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Richard Owen perished, she comes to “Not like she might have been with her them in the morning, as sure as the sun lover, perhaps. I have no right to say itself, and keeps his memory green amongst that much, with so good a man as Aprhys them by good deeds.
yonder for my husband; but happy she “ And,” observed Mrs. Aprhys, in con- ought to be; for I think God must love clusion, as she wiped her eyes and rose her, and I am sure her fellow-creatures from her seat, “ 'tis the best way of keep-do.” ing a death-day that I know, sir.”
I put on my slippers, which had entirely " It is, indeed, my dear madam,” I said dropped off during this feeling recital, and " and I thank you very much for your retired to my bed. I had all kinds of plea affecting story. And do you think the sant dreams and angelic visions; but none dear old lady, poor Miss Ellen, is happy came up to the reality of that dear old
lady in black, Miss Davies.
From Obamboro's Journal,
ANTIQUITIES AT GUILD HALL.
The stranger in London, or its thought-, statue, dredged from the Thames; the ful resident, who may be willing to pass Saxon fibula, or sword found elsewhere, into pleasant stillness from the throngs of may pass into the hands of the private inCheapside, and spend a little while with dividual, and be his through purchase; but profit—though attached to it there be a abstractedly considered, and, indeed, in any regret more than transient-should turn enlarged view of right, they are national, down King street into the most interesting or rather incorporate property, and as old porchway of the Guildhall of the city such should be alone held and preserved. of London. Here, to the right, a modern Hence, when we find the public and dodoorway and staircase will lead him up mestic antiquities of London sown broadinto a small room containing the few an- cast here, there, everywhere, and owing tiquities possessed by the Corporation of their preservation only to the intelligence London ; thence some winding stairs will and patriotism of private individuals, it is conduct him into the reading-room of the a matter of infinite regret that there is no City Library, where the most urbane and general receptacle to which the seller or kindly of librarians will take pleasure in presenter of such heir-looms might resort showing him what is preserved as corpo- with confidence. rate property of the prolific riches which The re-building of the Royal Exchange research, excavation, or accident, has given and London Bridge opened two great up from the generations of the past to storehouses to the antiquarian collector. those of the present. We use the word From the latter, Mr. Roach Smith proregret advisedly, and the feeling is shared cured some of the chief riches in his reby hundreds of the intellectual classes, markable collection; the former gave the who conceive, with us, that the museum of objects of interest we are about to dethe corporate body of London should be scribe. a splendid
and truly national thing, worthy The reader may recollect that the old alike the first city in the world, and of the Royal Exchange, built after the Great relics of the mighty races who have lived, Fire, and immortalized by the pamphlets labored, and died upon its soil. The am- and pillory of the illustrious Defoe, was phora, dug up in Cheapside; the bronze burnt down in January, 1838. Upon tak
ing measures for its re-building, the Gre- then a considerable stream, to the west of sham committee, with whom the matter this vast rubbish-pit, could have admitted rested, wisely specified in their contract of no more than scattered surburban dwellwork, that all antiquities brought to light ings. From the date of the coins found, should be preserved, and considered as it seems probable that the pit was built the property of the corporation. But this over about sixty-five years before the specification seems only to have been par- Roman power ceased in Britain, tially carried out, as many relics found The pottery, which we now proceed to were dispersed, and are now to be found look at, is, with scarcely an exception, in private collections.
