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the Retiring from his exhausting and peril.
third time, the chief said, 'You may smoke now;' | they returned with 5000 beaver skins, exadding after he had drawn a few whiffs, “we are clusive of other peltries. now brothers.'
“The Cayouse, after smoking, handed me the pipe, but without any ceremony. The smoking Red River Colony, where the winter en
ous labors, our author settled down in the then went round and round the circle, with no other formality than that Pee-eye-em always filled dures for seven months, and the mercury the pipe and lighted it himself, with the same tongs sometimes freezes. “Generally speaking,
" as before. The fire was always a piece of horse- he says, "the isolated position of the dung, till the ceremony on the part of Pee-eye-em colony and its northern and frozen locality, was gone through.
almost preclude the inhabitants from in“The lodge during this time was like an oven, so that I got up to go out and get a little fresh air; tercourse with the rest of the civilized but Pee-eyeen shook his head, and made signs world; except once a_year, when the for me to sit down again. I then asked for a company's ship from England reaches drink of water; but Pee-eye-em giving another York Factory.” Mr. Ross promises a hisshake of the head, I had to sit down and compose tory of this settlement, which we shall be myself: there we sat, balf roasted, half stifled, glad to receive, and in the mean time we thirsty, and uncomfortable, until long after mid- very cordially commend his present volnight; when Pee-eye-em, getting up and opening umes to our readers. Though they relate the door, went out; we all followed, and the cer- to a period some thirty years since, and emony ended.”—Vol. ii. pp. 93–96.
to a state of things which is rapidly passMany of our readers will be astonished ing away, they are full of interest. It is at the extent of the journeys performed not often that we obtain so competent a by the trappers in their annual excursions. guide amidst the vast solitudes of the On one of these occasions, we are told forest. We are happy to have done so that the distance travelled was 3450 miles. on the present occasion, and invite our From the Snake country, which they visit- readers to share the information we have ed with considerable labor and much risk, I thus obtained.
From Colburn's New Moothly.
DAMASCUS AND ITS NEIGHBORHOOD.*
Damascus is unquestionably one of the ness have ever been proverbial. The oldest cities in the world, and in many re- Arab writers call it one of the four paraspects one of the most remarkable. It dises on earth. It has in succession has been a city from the time when Abra- formed an important part of the most ham left his home “between the rivers" powerful empires of the world. The to journey westward to the Land of monarchs of Nineveh, Babylon, Persia, Promise.” It has outlived generations of Greece, and Rome have conquered it, cities, and has been a witness of the stir- and it has prospered under every dyring events of full four thousand years. nasty, and outlived them all. It was It is one of the few remaining connecting for a time the capital of the vast domilinks between the patriarchal age and nions of the Khalits; and as the strongmodern days; and its beauty and rich- hold of Islamism it was (excepting the
holy cities of Mecca and Medina) the last * Five Years in Damascus: including an Account of the History, Typography, and Antiquities of that place that tolerated a European hat in its City. By Rev. J. L. PORTER, A.M., F.R.S.L. Two streets; yet now, Mr. Porter tells us the Vols. London: John Murray. 1865.
Osmanlis, its present rulers, are fast de
clining, and ere long it may be forced to relieved by the lighter shade of the apricot, the acknowledge other masters. This is more silvery sheen of the poplar, and the purple tint of than is admitted by some politicians of the pomegranate ; while lofty cone-like cypresses the Osmanlis, even in Europe ; but no appear at intervals, and a few palm-trees here and amount of political sagacity will suffice to colored foliage thus surrounding the bright city,
there raise up their graceful heads. The variously uphold long a corrupt system or a death, and the smooth plain beyond, now bounded by nakstricken race except as an allied or vassal ed hills, and now mingling with the sky on the far power. The decline of the Osmanlis may distant horizon, and the wavy atmosphere that be repudiated by partisans, but the unani- makes forest, plain, and mountain tremble, give a mous testimony of those who have lived softness and aèrial beauty to the whole scene that long among them, or studied them inti- captivates the mind of the beholder." mately, as Mr. Porter has done, all goes to establish the fact.
