be rejected for ever by shrink from notoriety, that no accumulathose who have had the happiness of tion of fame would have induced her, had knowing the authoress of the following she lived, to affix her name to any prowork. Though the frailties, foibles, and ductions of her pen. In the bosom of her follies of others could not escape her im- own family she talked of them freely, mediate detection, yet even on their vices thankful for praise, open to remark, and did she never trust herself to comment submissive to criticism. But in public she with unkindness. The affectation of can- turned away from any allusion to the dor is not uncommon: but she had no af- character of an authoress. She read aloud fectation. Faultless herself, as nearly as with very great taste and effect. Her human nature can be, she always sought own works, probably, were never heard in the faults of others, something to ex- to so much advantage as from her own cuse, to forgive or forget. Where ex- mouth; for she partook largely in all the tenuation was impossible she had a sure best gifts of the comic muse.
She was a refuge in silence. She never uttered either warm and judicious admirer of landscape, a hasty, a silly, or a severe expression. In both in nature and on canvas. short, her temper was as polished as her early age, she was enamored of Gilpin on wit. Nor were her manners inferior to the Picturesque; and she seldom changed temper. They were of the happiest kind. her opinions either on books or men. No one could be often in her company Her reading was very extensive in his
At a very
tory and belles-lettres; and her memory seems to have been intuitive, and almost extremely tenacious. Her favorite moral unlimited. She drew from nature; but, writers were Johnson in prose, and Cow-whatever may have been surmised to the per in verse. It is difficult to say at what contrary, never from individuals. age she was not intimately acquainted The style of her familiar correspondence with the merits and defects of the best es- was in all respects the same as that of her says and novels in the English language. novels. Every thing came finished from Richardson's power of creating and pre- her pen ; for on all subjects she had ideas serving the consistency of his characters, as clear as her expressions were well chosas particularly exemplified in “Sir Charles en. It is not hazarding too much to say Grandison,” gratified the natural discrimi- that she never dispatched a note or letter nation of her mind, whilst her taste se- unworthy of publication. cured her from the errors of his prolix One trait only remains to be touched style and tedious narrative. She did not on.
She did not on. It makes all others unimportant. rank any work of Fielding quite so high. She was thoroughly religious and devout; Without the slightest affectation she re- fearful of giving offense to God, and incacoiled from every thing gross. Neither pable of feeling it towards any fellow-creanature, wit, nor humor, could make ture. On serious subjects she was well inher amends for so very low a scale of structed, both by reading and meditation, morals.
and her opinions accorded strictly with Her power of inventing characters those of our Established Church.
MR. G. H. Lewes has witten a very good | which form the Second Part of Faust, the and very interesting Life of Goethe. He profound symbolism which throws some has brought eminent qualifications to this of his countrymen into raptures. Though task; for though he is an intense admirer he considers Goethe as a great man of of his hero, and indeed may be ranked science, as well as a great poet, he founds among the Goethe-idolators, he has acute his claim on his views in osteology and ness, discrimination, and good sense. botany, and frankly condemns those optiHence, though he places Goethe at the cal fancies which the author regarded as head of modern poets, he freely allows utterly subversive of Newton's optical that he is destitute of dramatic power. discoveries; and which Hegel, after his Though he has unbounded admiration for oracular fashion, has pronounced to be inWilhelm Meister's Lehrjahre, he condemns fallibly true. With all these admissions, the Wanderjahre of the same personage however, it will be found that Mr. Lewes as incoherent, ill-written, and even dull
. goes no small lengths in advocating the Though he admires Faust as the summit rightness and fitness of almost all that of poetry, wisdom, and wit, he can not Goethe did and said. That a biographer give himself up to find in the wild dreams should have this zealous feeling in favor of and fantastical assemblage of characters his subject, is of great use in making his
work lively and significant, and is not * The Life and Works of Goethe, with Sketches of otherwise than commendable--if the feelhis Age and Contemporaries, from published and unpublished sources. By G. H. Lewes, Author of the ing be kept within moderate bounds. We Biographical History of Philosophy. Two vols. are not at all desirous of maintaining that 8vo. London: David Nutt. 1855.