fragmentary. The remnants of two amThe first excavations, which included phoræ are both of a very coarse and comthe eastern portion of the old Royal Ex-mon description ; but a large mortariumchange, gave but few relics of antiquity-a vessel used for culinary purposes, and the spot having, as was evident, been al-shaped somewhat like a marble mortar of ready disturbed to the depth of the Roman the present day—is not only almost perlevel; and from tiles and fragments fect, but one of the most beautiful we have brought to light, buildings and walls had ever seen. Near its spout and across the already been removed. This might have channeled rim, the name of the potter is taken place on the first building of the stamped between two lines of leaves, and Exchange, 1566–1569, or, more probably, this stands out as freshly as the day it was on its re-building after the Great Fire, as impressed. Amongst the urns, vases, cups, Wren's foundations were generally laid as and pipkins, (ollula,) are some good forms; low as those of Roman London. In mak- and a few of the smaller vessels used for ing further progress, the soil was found pouring out unguents and perfumes in still more disturbed. Thirty-two cess-drops, are remarkable for the beauty of pools were opened, in which a few objects the outpouring lip. The specimens of of curiosity were found. In April, 1841, Samian ware are scanty, and all imperfect; in destroying the western wall of the mer- but most of the fragments have the fine chants' area of the old Exchange, the coralline hue of the true ware, and are vaworkmen discovered that this had been ried and graceful in decoration. One erected partly on some small but interest- specimen is remarkable, as yet exhibiting ing remains of a Roman building evidently the leaden rivet with which the vessel was still standing in situ, and resting on the originally mended. The terra-cotta lamps native gravel. Amongst these remains are likewise mostly fragmentary. One, of were Roman bricks, and the bases of two pale-colored earth, is rare, for having been large pedestals, one covered with stucco, formed without a handle. It is impressed and moulded, and still showing traces of with the head of an empress; it was found coloring. Upon proceeding further, where in one of the old cess-pools referred to, these small remains of Roman work ceased and broken by the pick-axe during excavato afford a support for the walls of the tion. The lamps of darker hue wear a Exchange, outpiles and sleepers were metallic look, as though originally gildfound; beneath these, again, an older ed; but this has proceeded from their rubble-wall and foundations. On removal, long inclosure in decomposing animal rethis ancient work was discovered to be mains. Their most interesting feature is, founded on what was considered a large that in all, the traces left by the wick in pit or pond, sunk thirteen feet lower burning are as distinctly visible as though through the gravel, quite down to the the flame had only died out yesterday. clay. But it was much more likely to The specimens of Roman glass are likehave been the place of outfall for a large wise fragmentary. They are chiefly the sewer—the stercoraceous matter, the bro- remains of vessels of the common Aretian ken pottery, the remnants of leathern- manufacture, which was but little valued, work, and the vast mass of miscellaneous compared with the rare and costly crystal articles found therein, being a certain in- lina, made in, and brought from Egypt. dication. If it was not this, it must have Some of these fragments once belonged been one of those rubbish-pits so invariably to bottles of rectangular shape, which had found outside the walls of Roman towns; usually low necks and short handles ; for Londinium proper did not extend others formed part of round flasks, with northward beyond the line of the present longer necks; others were like broad vases Cheapside; and the flow of the Wallbrook, I or basins, cast with thick flutes, or covered
with concentric circles; and others resem- | domestic knives in this and other collecble the phials of the middle ages. Most tions, still, owing to the imperfect knowof these specimens have the metallic and ledge the Romans had of manipulating iridescent appearance peculiar to ancient iron, or of converting it into steel, as the glass, and arising from its long interment. scoriæ of the Roman forges scattered over
The rubbish-pit referred to gave up an Britain still show, there can be no doubt unusual amount of tablets and styles for that a Sheffield knife of the present day writing. Some of the former are very in- had no likeness in the widest domains of teresting. As they lie within the case as the Cæsars. The pair of tongs, though signed to them, they look like cork, or black from time and rust, are, if Roman, some very dry wood. With the excep- great curiosities. They are about thirteen tion of the outer sides forming the covers, inches and a half in length, the bow being the wooden leaves have a border or mar- formed without a handle; and were progin averaging three eighths of an inch in bably used for the fires of the hypocausts, breadth ; within this, the wood is slightly or warming apparatus. Our archaeological channeled from top to bottom; this, of collections contain so few domestic implecourse, for the better retaining of the wax ments and utensils of the Roman period, on which the writing was made. Another as to make these unique. The remarkainteresting fact connected with several of ble collection of Mr. William Chaffers these tabellæ is, that the creases made by contains two bronze cooking-vessels or the strings which bound the leaves together pans, one with a long handle of beautiful are still distinctly visible. These tabellæ form; but the food of the Romans conwere all found thirty-one feet below the sisting principally of soups and stews, level of modern London. The styli, or pens, there can be little doubt that it was cooked are very various. The majority seem to in earthen vessels set on stoves. Some be made of iron, whilst there are others of of the mortaria in Mr. Roach Smith's colbrass and bronze. Some are good in form, lection still show distinct marks of the fire. the worn appearance of the erasing end Imbedded in the chalk-steening on the showing how much they had been used. south side of this rich receptacle of the One shows where it had been mended ; domestic remains of Roman London, was another, formed of brass, has the erasing found a mason's gouge. Though someend circular, and slightly concaved like a what corrugated, it is still well preserved spoon, for collecting the wax from the sur and defined. It is more than ten inches face of the tablet.