It has been supposed that in this age of Few cities possess such advantages in locomotion, libraries of researches, narrarespect to situation as Damascus. It tives, and journals have exhausted the rostands on a plain, at the eastern base of mance of travel, and made persons familAntilibanus, having an elevation of about iar with most objects of interest, especially 2200 feet above the sea. The area of this in the East, and with all their associaplain is about 236 square geographical tions, classic or sacred, ere the eye rests miles. The fine stream of the Barada upon them. But this is not the case. breaks through the lowest chain of the There is a magic power in the living realanti-Lebanon by a wild ravine, and enter-ity which neither poet's pen nor painter's ing the plain, at once waters the city and pencil can ever appropriate, still less exits gardens. Aqueducts intersect every haust. The descriptions of others, howquarter, and fountains sparkle in every ever graphic, and even the sketch of the dwelling, while innumerable canals extend artist, however faithful, only place before their ramifications over the wide expanse, the mind's eye an ideal scene, which we clothing it with verdure and beauty: can contemplate, it is true, with unmingled
pleasure, and even with satisfaction; but “ The view that presents itself to the eye of the when the eye wanders over plain and traveller as he surmounts the last ridge of Antili- mountain, or the foot touches “holy banus, after passing the bleak and barren slopes ground,” the superiority of the real over beyond, is rich and grand almost surpassing conception. From the side of the little wely above the ideal is at once felt and acknowledged.
Not that Damascus, a city thoroughly referred to the best prospect is obtained. The elevation is about 500 feet above the city, which Oriental in character, has not also all the is a mile and a half distant. The peculiar forms of usual drawbacks of Eastern habits. Its Eastern architecture produce a pleasing effect at streets are narrow and tortuous, the city this distance. Graceful minarets and swelling irregular, dirty, and half ruinous, the domes, surmounted by gilded crescents, rise up in houses like piles of mud, stone, and timevery direction from the confused mass of terraced ber, heaped together without order, but roofs
, wbi!e in some places their glittering tops in the same city, also, all that remains of just appear above the deep green foliage, like diamonds in the midst of emeralds. In the centre the romance of the East is likewise to be of all stands the noble pile of the great mosk, and met with. Its bazaars are splendid, and pear it may be seen the massive towers and bal- they are frequented by a great variety of tlemented walls of the old castle. Away on the races-Arab, Turk, Druse, Persian, and south the eye follows the long narrow suburb of Kurd — in most picturesque costumes. the Medan, at the extremity of which is the Most of the mosques are fine specimens *Gate of God,' where the great pilgrim caravan, of Saracenic architecture, as are also the on each returning year, takes leave of the ciry. The buildings of Damascus are almost all of khans. In both it is in the gateways that snowy whiteness, and this contrasts well with the the Saracenic architecture is seen to the surrounding foliage. The gardens and orchards, greatest advantage. which have been so long and so justly celebrated, But the chief glory of Damascus is in encompass the city, and extend on both sides of the splendor of its private houses. No tha Burada some miles eastward. They cover an contrast could be greater than that bearea at least twenty-five miles in circuit, and
The make the environs an earthly paradise." The tween the exterior and the interior. varied tints of the foliage, and of the blossoms irregular mud walls and rickety-looking and fruit in their season, greatly enhance the projecting upper chambers give but poor beauty of the picture. The sombre hue of the promise of splendor within. The entrance olive, and the deep green of the walnut are finely | is by a mean doorway into a narrow and
winding passage, or sometimes a plain | a fountain inlaid with mother-of-pearl and rare stable-yard. Passing this the outer court stones. The walls to the height of twenty feet is gained. Here is a variegated pavement
are covered with niosaic in panels, in the centre of black and white stones, intermixed of each of which is a slab of poli-hed granite,
porphyry, or finely-veined marble, with the excepwith pieces of marble tastefully designed. tion of those in the upper tier, which are inA fountain sparkles in the midst, shaded scribed with sentences from the Koran, written in by evergreens and flowering shrubs; and letters of gold. Several viches relieve the plainat one side is an open alcove, called a dess of the walls ; in their angles are slevder colliwan, with a light and beautifully orna- umns of white marble with gilt capitals, and the mented arch supporting the exterior wall. arcbus above are richly sculptured in the SaraThe floor is of marble of different colors, cenic style. The upper part of the walls is paint
ed in the Italian style. and a raised dais, covered with soft cush- thirty feet high, and delicately painted. The cen
The ceiling is about ions of silk, surrounds the three sides. tral ornaments and cornices are elaborately The chambers and halls in this court are carved and gilt, and inlaid with innumerable litall occupied by the master and his men- tle mirrors. The other and principal part of the servants; here he receives his visitors, room is raised about two feet. The walls and and to this alone are strangers ever ad- ceiling are similar in design to those described, mitted. Another winding passage opens except that the former are in part covered with a from this to the inner or chief court, call mirrors. Around the three sides run the divans,
wainscoting, carved, gilt, and ornamented with ed the Harîm, whose door is kept by covered with the richest purple satin, embroidered eunuchs. It is when this court is gained with gold, in chaste designs of flowers and scrolls, that the splendor of the mansion first and having a deep gold fringe descending to the bursts upon the view.
