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Among the many important subjects of a far more prominent place in the popular inquiry which the history of the sixteenth mind than the Spaniard. century suggests, few are more striking It was not until almost the close of the than the sudden and prominent part taken fifteenth century that Spain first challenged by Spain in European politics. During a place in the councils of Europe. But, the long succession of the middle ages, under Charles V., mighty was her power nearly every other European state and and influence, and as mighty during the kingdom - Italy, France, Germany, Eng- reign of his son. Unlike his father, who, land, the free cities of Flanders, the flour- not content with the strifes of diplomacy, ishing towns on the shores of the Baltic, charged with his armies mounted on his even remoter kingdoms, Denmark, Poland, war-steed, and even when struck down by Hungary, by turns, or together, took part his “old enemy,” and helpless as an infant, in the stirring drama of those times ; while was borne on a litter at their head—Philip Spain, separated only by the chain of the withdrew from personal warfare; but then, Pyrenees, appeared as utterly cut off from in the privacy of his cabinet, he wove those the great European family as the regions intricate webs of state policy, and issued beyond the Caucasus. Indeed, from those those sanguinary mandates, which made half-mythic times, when the chronicler told the influence of the Escorial to be felt be. of Charlemagne's paladins, and the fatal yond the uttermost bounds of Europe. pass of Rouncevalles, to the day when The history of this great Archimago of the Columbus laid a new world at her feet, Romish faith is, indeed, an important one Spain scarcely ever appears on the pages —not to be manufactured with scissors and of European history — scarcely even in paste; nor is it a theme for the superficial European legend and romance. Even historical student; for, along the whole their deadliest foemen, the Saracens, held course of his life, with how many kingdoms

and peoples was he brought in contact* History of the Reign of Philip the Second, King tion and the rise of her proud nationality;


2 . Bentley.

Flanders, with its deadlier strife for religion VOL. XXXVII.-NO. III.


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and freedom; Germany, with the feuds of and Italian. Philip's proficiency in lanits princes, and the contests of its people; guages, however, never rivalled his father's, and France, with her fierce conflict of rital for, in conversation, he was rarely inclined parties, the treachery of the Guises and to venture beyond his own mother tongue. Catherine de Medicis, and that crowning He is said to have shown a more decided atrocity, the massacre of Saint Batholo- taste for science, especially the mathemamew. Even signal victories over the Turk tics, while to the arts, especially architect-the Cross, as of yore, triumphant over ure, he in after life paid much attention. the Crescent — cast a romantic splendor While the learned professor of Salamanca over that long reign. And all along there thus superintended Philip's literary educais the sullen countenance and cold, but tion, Don Juan de Zuñiga, commendador expressive features of Philip the Second mayor of Castile, was charged with his looking out upon us; and his dark sinister instruction in all those athletic and graceeye glares forth like that of some evil spi- ful exercises which were indispensable to rit, bent on the work of destruction, fearful the accomplished cavalier of the sixteenth indeed to contemplate, but from whence century. But little taste had Philip for shall eventually arise abiding good. We these accomplishments, in which in youth are gratified to find that Mr. Prescott has his father had delighted, and, far worse, still undertaken this important history. No less inclination had he to receive those one can be better qualified for the task lessons of lofty principle, of honor and than himself, both from his previous know- truthfulness, which his noble-hearted tutor ledge of the history of Spain, and his com- was well qualified to impart, and for which mand of hitherto unemployed materials, the wise father had warmly eulogized him. but, more than all, his skill and judgment | As Philip “grew in years, and slowly unin using them. Only the two first volumes folded the peculiar qualities of his disposiare, as yet, before us, and to them we will tion,” caution, reserve, suspicion, and an now proceed to direct the attention of the utter absence of generous feeling, became reader,

strongly marked, and, together with the Philip the Second was born at Vallado- acuteness beyond his years, which he is lid, on the 21st of May, 1527. Ere the said to have displayed, and his perfect festivities customary on the birth of an self-possession, must, even in his boyhood, heir to the crown could be completed, have indicated “what manner of man he tidings of the capture of Clement the Se- should be.” The loss of his mother ere venth and of the atrocious sack of Rome he was twelve years old, his appointment arrived, and the emperor, who, doubtless, to the regency, his marriage with his first shared the general indignation, although cousin, Mary of Portugal, at the early age he cannot be altogether acquitted of par- of sixteen, and the birth of his son, the illticipation in the earlier steps which led to fated Don Carlos, with the consequent these results, immediately gave orders that death of his young wife, within two years all public rejoicings should cease. The

dis- after, may be noticed as we pass on to the appointed Spaniards obeyed this mandate first important event of Philip's history, most reluctantly, and, singularly enough, his visit to his father at Brussels, in the prophesied that the reign of the prince, autumn of 1548. who, in after years, became so uncompro- This visit was arranged with the greatmising and unscrupulous a champion of est magnificence, for “the emperor was the Church, would be injurious both to desirous that his son should make an apher and to Spain. Well had it been for pearance that would dazzle the imaginathat age had the augury proved true. tion of the people among whom he passed," Charles seems to have exercised a praise and should tlatter his Flemish subjects, too, worthy care in the education of his only by the assumption of a state to which they