in length, and of considerable thickness, The miscellaneous antiquities embrace Another gouge, broken and imperfect, was some curious things :-Fragments of Ro- also found, as well as portions of both a man armor ; fibulæ, or brooches; a por- saw and an auger; likewise a bolt-rivet, tion of a spatula, or surgeon's plaster- linchpins, and a large quantity of variousspreader, formed of bronze, the handle sized nails. One of the last is eight inches being well shaped, and terminating in a long; and all have larger heads than ring; brass eyelets, rings, and box-clamps; modern nails, the flange of one side usually instruments for the bath; small-tooth combs standing out broader than the other. formed of wood; pins in bronze and brass; The remains of leather-work, found prinknives; needles, pin-cases; weaving-bob- cipally on the western side of the great bins; a bodkin of ivory; forceps, or rather rubbish-pit, were considerable; so much so tongs; salt-spoons; the remains of a steel- as to give rise to the idea at the time, that yard-balance; and tesseræ, or dice. Of there had been shops in this vicinity, one these, the fragments of the combs are of which was a taberna sutrina, or shop of clumsy; the centre of one is very thick, a shoemaker. But this we think wholly the teeth sloping off on each side, and, improbable. The masses of leather-princompared to what we use at present, more cipally the remains of worn-out shoes and like lumps of wood than combs. If the sandals-were amongst the natural accuRomans gave more elegance of form to mulations of a rubbish-pit, or the outfall many common things, we immeasurably of a sewer. Though not so varied or so excel them in many points of adaptation well preserved as Mr. Roach Smith's, this and utility: this is especially the case with collection of leather-work has some interrespect to knives. Though it must be ad-esting specimens. Amongst the soleæ, or
, mitted that time and long interment have sandals, are some still retaining a portion of done much to destroy the specimens of the slight, sharp, yet broad-headed nails by which the layers of soles were held to-| introduced into Britain in the sixteenth gether. A few of these, from their strength century; but the discovery of this relic in and workmanship, and the peculiarity of a place that had previousy remained closthe broad, protruding-headed nails, must ed for fourteen hundred and seventy years have been the sandals of soldiers; and carries back its growth to about three several specimens still retain a portion of centuries after the first recorded introducthe strap which passed between the great tion of the walnut into Europe. This fruit and second toes, and united with the fas- was brought into Europe from Syria tening round the ankle. These remnants about A.D. 37, and introduced by the Roof ancient leather-work are chiefly black, mans into Spain at a date not much later. and still retain considerable polish. The This transmission makes it probable that crepidæ, or latchet-shoes, have some ex- the legionaries effected the same result in quisite specimens; they have belonged to England, not only with the walnut, but females, and yet show where worn by the other fruits, and that the magnificent waltread of the foot, and the mark caused by nut-trees cherished round the great abthe fillet or tie which drew the latchets beys in the middle ages, were the offtogether. In fact so beautiful is this class spring of such as had borne fruit in Roof shoes, here, as in other collections, not man Britain. The ox-horns, like others only in an artistic sense, but as suited to found on Roman sites, have belonged to the anatomy of the foot, that it might be the beautiful breed of cattle indigenous to well if modern shoemakers would look in Britain ; and as we stoop to turn over the this direction. The majority of shoes, dusty cores, the imagination revisits those those of females especially, are so devoid dense forests which then encompassed of taste, and unsuited to the foot, that London in so extraordinary a degree, and a lesson might be taken from these, made the herds which roamed through their and worn some seventeen hundred years fastnesses. So dense was this woodland, ago. Viewed in this light, as well as in as in some places to be impervious to all countless others, we see the desirableness but the axe of the legionaries. Even cenof concentrating collections of this kind, as turies later, Mathew of Paris, in referring well as making them accessible, not only to to the road between London and St. Althe dilettante few, but to the less-lettered bans, used the strong expression, “the many, who, ignorant of esoteric principles, dread woods.” or indifferent to historical inductions, The excavations for the new Royal Exwould yet reap ideas for the improvement change brought to light a considerable of the manipulative arts, that eventually number of coins of various periods, as might give new grace and form to the well as earthenware of the middle ages, commonest of daily things.