floor. Though none of the workmanship might Mr. Porter is enabled to describe this bear minute examination, and some of those actabooed interior by the privileges ob- customed to the chaste and subdued style of decotained through the wife of one Ottoman gaudy and even vulgar, set all will admit that
ration in Western Europe might pronounce this Effendi. This lady was the daughter of the general effect is exceedingly striking. It reAli Aga, secretary to the treasury under sembles, in fact, some scene in fairy-land; and Ibrahim Pasha, and although her father one feels, on beholding it, that the glowing dewas put to death by the Egyptian chief, scriptions in the Arabian Nights' were not mere under suspicion of holding a treasonable pictures of the fancy. But it is only when the correspondence with the Turkish govern-bright-eyed houris' of this sunny cline assemble
in such a salon, decked out in their gay and picment, still the daughter has inherited some of the spirit of the times, which turesque costumes, and blazing with golil und dia
monds, and when numerous lamps of every form were eminently progressive, and sets light and color pour a rich and varieguted flood of light value on the absurd laws that make Mus- all around, to be reflected from polished mirrors, lem ladies little better than prisoners. and couutless gems, and flashing eyes, that we
can fully comprehend the splendor of Oriental “The interior court, or harim, is a quadrangle lite, and the perfect adaptation of the gorgeous from fifty to sixty yards square, with a tesselated decorations of the mansions to the brilliant cospavement of marble; a large marble fountaid tumes of those that imbabit them. stands in the centre, and several smaller ones of “There are many other apartments in the court, great beauty sparkle around, and give a delicious less spacious, it is true, than the grand salon, but coolness to the air, even amid the heat of summer. no less beautifully finished. The style of decoraOrange, lemon, and citron trees, diffuse their fra- tion in this mansion may be called the modern grant odors; while gigantic flowering shrubs and Damascene, the painting of the walls and ceiling rare exotics are disposed in tasteful groups, and being a modern innovation. In the more ancient climbing plants are trained on trellis-work over- houses, the ceilings and wainscotted walls are head, affording grateful shade avd pleasing variety. covered with the richest arabesques, encompassing All the great reception-rooms and chambers open little panels of deep blue and delicate azure, on on this court; the former are upon the first floor, which are inscribed, in elegantly interlaced Araand the latter above, having in front a narrow bic characters, whole verses and chapters of their corridor closed in with glass. On the southern law. Vast sums of money are tbus expended, side is the lewan, or open alcove, similar in de the ornamenting of one chamber often costing sign to those found in the exterior courts, but lof- upwards of £2000 sterling. A few of the more tier, and far more gorgeously decorated. The grand wealıhy Jewish families have also large and splensalon is a noble room. It is divided into two com did residences, but they cannot be compared with partments by a beautiful arch richly ornamented those of the Muslems. The Ilebrew writing, with gilt fretwork. The floor of the first com- too, which they universally put upon the walls, partment is of the rarest marbles of every hue, is stiff and formal looking, and is intinitely inferior, arranged with admirable precision and pleasing in an ornamental point of view, to the graceful Fariety in mathematical designs. In the centre is curves and easy flow of the Arabic.”
