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Chapter II.

By Rev. D. Phillips, M. A.

The news spread; the subject expanded; the Quadrimillennial Eisteddfod of the Cymric Nations became household words. In other countries and among nations it attracted attention and inspired patriotism. All must have a similar Congress in the same spirit and with the same purpose. The Cymry and the descendants of the Cymry everywhere it thrilled with delight and aroused to action. Their presence, their means and their energies shall make it a success; while the Cymry in Wales it fired with unbounded enthusiasm and ceaseless activities. Their mind is all aglow with the subject. Their time, means and energies are freely given and generously utilized make it a success. By the summer of the third year all the preparations were completed and ready to be dedicated. An open temple in the form of an amphitheatre had been constructed on the side of a hill in the midst of the forest, where trees were tall and straight. By removing most of the trees from the centre of the enclosure, and preserving the tallest and straightest, they had stretched around and across the whole area ropes or cables, over which they had thrown canvas impervious to heat and wet to protect them from the sun and the rain. This canvas which covered the whole area and formed the canopy of the temple,


was so arranged and so fastened to the trees as to shed the rain with the utmost ease, and afford ventilation for the vast assembly. At onethird the distance from the lowest part of the hill, embraced within the enclosure, stood the platform of the speakers, musicians and dignitaries of the Eisteddfod, within sight and hearing of the whole assembly, who sat on circular seats all around the entire space, tier upon tier, which were capable of seating one hundred thousand people with room. Outside the enclosure were spacious walks, through the woods, across the fields and along the adjacent lake and springs of water, while a grand campus for athletic sports was reserved and furnished for the exercise and development of the physical man during the recesses of the Eisteddfod.

With the early summer of the third year, the time appointed for the commencement of the Eisteddfod, the ports of the Principality and of England were thronged with visitors from all parts of the world and from all periods of time. They were from the continent of Europe, from the continent of Asia, from the continent of Africa, from the continent of America, and from the isles of the sea; and they were from the centuries prior to the Christian era, and from the centuries since the Christian era began. Prominent among them were representatives of

the Cymry and of the descendants of the Cymry in Wales, in England, in Scotland, in Ireland, in Canada, in the United States, in South America, in Patagonia, in Australia, in Denmark, in Belgium, in France, in Brittany, in Spain, in Italy, along the along the Rhine and the Danube, along the slopes of the Pyrenees, on both sides of the Alps, along the shores and both sides of the Black Sea, and as far east as the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris.

defeated and slew Ptolemy Ceraunus, king of Macedonia, appeared before the pass of Thermopylae, and thence marched to despoil the temple of Delphi, B. C. 280; Divitiacus, who was the wealthiest of his countrymen, and who held dominion both in Gaul and in Britain in the last century before Christ; Cassivellaunus, the commander-in-chief of the confederate Britons in their attempt to prevent the landing of Caesar in B. C. 55 and B. C. 54; Caractacus, king of the Silures, and commanderin-chief of the British forces, who held at bay the aggression of the Roman army for nine years, and who betrayed into the hands of Ostorious Scapula, and led to Rome to adorn his triumph, proved his bravery and immortalized his name by his manly speech before Claudius Caesar in A. D. 51; Boadicea, the famous and heroic queen of the Iceni, who punished the temerity and withstood the arms of Suetonus in A. D. 61; Calgacus, who fought Agricola in the northern part of the island in A. D. 84; Arthur, the famous king and warrior, who became a subject of Romance, and who fought his battles and won his victories in the sixth century before Christ; Aneurin, Taliesin, Myrddyn or Merlin, and Llywarch Hen, who sat side by side, and who were among the chief poets of the sixth and seventh centuries, whose productions have

By the time the Eisteddfod was to commence, the vast auditorium was thronged with representatives of the Cymry and of the descendants of the Cymry in all countries and in all centuries, who were seated in sections according to their countries and their centuries, with their most distinguished and honorable, their men of learning, their men of state, their men of authority, and their renown on the platform. Among these we discover Gomer, the illustrious son of Japheth and great progenitor of the Cymry; Brennus, or king and commander-in-chief of Kimmerioi, who dwelt north, west and south of the Black Sea, and of whom Homer sang more than a thousand years before Christ; Lydamis, commander-in-chief of the same people, who attacked and pillaged western Asia in the seventh century before Christ; Brennus, who at the head of seventy thousand men of war captured Rome and burnt it to ashes, save the capitol, B. C. 391; Brennus, another Cymric king, who at the head of an army of 150,000 foot, and 60,000 horse,

come down to us in modified forms to meet the changes and progress of the language.