but none of the latter of any great From the vast mass of leather found in value. the excavations for the new Exchange, Another curious and somewhat important and on other sites of Londinium, and from fact, as shedding much new light upon the the evident skill with which the skins had early history of London, was ascertained been prepared, there can be little doubt by this and contemporary excavations that the Romans were excellent tanners, -namely, that the marsh to the north used leather for a multitude of purposes of the city had been in a great measure we cannot now define, and had tanneries artificially constructed, for the purpose of in several situations which were then out-strengthening the defenses of the wall; side the walls. Traces of an extensive and that at the Roman period, possibly
. work of this kind were discovered in Bar- throughout, the ground had been no tholomew Lane some years since. otherwise marshy than with such dank
At a depth that must place their great places as lie in the hollows of all woodantiquity beyond all cavil, several other lands. This plan of military defense was, things of much interest were found – moreover, much more Danish or Saxon amongst them, the horns and antlers of than Roman, and one natural to races orideer, in fine preservation, ox-horns, shells, ginally inhabiting low-lying levels and seaand fir-cones. But the most curious was bords. The further discovery of a Rothe half of a small, smooth walnut-shell, man sewer across London Wall
, through found thirty-five feet in the lowest exca- ground perfectly dry, and with even the yation of the works. Hitherto, it had coarse grass lying yet unrotted amidst been supposed that the walnut-tree was the mould, threw even stronger light upon this induction as to the ancient condition Museum is remodelled, still we must reof the site of London. Are not facts like collect that the centuries and area to be these worth all that has been handed represented are vast, and the space to be down to us by fable-weaving monks and afforded in the national collection neceshistorians ?
sarily a limited one. Where, then, can Such are the few facts we have been en- be a place for special city antiquities so abled to gather respecting the antiquities fitting as the city itself?—from the graves preserved by the corporation of London; and rubbish-pits of which have come these but a vexed question, and one of great relics of countless generations. The corpoimportance, remains behind: To whom ration, possessing a nucleus such as we have belongs the duty of gathering and pre- described, would soon enrich itself. Every serving collections such as this? Is it year gives some discovery of relics; and the corporation of London or the trustees the improvements likely to take place in of the British Museum ? Both, as it connection with the Thames, will throw would seem, repudiate the noble duty: open new and prolific sources of antiquafor both, within a short time, have nega- rian remains. Not many weeks ago, a tived the purchase of Mr. Roach Smith's small collection of antiquities, dug up in museum, which has a European fame, and London, and the property of Mr. Chaffers, which, apart from the excessive interest of Watling street, was sold by Sotheby attached to it, has another as great in & Wilkinson, amongst which were some its way—that of proving, if proof were Roman keys that we have never seen needed, of what self-sacrifice men are ca- excelled. If only as works of art, and pable when in pursuit of an absorbing in- as significant of the great amount of geotellectual benefit. But the corporation metrical knowledge possessed by the Ro. of London would seem to think that this man artificers, they should have been preduty belongs to the trustees of the Brit- served for the nation, to say nothing of ish Museum; and they, in spite of the the interest attached to them as the result pleadings of their own officials, and of of city excavations, and as throwing light eminent men of every kind, ignore it alto- upon domestic usages, and the existence gether. If general opinion be taken as a of slavery in Roman Britain. The vast criterion, it is decisive that the British amount of keys, and occasionally of locks, Museum should be the repository of the found on all Roman sites, supplies the innational antiquities; and in the words of duction that slavery then, as now, was a Mr. Roach Smith, that the city should be condition of servitude incompatible with the possessor and preserver of its own trust, and that the means thus taken to “ title-deeds." Our idea is the same; for secure property were of a most elaborate even when the trusteeship of the British I and systematic kind.
Prom Dickons' Household Words,
SCR 0 0 B Y.
Out of Scrooby came the greatness of the great North Road. A mile and a half America! What, then, is Scrooby? from Bawtry, on the Yorkshire side, is the
On the borders of Yorkshire and Not-poor village of Austerfield. If two viltinghamshire there is a market-town, lages can make a cradle, here we have the called Bawtry. A mile and a half from cradle of one of the greatest people in the Bawtry, on the Nottinghamshire side, is world. Obscure men-Brown, Smith, and Scrooby,
a village that was once one of Robinson—first set the cradle into mothe six-and-twenty English post-towns on tion. Scrooby was the acorn to the oak,