Travellers have generally represented Mesopotamia, between Urfah and Mardin; Damascus as almost wholly destitute of Mr. Porter also calls the attention of fuancient remains. Mr. Porter shows that ture explorers to the tells in the valley of if ruins do not stand out here in bold re- the upper Orontes, ancient Cælo Syria, lief from a desert plain as they do at Pal- more especially near Hums. myra, or lift their proud heads in solitary grandeur far above the crumbling ruins “Almost the only objects of interest in an antiaround them, as in Baalbek, Busrah, or quarian point of view in this whole region are the Jerash, they still abound, encompassed by of the plain, but which occur in greatest numbers
artificial mounds that meet the eye in every part modern mansions or buried in the laby- along the bank of the 'Asy. They are regular in rinth of bustling bazaars. Indeed, with form, generally truncated cones
, and vary in height the help of a valuable Arabic MS. of Ibn from 50 to 250 feet. The sides and summits are Asaker's “History of the Celebrated universally covered with loose whitish gravel, like Tombs and Mausolea in and around Da- the débris of some structure originally composed mascus,” and his own persevering and of bricks and small stones united with cement. long-continued researches, we are present. plain of Damascus. Villages generally stand
These mounds are also found in the Buka'a and ed with such a picture of Damascus as it either upon or beside them, and fountains, or large once was, and Damascus as it is now, as cisterns, and wells are always found near those has never been attempted before, or is that are situated at a distance from the river's likely to be superseded for detail and ac- bank. They appear to be in every respect simicuracy for many a year to come.
lar to the mounds on the plains of Mesopotamia Oriental archæologists, also, owe Mr. and Assyria described by Layard and others, and Porter a debt of gratitude for his research- from which monuments and sculptures of such es on the plain of Damascus, more particu- great interest and beauty
have lately been brought larly his determination of the Tell es-Sala- of the more extensive of the Syrian mounds exca
to light. It is highly probable that, were some hîyeh as an Assyrian ruin.
vated, sculptured tablets, like those of Nimroud “The Tell es-Salahîyeh is one of the most interest- and Kouyunjik, would be discovered, at least in
sufficient number to repay the labor and expense. ing remnants of antiquity in the whole plain. It is an artificial mound of an oval form, about 300 The bas-relief already referred to at the tell elyards in diameter and about 100 feet in beight. existence of sculpture in some of them, and forms
Salahîyeh, on the plain of Damascus, proves the The whole surface is covered with loose earth, composed mainly of brick-dust and fragments of an interesting and important monumental evidence broken pottery: On the southern side, next the of the occupation of this region by the ancient Asbank of the river, a portion of the mound has syrians, and of the truth of the statements in the been cut away, and here may be seen the regular
Sacred Record.” layers of sunburnt brick of which the whole appears to have been constructed. From the pre
The mound on which Hums itself stands sent form of the mound it seems that there was is of the same character; so also is the originally a large platform built, from twenty to great mound of Jisr Shogher; as also in thirty feet high, and then in the centre of this part that of Aleppo, and of most other stood a lofty conical structure, which during the towns in Syria that have a mound, whecourse of long centuries has gradually crumbled ther crowned with a citadel or buildings, down to its present form. On the western side of the mound, beside the little village, I found, on my
or not. first visit to this place, a limestone slab, about
Mr. Porter by no means confines his five feet long by three wide, containing a bas-re- researches to the immediate neighborhood lief representation of an Assyrian priest. The of Damascus. He visits Palmyra, and workmanship is rude and the stone has been de experiences, on crossing the desert, all faced ; but still it was sufficiently plain to show the those annoyances from lawless Bedouins costume and attitude of the figure. I sketched it at which are inevitable in that part of the the time, intending on some future occasion either to obtain a cast or the stone itself; but, unfortu- country. Mount Hermon and the sources vately, it has since disappeared, and I have been of the Pharpar and Jordan also come in unable to discover what has been done with it."