Mr. Lewes has transgressed those bounds;
but it may be allowed us, in the way of been, at this condonation on the part of caution to those of our readers who may one whom he knew that he had injured. peruse this work, (which we by all means But a question which naturally arises is, recommend them to do,) to point out what we are to think of Goethe, with resome of those passages where an impartial ference to this passage of his life ;. or, rajudge would perhaps doubt the justice of ther, what Mr. G. É. Lewes would have Mr. Lewes's conclusions. We take them us think. In his remarks on this subject, at random, as they come.
(i. p. 144,) he says, in his impetuous way, All who feel an interest in German "I will not suppose the reader a dupe to literature are familiar with the story of the cant about "falsehood to genius.?" Goethe's youth-romance at Sesenheim. And yet his own excuse or explanation of The brilliant young man, then residing at this matter amounts precisely to this : that Strasburg for study, was taken by a fel- if Goethe had married Frederika, he would low-student to visit the pastor of Sesen- have been false to his genius; which he heim; whom, with his two daughters, he illustrates further by arguing that "there forthwith determined to be an exact re- is an antagonism between domesticity and vival of the Vicar of Wakefield, Olivia, genius.” Happily, we have only, in this and Sophia. In a very short time, Fred country, to enumerate the greatest names erika, the Sophia of the family, and Goethe of our own times to see how baseless is this felt the tenderest sentiments towards each plea. What does Mr. Lewes say to the other, and spent the happy hours to which antagonism of domesticity and genius in such feelings, in the undisturbed seclusion the cases of Scott, Southey, Wordsworth, of a rural home, may lead. As is common in Crabbe ? not to mention the greatest such histories, the matter was much more poets, historians, zoologists, chemists, asserious on the woman's than on the man's tronomers, mathematicians, now living side. Goethe, though undoubtedly deeply among us, whose names crowd upon us in touched, did not intend to marry. Yet he rich profusion. Cant, indeed !--the talk kept up a correspondence with her after of this antagonism of genius and domeshis return to Strasburg; and her mother, ticity. probably hoping to revive the dying flame, To go on to another of Goethe's relatook her to that city. Vain in such casestions to women —his connection with the plans of mothers and the charms of Christiane Vulpius, who afterwards bedaughters! Frederika's picturesque pro- came his wife, long after she had borne vincial costume, which had made her look him a son. He was married to her, as has like a wood-nymph among the groves of often been said, during the cannonade of Sesenheim, seemed rustic and vulgar the battle of Jena ; a statement which Mr. among the fashionable belles of Stras- Lewes, with laudable accuracy, contraburg.
dicts, seeing that the marriage took place She left Strasburg, marriage with Goethe five days after the battle. As to this conmore than ever a vanished vision. But, nection, though Mr. Lewes allows that it notwithstanding-who would have wished gave great offense, and raised a great it otherwise if she did not ?—she was true scandal at Weimar, he still holds that to him in heart. Eight years afterwards, there was, even from the first, a bright he again saw both her and another of his side of this dark episode, of which, indeed, youthful loves, Lili. Lili was married to we dare not mention all the dark shades. "a worthy, sensible fellow-rich, well “It gave him the joys of paternity, for placed in the world,” and was already a which his heart yearned. It gave him a happy mother. But Frederika, though faithful and devoted affection. It gave she made not the slightest attempt, he him one to look after his domestic existsays, to re-kindle in his bosom the cinders ence, and it gave him a peace in that exof love, and treated him only like an old istence which hitherto he had sought in acquaintance, never became the wife of vain.” And in his title to this chapter, he another. She who had loved Goethe, she points out this acccount of the matter as said afterwards, could not entertain any an inquiry, “How far a poet is justified in inferior affection. It is only justice to disregarding the conventional proprieties Goethe to remark, that he appears to have of his age ?" been much comforted and relieved, as Mr. Lewes is very indignant with those every man of kindly nature must have who have spoken of Goethe as an immo