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LAMPETER.

(From the Welsh.)

Lampeter is notable in Welsh history, ancient and modern. It lies on the banks of the beautiful Teivy, which flows into the Cardigan Bay, which give its name to the town of Aberteifi (Cardigan). Lampeter is situated in the valley which is surrounded by hills and magnificent woods. It is, in fact, a more important town than the county seat, Cardigan. The parish consists of 4,000 acres of land. Although it is but a comparatively small town, the population being only 1,700, it holds a high place in the educational history of the Principality. On the hills about the town are th. remains of old druidic times of yore, che era of cromlechs and dolmens,such as are to be seen at Amesbury, Carnac and Stoneh In the old open air"in t ace of the sun and the eve of light." In ages past, the men of Lampeter were notable as warriors. The old Roman road passed along the bank of the river westward. In Norman times also this town had two castles.

Wels!

The town is nam

Peter "Lian," meaning a church and "Pedr" Peter. Pont Stephan was added to the original name, the bridge having been built by a man of an extensive name, viz., Ieuan Dafydd Llwyd ap Dafydd Ddu ap Dafydd Deck ap Stephan. The

ginal bridge was built in the fourteenth century.

In the time of the Crusades, Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Giraldus Cambrensis, visited the place in 1188, when on a preaching tour through Wales to enlist soldiers for the crusading army. Some of the great men of South Wales accompanied them, among whom were Rhys ap Gruffyth, Prince of the South; Rhys Dafydd Thomas and Siencyn Dafydd Llwyd, lords of Lampeter.

One of the castles of Lampeter was called "Castell Stephan;" the other "Castell Byged;" Castell Stephan was a stronghold of some renown in the fifteenth century. In 1405, it was taken by Owen Glyndwr. After the defeat of the V. elsh at the disastrous battle of Mynydd Pwll Melyn, the cast. by Harry, afterwa

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For drowning in fair Teivy's flood
The flower of Landovery's blood.

Consequent upon the utterance of this curse, Maes y Felin fell into utter ruin. It is supposed that young Prichard fell into the Teivy accidentally.

The parish church stands near the town, a little higher than the original church which was built early in the 6th century. There are

in the graveyard three ancient yew trees. There was also another church in old times, which was called St. Thomas, and which stood behind the Castle Hotel. Here were found lead coffins, and it is probable that a great number of Lampeter parishioners of former ages rest around and within it, until the great awakening day When all shall leave their beds of clay.

HOW THINGS WERE CREATED.

XI.

By Theologus.

records of geology. Their method of thought was methaphysical, productive of theories which were or

Until within a hundred years ago, geology was a closed book; rather it had been opened by a few advanced thinkers, but its contents were almost undecipherable. Not only it was almost a closed book, but almost incomprehensible. A few thinkers from the time of Bacon, or earlier, had seen and realized the great importance of geological records; yet such was the ascendancy of the old cosmological ideas supported by the first chapters of Genesis, that any other theory of the formation of this earth was little less than madness. Cosmogony or cosmology had been a system of fancies, put together by the power of imagination, since it could not have been formed from observation and experience. Ancient thinkers philosophers knew little or nothing. of the contents of this earth; they knew even little or nothing of things more accessible to them than the

or

a

mere system of conjectures; and they had no idea of the necessity for practical observation and research. To them conjecture was far more valuable than analysis. To discover the method of formation of any thing, that thing must be analyzed-reduced to its component elements. The anatomy of this earth could not have been studied except by our present geological method.

It is an interesting and suggestive fact that creation and everything created has a biography-all science is biographical. Geology is the story of the origin and evolution of this earth. This story is written on and within the earth itself.

Some Italian observers had discovered the great fact that there is a history of the earth; and although they had not sufficient knowledge of

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everything that exists." How these few words show and illustrate the birth of scientific thought-dis-satisfaction with the old methods, and a passionate, impatient and somewhat fretful longing after substantial and reliable results. There comes a time when the playthings and the fancies of the child no longer satisfy his opened mind, a time. when he needs new views of things around him, and thoughts more in harmony with his manhood.

Leibnitz and Buffon although belonging to the old school of thought, had faint ideas of the great truths that were about to dawn on the coming age. Buffon in 1749 believed that the earth had a history, although his theory was loaded with

wild and fantastic notions. The presence of fossil shells in the earth prompted thinkers on a new road, although for a time foolish ideas were adopted in order to account for them. Burnett even held that the ocean had been within the earth, and that it broke through at the time of the Flood, which, he thought, accounted for fossil shells. implanted in rocks. Theologians believed that the devil had placed them there to deceive and mislead geologists! Buffon in his "Epochs of Nature," gives a comprehensive description of the evolution of the earth, forestalling some of the great truths of modern geology. His. generalities were so new and therefore offensive that the theological doctors of the Sorbonne in France compelled him to retract statements which are now accepted by all.

A great change was wrought in views regarding the formation of the earth from the time of Leibnitz to that of Darwin. The old cosmogonist became geognost, who gradually became geologist. These different steps were taken in the face of much opposition. Quettard was the first geologist and one of the founders of palaeontological geology. Geology before his time was largely cosmology and geognosy, being studied by a few in loneliness and fear. The word "geology" was first used by De Luc in 1778, but he did not venture to adopt the word because it might arouse opposition. It very soon, however, appeared in books on geology, and with it came a new light on the formation of the earth, and more rational views of its process of creation. Desmarest, Saussure, Werner, De Luc, Hutton, and others labored with great success in geological fields until the general ideas of modern geology were established, and the old cosmogonists and geognosts were utterly silenced, and the old pagan views were swept away. Geological facts were so multiplied, discriminated and arranged that the adoption of more rational views could not be evaded.

James Hutton (1726-1797) probably did more than all the other geologists of his time to establish 'the general truths of the science as they are known and believed today. By him it was first intelligently established that the greater part of the land "consisted of compacted sediment worn away from some pre

existing continents and spread out in strata over the bed of the sea; and that our present valleys were washed away gradually by the streams flowing through them, which is also now in process of operation. All this series of rocks has been successively laid one upon the other during the countless ages of the past, all having placed on primary rocks of igneous origin, believed by some geologists to have been chemical precipitates. Others followed Hutton who helped to elucidate and strengthen his views until Charles Lyell in his "Principles of Geology" reduced all the facts discovered and collected into a complete system which had a profound influence on geology. He was the great prophet of geology, for he was the first to interpret the great lessons found in the book of the rocks. As Ramsay said, "We have collected the data, and Lyell teaches us to comprehend their meaning." Darwin himself took part in geological discussions, and in his "Origin of Species" he advanced views which created a great revolution in geological thought. Before his time, no one had dreamed how enormous must have been the periods required for the deposition of the continuous groups of strata. He furnished also criteria of computation by which the tremendous age of the earth might be guessed. He not only taught the theory of evolution which bears his name, but also expanded the human mind into new, vast, even endless fields of thought.

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