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State will use the weapons at its command. | place to receive about six millions sterling A German Bishop whose spiritual func- to compensate them for their losses. Strastions are more immediately connected with burg will rise up from its ashes fairer and the army announced within the last few grander than ever, and it is not in the days, under special orders from Rome, that heart of man not to see some merit in ofhe would excommunicate a priest if he ficials who have got six millions of money continued to celebrate divine service in a to distribute. The mere thought of such building in which at other times some of a sum suggests a vista of the most brilthe Old Catholics were permitted to assem- liant jobs, and there is no knowing how ble. The German Government has replied many good turns can be done under such by treating this threat of excommunication circumstances by those in authority to as an infraction of military discipline, the prudent men who reveal that they have Bishop being in some way attached to the true German hearts beating under their army, has suspended him from the dis- homely exteriors. In the next place, two charge of his functions, and informed him millions of money are to be devoted to rethat it will hold a formal inquiry into his plenishing the rolling-stock on the railconduct. As the circumstances of the case ways in German Lorraine and Alsace, and were peculiar on account of the Bishop's although the main purpose of the grant semi-military position, it is possible that may be to put the lines in first-rate order no serious question between the Govern- for strategical purposes, the riches of the ment and the Church may arise out of it. district can scarcely fail to be increased But such a question must arise somewhere by the consequent development of internal and somehow very shortly. On every side communications. The upper and the highthe same perpetual cause of difference and quarrel exists. The Bishop of Strasburg recently declined to be present at the ceremony of opening the Strasburg University if Dr. Döllinger was suffered to attend. The Government gave way, and bought the sanction of the Bishop's presence at this price, for it was ready to endure any temporary inconvenience rather than that the opening of the University in its new German character should be a failure. But it is not likely to yield again, and unless Rome withdraws from the conflict in order to wait for a more propitious moment, the differences between Rome and Germany can scarcely fail to assume within a very short time a most serious character.

The opening of the University of Strasburg was made as grand an affair as possible, and everything has been done to show the intentions of the Government to make the new home of German intellect brilliant and famous. Professors of the highest eminence have been engaged, Germans from all parts of the Fatherland have begun to flock there, and the Alsatians will at last, in the fulness of time, have an opportunity of discovering what Geist really means. Even their warmest friends represent them as eminently suited by nature and habits to illustrate the immense difference which the discovery may make in the human intellect. But the Alsatians, if not very clever, are shrewd enough to understand which side of their bread is buttered, and the butter is being laid on very thick on the German side. The French indemnity is flowing like a golden river into the conquered provinces. They are in the first

er middle classes, especially in the towns, may probably for a long time hold themselves aloof from Germany. The new Rector of the University is a Protestant, and the Protestants have long been in Alsace, not only a small minority, but a minority bullied and trampled on in a thousand petty ways during the period of license accorded to Catholic ecclesiastics in the days of the Second Empire. The majority of the population may therefore, so far as it is influenced by religious animosities, regard the new order of things as strangely out of the proper course, and the higher centres of provincial life will no doubt have their standing distaste for everything German heightened by religious feeling. Two measures also on which the Germans have thought proper to insist will naturally heighten this hostility to the new government. Every young Alsatian who after a certain date chooses to stay in his native province will have to serve in the German army, and no one will be suffered to hold land in Alsace who is not a German citizen. Those, therefore, who do not wish to see their sons serving in the ranks of the enemy, and who cannot bear to forego their French citizenship will have to sell their land and bid adieu to the province. On many persons of sensitive minds this necessity will fall as a great hardship, and it is impossible that there should be any good will to Germany in families on whom this bitter choice is imposed, and who feel its bitterness. But the mass of the population will probably make no difficulty whatever, and will go on holding their land as cheerfully under one Government

ness a sufficient number of ships of war to protect their commerce in distant quarters of the globe, and especially in the Asiatic seas. Their trade in that part of the world is as yet inconsiderable; but they are exactly the men, if they ever get a foothold in China or Japan, to keep it; for they can get a farthing out of a sixpenny bargain as no other Europeans can, they always keep their minds alive, and they are perfectly indifferent to the charms of the dangerous and exciting pursuit of religious proselytism. It is impossible to estimate in how many strange and indirect ways the strength and wealth of Germany will have been increased by the result of the French war, and by the payment of the French indemnity. But some rough notion of the general result may be obtained if we do nothing more than notice what is direct, obvious, and unmistakable. The money wrung out of France will be used in the first place to make Germany better able than ever to fight France, and in the next place it cannot fail to be used to lighten the burdens of the German taxpayers. When a French war of revenge is talked of, it must not be forgotten that the indemnity which will, during peace, make the French taxpayer pay more will also make the German taxpayer pay less; and so far as wealth is an element in military success, this difference will be continually and silently operating in favour of Germany.