The first seven years of the boy's had been accustomed by their Burgundian life were passed with his mother, Isabella princes. Sailing from Rosas with a fleet of Portugal, an excellent woman, worthy of fifty-eight vessels, commanded by the of her namesake ancestress, and then he illustrious Andrew Doria, Philip arrived was transferred to the superintendence of at Genoa, and after a few days festivity, Juan Martinez Seliceo, a professor in the during which, however, we find he made college of Salamanca, under whose teach- his first essay in kingcraft most successfully, ing he became a tolerable Latin scholar, the narrator informs us that, while his anand also made some progress in French swer to the suppliant was exceedingly complimentary, “it was sufficiently ambiguous rich and elegant, but without any affectation of as to the essentials,” he proceeded to ornament. His demeanor was grave, with that Milan, and, crossing the Tyrol, took the ceremonious observance which marked the old road past Munich and Heidelberg towards


Castilian, and which may be thought the natural

result of Philip's slow and phlegmatic temperaFlanders.

ment." Four months were occupied by this splendid progress; and, as the heir of the But Philip, although resembling his great Emperor rode slowly along, each father in some points, both in person and village sent out its inhabitants to gaze, character, was, in many essential respects, and each town and city reverently opened widely different. Charles was far more its gates, and welcomed him with thunders Fleming than Spaniard ; Philip far more of artillery, with humblest addresses, and Spaniard than Fleming-indeed, altogethnot unfrequently with silver goblets brim- er Spanish in tastes and feeling. The free ful of golden ducats. These last were re- and frank deportment of the emperor, ceived by Philip himself with gracious con- which, despite of his tyrannical measures, descension. The reply to the addresses rendered him so popular with his Flemish the taciturn prince delegated to the Duke and German subjects, contrasted strangely of Alva, who, already high in favor, rode in their eyes with the cold, formal de beside him. At length the gorgeous pro- meanor of his son. The love of athletic cession entered Flanders; and, as it drew sports which Charles in his youth displaynear Brussels, the eager crowds rushed ed, his taste for gorgeous ceremonial and forth, greeting their future ruler with wild a splendid court, even his love of good enthusiasm, and amid the roaring of can- cheer--the potted capon and eel-pasties, non, the merry peals of myriad bells, and for which he endured a penance far more the shouts of heartiest welcome, Philip, severe than hair shirt or scourge could inwith Alva at his bridle-rein, entered the flict—and his deep potations—the mighty festive city. Philip and Alva in Brussels! goblet, containing a full quart of Rhenish, What would have been the greeting, could drained at a single draught, as Roger a prophet voice have foretold the unima- Ascham, who witnessed this feat of imginable miseries these two should inflict perial excess, so wonderingly records on its inhabitants !

all these endeared him to the wealthy, The meeting between the father and pomp-loving, luxurious burghers of Brusson was affectionate; it was nearly seven sels, Ghent, and Antwerp, who could years since they had met, and Charles, scarcely comprehend, far less admire, the ambitious and grasping as he was, was not prince who, although but just past twenty, deficient in natural affection. “He must rigidly adhered to one system of diet, who have been pleased with the alteration seldom took part in the tourney, scarcely which time had wrought in Philip's ap- ever hunted, but preferred to pass his pearance,” Mr. Prescott remarks, and we hours in the privacy of his own apartment, subjoin his full-length portrait:

in company with a favorite few, but talk

ing of nothing and thinking of nothing but “ He was now twenty-one years of age, and was Spain. But however distasteful to Philip, distinguished by a comeliness of person, remarked he was compelled, in conformity with his upon by more than one who had access to his pre- father's will, to take part in the festivities

That report is confirmed by the portraits in his honor; and in the great square of of bim, from the pencil of Titian, taken before the Brussels, opposite the palace, and arrayed freshness of youth had faded into the sallow hue in unaccustomed splendor of cloth of gold of disease, and when care and anxiety had not yet and violet velvet, he ran the first course given a sombre, perhaps sullen expression to his features. He had a fair, and even delicate com

against Count Mansfeldt, and received a plexion.