Howel Dda, or Howell the Good, who was both king and law-giver,

and who blessed the eighth century with his reign and his laws; Gruffyth ab Cynan, Prince of North Wales, and Rhys Rhys ab Tewdwr, Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales, who sat together, who had greatly encouraged the poetic element of the country, and the former of the two had held the great Eisteddfod at Caerwys in A. D. 1100; Meillyr, Gwalchmai, Einion, Llywarch ab Llewelyn, Owen Gyfeiliog, whose Hirlas became popular even among other nations; Dafydd ab Gwilym and Iolo Goch, friend and bard of Owen Glyndwr, who sat on the same seat, and who had enlightened and enlivened the 12th, 13th and 14th century with their poetry and song: Caradoc, monk of Llancarfan, who wrote the history of his native country from the death of Cadwalader in A. D. 689 to A. D. 1200; Geoffrey of Monmouth, Bishop of St. Asaph, who wrote among other works, a legendary history of Britain, or, as he claimed, a translation of it from the Fall of Troy to the death of Cadwalader in A. D. 689: Asser, who spent many years in the court of Alfred the Great as his teacher and advisor, and who wrote his history in the 9th century; Gildas, who wrote the history of Britain from the departure of the Romans from the island to his own time in A. D. 516-670; Nennius, who wrote the history of Britain in brief in the 9th century; Rhys ap Tewdwr, who was the last Prince to unite the whole of South Wales in the 11th century; Llewelyn ab Gruffyth, the last Prince of Wales, who nobly defended his kingdom against Ed

ward I. till December A. D. 1282, when he was betrayed near Builth.

Owen Glyndwr, or Owen Glendower, descendant of Llewelyn the Great, the last Prince of Wales, who made such mighty efforts to regain the independence of the Principality in the 14th century; Owen Tudor, who married the widow of Henry V., and who became by this marriage the grandfather of Henry VII., and the founder of the Tudor Dynasty, which continued to reign from A. D. 1485 to A. D. 1603; Henry VIII., who was a son of Henry VII., and who gave Wales the same rights and privileges with England save its independence; James and Mary and Elizabeth, sovereigns of England, who were son and daughters of Henry VIII.: also Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII. and Queen of James IV. of Scotland; and other sovereigns of the same blood on the throne of Great Britain; Oliver Cromwell, whose ancestors were on his mother side from Margaret Tudor and queen of James IV. of Scotland, and on his father side. from Williams, near Cardiff, Glamorganshire, South Wales, who married a Cromwell, a relative of the great Prime Minister, and changed his name for the sake of emolument. into Cromwell; Walter Map, the remarkable Welshman, whose genius decisively colors the intellectual history of the last forty years of the 12th century; William Salesbury, who printed the first books in the Welsh language, which are an Almanac, with a translation of the Lord's Prayer and the ten command

ment in A. D. 1546, the first dictionary of English and Welsh in 1547, and the greater part of the first translation of the New Testament into his mother's tongue in 1567.

Dr. William Morgan, whose translation of the whole Bible into Welsh appeared in 1588; Dr. Parry, who was the successor of Dr. Morgan in the bishopric of St. Asaph, and who revised Dr. Morgan's translation of the whole Bible into Welsh in A. D. 1620, which is the translation still in use among the Welsh nations everywhere; Dr. Griffith Roberts, who published a Welsh grammar at Milan in A. D. 1567: Thomas Jones of Tregaron, who was the compiler or author of the historical Triads; Rev. Rees Prichard, who wrote "Canwyll y Cymry," and who was an eloquent preacher at Llandovery; Ellis Wynne, the author of "Bardd Cwsg" or the "Sleeping Bard;" Owen Jones, Owen Pughe and Edward Williams, who were the authors and publishers of the "Myfyrian Archaeology;" Rev. Edward Davies, the author of the "Celtic Researches;" Rev. Thomas Price, the author of the "History of Wales and the Welsh Nation;" Rev. Thomas Stephens, the celebrated author of "Welsh Literature;"" Inigo Jones, the great English architect of the 16th century; Sir William Jones, the learned student and teacher of oriental literature; Owen Jones, the great British architect of the 10th century; Dr. Prichard, the celebrated physician and etymologist,