as under another, and will console themselves for the burden of German military service by the obvious reflection that, if men must fight, it is a great satisfaction to fight on the strongest and safest side. That the side of Germany shall continue to be the strongest and safest is an object of which the German Government never loses sight for a moment. Besides the sum of six millions devoted to making good the losses of the newly annexed provences, another sum of six millions is to be laid out in improving and arming the fortresses of Alsace and Lorraine. The fortifications of Metz are not up to the high standard on which the new possessors of the great stronghold insist; and there will be plenty of French money available for the purpose of making Metz all that it should be to prevent France from ever regaining it. The numbers of the German army are also to be rapidly and largely increased. A new battalion of a thousand men is to be added to each of the 148 German regiments, so that Germany will have an army on the war footing of nearly six hundred thousand infantry, whereas the French Government only proposes to have a little over four hundred thousand. This increase in the German army has been obtained not only by making a greater call generally on the population, but by North Germany having persuaded South Germany to provide its proportional number of troops. Here, again, the French indemnity is found to be doing its work. In the late war the number of the Southern troops was not in proportion to the population, and in the distribution of the indemnity the obviously fair course to take was to give grants to the different Gov-military mission in Turkey, found time to pay ernments in proportion to the sacrifices a visit to the supposed site of Troy, and he dethey had actually made. But it was thought prudent to animate the lagging spirits of the South by a gentle and skilfully administered bribe. A portion of the indemnity is to be distributed not in accordance with services rendered in the late war, but in accordance with the total of the population. South Germany will thus get, it is reckoned, about a million sterling more than it ought properly to do, and with this encouragement South Germany is ready to set earnestly to work women of Troy washed their "shining robes," and to send the due number of men into there the Simois descends from Mount Ida and the ranks of the national army. The Ger- confounds its turbulent waters with the calm mans are too wise to spend very much of around Cape Sigeum and the island of Imbros. their newly found wealth in the construc- The white peak of Mount Ida, from whence Jution of a navy of the first class. But they piter contemplated the doings of gods and of think they may at least go so far as to men, is visible from every point in the plain, provide for their security in the North and Posseidon," who made the earth to tremSea and the Baltic, and to have in readi-'ble," could not indeed have found a more splen

TROY.-Marshal von Moltke, during his

scribes this visit in his recently published book:

I directed my footsteps (he says) towards a spot to which are attached the oldest of historical souvenirs, but where time has probably blotted out all traces of man's handiwork, towards Ilion. Strange to say, one still has pointed out to one with great appearances of probability the theatre of events which were related centuries ago by a blind poet, and which occurred centuries again before his day. Nature has remained the same.

Here are the two streams where the

flood of the Scamander. The waves still roar

where the battles took place, the windings of
the Simois, the tombs of Achilles and of Ajax,
the position occupied by the fleet near the sandy
shore, Mount Ida and the verdant Samothrace.
Nor is this all; along these heights I discovered
foundations of walls cutting each other at right
angles, and built of stones of various kinds
without cement. I will not argue that these are
the walls of the houses of Troy, but it is well
known that temples have been raised and towns
christened in memory of that city. It may be
that some such monument has sprung from the
ruins of ancient Troy, and that they have fur-

did seat than "the loftiest point of verdant Sa- ! the source of the Scamander and the plains
mothrace, from the height of which he witnessed
the strife and its issue." In the "Iliad" it is
necessary to make a distinction between the
truth of the events which occurred and that of
the poem itself. That all the princes of whom
Homer speaks combated beneath the walls of
Pergamos may be as doubtful as the genealogy
of his demi-gods; but one thing is certain
Homer made his story fit in with the locality
which he must have known most thoroughly.
The site of the city is determined by the fact
that the Scamander's source was just beneath
it, and that the waters of the Simois washed its
walls. When it is necessary to fix it more ex-nished the numerous capitals and sculptured
actly, the opinions of the savants vary consid-
erably; I, who am not an authority in science,
was merely guided by military instinct towards
the spot which one would choose for the erection
of an impregnable fort. If, after leaving the
Turkish fortress of Rumkalih, at the southern
issue of the Dardanelles, you sail up the Simois
for three hours, you will find that the plain
leads to a chain of hills at the foot of which is
situated the village of Bunarbaschi. It received
its present name from the source of the Sca-
mander which here springs from out of the
chalkstone. Let us now ascend the slight in-
cline, and we shall reach the spot where most
travellers place Troy. Farther on about a
thousand yards off there is a deep gorge, and
beyond a still higher plateau about five hundred
feet long, which is undoubtedly the position of
Pergama. A small mound is held to be the
tomb of Hector. And now, starting from this
supposed tomb, take eight hundred steps for-
ward in the same direction towards the mass of
stones which is perhaps the fallen tower of the
Scaan gate, whence Priam watched the combat-
ants and whence the son of Andromache started
back in terror before the plumed helmet of his
sire. You then see before you a piece of ground
about five hundred feet each way, and behind
you some heights which served for the citadel of
Priam, with its six hundred apartments. These
heights are bounded on three sides by inaccessi-
ble cliffs; the fourth side is practicable, and it is
there that must have been situate the Scaan
gate the only one, indeed, that is mentioned
as existing. From thence the view embraces |

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columns which cover the whole cemetery of the
wretched village of Bunarbaschi. Among the
most remarkable objects in this very interesting
country are the tombs; that of Achilles is espe-
cially easy of recognition by the description
given of it in Homer. It was " upon a point
of the Hellespont coast, so that it might be seen
from afar upon the sea by all men who lived at
that epoch and in the ages yet to come." Be-
tween the tomb of Achilles and Cape Rhotium
rises another, which is said to be that of Ajax.
This elevated mound has also been opened. Part
of it has slipped away, and leaves exposed to
view a large square chamber with solid walls,
and about ten feet in length. In one corner of
this is a vault about four feet high, along which
one can creep upon one's hands and feet for
about twelve feet; the cement of this masonry
work is mixed with a greenish sort of gravel;
it is very hard and appears very ancient.
But
it shows that the vault does not reach back to
the time of Homer, for at that period the dead
were "laid in the depths of a grave that was
afterwards covered over with enormous stones
one upon the other." It is very probable that
in later days some Sovereign may have desired
to attach his memory to the imperishable name
of Troy, and have had his grave dug in the ver-
itable tumulus of the son of Telamon. But he
has had no Homer to confer on him the baptism
of immortality; the remembrance of him has
passed away, and curiosity has found in this
venerable monument nothing save that which
vanity had deposed therein.

Pall Mall Gazette.

END OF VOL. CXIII.

1

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