for his critical and controversial remarks,
and he again falls foul of the unfortunate There can be no doubt that none of De Saulcy. The determination of the site these tells, so numerous in Syria, but of Helbon, and the description of the site would repay the archæological explorer itself, is a gem of archeological topomore or less. We have already particu- graphy. larly called attention to the groups of arti- But the great points of interest are deficial mounds in North Syria, between An- cidedly associated with the Hauran, a tioch and the Euphrates, and in Northern wild, rocky, desert region, covered with
ruins of ancient time, but now given up they saw our pistols they rushed out of the door ; to robber tribes, and rarely visited since but we, knowing the great number without, felt the days of Burkhardt. Here was the that our position was very critical. We, consekingdom of Bashan, here also the ruins of quently, followed them, but the moment we apKenath, of Bozrah, of Salcah, and of a crowd I could not see our companions or the
peared we received a volley of stones. In the hundred other remarkable sites of an- shiekh, and I supposed they had either escaped or tiquity. Mr. Porter grapples with the had been driven off. There was no possibility of whole subject like a man who has studied my making my way to the door of the court, and it thoroughly, and traces the history of to remain where I was would have been almost the country through its various political certain death ; so, dashing forward, and pushing phases in Biblical and in Roman times. wall in front to the hollow ground below. Just
those before me to each side, I leaped over the He makes us more than ever familiar with as I reached the ground a large stone struck me those peculiar stone houses and tombs on the back, and stunned me. Exerting all my with stone doors of one massive slab, as strength, I ascended a little mound of rubbish, have also been detected in modern times and turned upon my assailants, who were now at Kohrasar, in Northern Mesopotamia. attempting to descend the wall. I again drew
To show under what adverse circum- the pistol, and threatened to shoot the first who stances the ruins of ancient towns have
to ment, and I then attempted to reason with them,
would descend. This checked them for a mobe explored in these regions, we extract inquiring what we had done that they should thus the following account of an adventure in beat and abuse us like dogs. The only reply was Edhra, the ancient Edrei or Adra :
a savage yell, “Kill him! kill him!. A perfect
shower of stones followed this, and one of them “While we stood examining the exterior of this striking me on the hand carried away the whole building, and trying to decipher the inscription, filesh of the sides of two of my fingers. I now obwe noticed that a crowd of some sixty or seventy served Mr. — and Nikóla, in the midst of the people had collected round us in the court. We crowd, going out of the little gateway, and Mr. paid little attention to this, however, as we had Barnett, I saw, had got round to pear where I got accustomed to such evidences of popularity; stood. The whole fury of the attack seemed and so intent were Mr. Barnett and myself on our directed against me, and, while I was meditating antiquarian work, that we did not hear the re what to do, I was struck with a stone on the marks passed or the threats uttered by them. back of the deck, but the thick collar of my coat Nikóla heard these, and felt alarmed; but, just as in part deadened the blow. Fifteen or twenty
he was about to inform us of them, we turned and men came close to the little mound I occupied ; I went into the interior, while Mr. Nikóla, all were afraid, however, to close upon me, though
and the shiekh remained without; Mahmûd and the stones came thick and fast. I saw that my our servants were in the house where we had left only chance was in flight, for, even should I fire, our luggage and arms. Shortly after we had en- it would not save my own life ; and if I should tered, Mr. Barnett was some yards in front of me, kill or wound any of my assailants, I well knew writing, and I stood, with my arms folded and that not one of our party would leave the village my back against a columo, looking at the build-alive. I turned, and ran across a field, as I ing. Ten or twelve men bad followed us into the thought, in the direction of the house where building. While I was thus standing I received Mahmûd and the servants were. In my way I a heavy blow on the shoulder from a large stick met a respectably-dressed man, whom I took for or club. I turned round suddenly, for I was com- the shiekh of the village, and I entreated him to pletely taken by surprise, as not a word bad been keep back the mob, or they would murder me. spoken, or a question asked, or a sound heard. He made no reply, and I continued my course. I The club was again raised, and I got another now saw an opening in the range of houses before stroke on the arm which had been aimed at my me, and entered it, but to my horror, found it head, but by starting back I escaped it. Several shut up by a lofty wall a few yards in front. I men, armed with their clubs, now attempted to wheeled round on the moment, and ran to the close upon me, but I leaped back, and demanded summit of a mound of rubbish ; here, however, what they wanted ; at the same time, throwing some twenty or thirty men were close upon me, open my large over-coat, I drew a pistol, which † and flight seemed no longer possible. Before I had fortunately put in my belt at Busr el-Harîry. had time to consider what I should do, the stroke These things quickly attracted Mr. Barnett's of a stone on the back and another on the head attention, and he saw at a glance the danger of brought me to the ground. Those that were our position, and also drew a small pistol from his before afraid to approach now rushed on me pocket. The cowardly ruffians had watched their en masse. Though greatly stunned and exhaustopportunity, and, as soon as they saw our little ed, I was perfectly conscious, and saw one fellow party divided, they rushed upon us. They had deliberately aiming a blow at my head with his no doubt thought we were altogether unarmed, club. I received it on my left arm, and leaped and, having two of us inside the church and two to my feet. A vigorous effort drove a few of my outside it, they felt that it would be easy to ac- assailants to some distance, and again I seized my complish their
purposes. The moment, however, pistol, and the crowd began to retreat, but at that VOL. XXXVII.-NO. III.