who published among other books, the "Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations;" Dr. Jenkins, the author of the famous work on the atonement, and once the President of Homerton College: Williams, the devoted missionary and martyr of Eromanga; Dean Stanley, of Westminster Abbey, who claimed that his mother was Welsh; Henry M. Stanley, the celebrated African traveller, explorer and writer, who was born on Welsh soil and of Welsh parents; Kilsby Jones, the famous antiquarian and compendium of knowledge; Thomas Charles, the author of the great and valuable Bible Dictionary, which bears his name, and one of the founders of British and Foreign Bible Society; Rev. John Elias, Rev. William Williams, of Wern, and Rev. Christmas Evans, three stars of the first magnitude in the firmament of the Welsh pulpit, sat together, with hundreds of others of equal eloquence and efficiency all around them; the Rev. Henry Rees and Rev. William Rees of Liverpool, Dr. John Thomas of Liverpool, and Dr. Thomas Rees of Swansea, who wrote conjointly the learned and authoritative work on "Nonconformity in Wales;" Rev. David Rees, editor of the "Reformer," and preacher of great power and influence and scores and hundreds of laymen, bards, barristers, physicians and preachers of efficiency and fame, whom we have no time to enumerate, making a fine and conspicuous appearance on the platform, of whom the Principality might be proud.


By Mary Denby.

In North Wales, on the long, straight road which leads from the small town of Mold to the hills which overlook the Vale of Clwyd, stands a tiny house. Built just where the steep ascent to Moel Vammau begins, it has a nice piece of ground in front of it and a beautiful orchard behind.

At the door of this little home, on a glowing day in the late summer, stood a young woman. She was leaning idly against the door-post. The porch was heavily draped with creepers, which dropped their long branches about her graceful figure, and two or three ruddy petals had fluttered down from an overblown climbing rose, and lay lightly on her shining hair. There were no passers-by; there never are any on that lonely road, save when, on market-days, the few farmers who live in the scattered homesteads on the hill-sides, take their pigs and butter and cheese to town, or when some travelling tourist or gay picnic party comes to scale the mountain. thick, white dust lay undisturbed on the glaring road, and dulled the green of the wayside grass and the scarlet and yellow of the poppies and snap-dragons, which were the only wild flowers conspicuous in the hedge-rows. Half a mile further up the hill a fresh breeze was blowing; but at the cottage the air was perfectly still, so that as the girl


stood in the porch she could hear the ripple of the stream as it ran past the Loggerheads ever so far away. Many fishermen came to the Loggerheads to stay, for the merry little river was full of trout. She could hear, also, the hum of many insects, and occasionally the distant barking of a sheep-dog and the voice of his master shouting to him.

The light, white smoke from the lime-kilns on the lower hills went straight up into the blue sky; a quivering haze rose from the little lawn in front of the cottage. There was a border of flowers round this lawn, sun-flowers and holly-hocks and roses of every sort and shade— yellow, white and red, and the dear, old-fashioned parti-colored York and Lancaster. There were snapdragons, too, and larkspur and the poisonous monkshood and brilliant scarlet lychnis. Nasturtiums ran in wild confusion over the hedge and interfered with the proper closing of the little gate, and there were sweet peas everywhere, beginning now to show their long pods among the many-tinted, fragrant blossoms. Both doors of the house stood open, and through the low portals and narrow passage you might catch a glimpse of the green orchard beyond, with the bronze-colored pears and rosy apples already ripening on the trees. A few small white and blue and yellow butterflies flitted

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