His hair and beard were of a light yel- brillant ruby as the prize. There is a low; bis eyes blue, with the eyebrows somewhat mournful interest in the details of this too close together. His nose thin and aquiline. tournament, so graphically and spiritedly The principal blemish in his countenance was his described by Mr. Prescott. Count Hoorne, thick“ Austrian lip; his lower jaw protruded even more than his father's. To his father, indeed, he Count Egmont, with lance in rest, support

among the challengers, and the gallant bore a great resemblance in his lineaments, though those of Pbilip were of a less intellectual cast. In ing Philip; and Alva sitting among the stature he was somewhat below the middle height, judges, while the emperor, beneath the with a slight, symmetrical figure, and well-made gorgeous canopy of crimson and gold, his limbs. He was attentive to his dress, which was sisters, the regent, and the dowager-queen



of France, on either hand, occupied almost | Metz, at length began to meditate that the very spot where, on that sad morning abdication which ere long was to startle twenty years after, the tolling bells, the Europe. Ere this step had been arranged black scaffold, and the headsman drew to-1-probably ere it was definitely decided gether a greater, but heart-broken crowd, upon-death, which, if it so often extinto witness the execution of those two gal- guishes ambitious hopes, so often, on the lant nobles, while Alva, drunk with blood, other hand, awakens or aids them, offered but with thirst yet unsatiated, watched a new prize to the still grasping emperor. behind the lattice the fall of their gory Young Edward of England had died, and heads.

Mary, the cruelly-used daughter of CathaA residence of more than two years in rine of Arragon, the persecuted sister of Flanders, if insufficient to reconcile Philip the Protestant boy-king, the desolate to the habits of his Flemish subjects, was princess, on whose behalf, and for the free an amply sufficient space of time for exercise of whose faith, Charles, as her Charles to initiate his son into that science nearest maternal relative, had repeatedly of government which he understood so interfered, was now actually queen, and well. Every day Philip passed some time unwedded! What a prize for his still in his father's cabinet conversing on public widower son! affairs, or in attending the sittings of the The history of Philip of Spain now links council of state; and it is probable that itself with that of England, and in enterCharles “found his son an apt and docile ing upon it we shall refer to English affairs scholar.” One thing was still wanting to more largely than Mr. Prescott has done, his father's wishes; that in addition to the since scarcely any portion of our annals crown of Spain, the diadem of the Ger- requires so much to be re-written as those manic empire should be secured to his of the reign of Mary. son; and earnest was Charles with his Few kings' daughters, from their very brother Ferdinand to induce him to waive cradle up to womanhood, have been the his prospective claim in favor of his nephew. object of so many marriage treaties as But Ferdinand was unyielding; while to Mary Tudor. Giustinian has told us how the suggestion that Philip might at least Bonnivet placed the diminutive ring on become king of the Romans, the plea that the little child's finger as she stood on her this was in the gift of the electors was urg- mother's knee, thus betrothing her to the ed-a plea unanswerable, and at once fatal Dauphin, then a babe in his nurse's arms, to the claims of Philip of Spain ; for, as (B.Q., No. XLII., page 462.) But the Sorriano remarks, while his manners had peace thus solemnly ratified between Henbeen “little pleasing to the Italians, and ry and Francis was ere long broken, and positively displeasing to the Flemings, then Charles V. sought a closer alliance they were altogether odious to the Ger- with his cousin, still the heir-presumptive mans." A kind of compromise was at of the English crown, although then but length entered into between the two broth- six years old, and by the treaty of Winders, and Philip prepared for his departure. sor stipulated that at the age of twelve He had now accomplished the object of she should be sent to Spain to complete his visit in regard to his Flemish subjects; her education. This treaty is very importbut even then “the symptoms of alienation ant, for we find that it was there stipulatbetween the future sovereign and his peo-ed that Mary should be brought up in the ple, which was afterwards to widen into a habits, the language, even the costume of permanent and irreparable breach, might Spain. “And who is so well qualified to be discovered," and when Philip again instruct her in all this as the queen, her visited Flanders, there was little of that mother ?” said Henry.* wild enthusiasm which hailed his first ap- Charles, well acquainted with the invetpearance.

erate nationality of his aunt, willingly acIt was with no reluctant feelings, there

* “For if her father shuld seke a maistresse for fore, that Philip returned to Spain. In hir to frame hir after the maner of Spayne, and of July, 1551, he re-landed at Barcelona, pro- whom she myghte take example of vertue, he shulde ceeding to Valladolid, and there quietly not fynde in all Xtendome a more mete than she now resumed the duties of the regency during hathe, the qnene's grace, her mother, who is comen the next three years; while his father, berith to the emperer will norish her, and bringe her

of this house of Spayne, and who for th' allection she humiliated by his flight from Innspruck, up, as may hereafter be to his most contentacion.”and the disastrous results of the siege of Letter of the Ambassador's, July 8th, Cotton MSS.

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