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the best and most suitable of the tunes for his purpose. But most of the compilers and "composers" of these Sunday School, prayer-meeting convention and "revival" books. are in the business for money. In that they have succeeded, and also, in deteriorating musical taste to an alarming extent.

Last November 22, the Atlantic cable carried over from Berlin to our American papers the following

message:

"Because two-thirds of Germany's 150,000 music teachers are alleged to be incompetent, the reichstag during its approaching session will be asked to pass a law compelling music teachers to undergo a state examination. The movement is indorsed by the National Federation of Vocal and Instrumental Instructors, which asserts that Germany's high reputation among the world's schools of music is in danger through bad systems of training employed by numerous individuals and so-called 'conservatories.' Leonard Liebeling, Berlin critic of the American Musical Courier, says:

"Yankee students have the liveliest interest in the proposed legislation, because, being the most numerous body of foreign pupils, they are obliged to pay the most fancy prices for education. In Berlin alone they spend 3,000,000 marks ($714.000) a year for lessons. Some of the instruction received is little less than criminal. A large per centage of the teachers not only fail to teach

anything, but they also spoil the talent of their pupils.

"A typical case is just now agitating the American student colony. Two young Chicago women went to a well-known professor of singing, who told them to exercise their throats three or four times a day with miniature steel shafts in order to produce the desired tone and quality of voice. The doctors now find that the pupils' vocal chords are severed and bleeding, and that all chance of their ever becoming singers is gone."

The above Leonard Liebling is a brother to the eminent Chicago pianist, Dr. Emil Liebling. There is great need of the same legislation. in America, in the large as well as small cities.

Miss Gertrude May Stein is the most dramatic mezzo-soprano, and one of the truest singers we have as yet heard with the Thomas Orchestra. Even the players dropped their instruments at the close of her two selections, in order to cheer her again and again. She possesses a voice trained sanely, having none of the ruinous vibrato, but excelling in purity of tone, perfect control, and with sufficient feeling to make Berlioz's recitative and aria from "The Trojans," and the recitative and aria from Tschaikowsky's "Joan of Arc" such song-readings as to be remembered with pleasure for years. It is a great lesson to hear a superb interpretation of a songpoem. Miss Stein "sings," whatever that is.

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This Essay was awarded half the prize and honors at the National Eisteddfod held at Pontypridd in 1893, and it was published by special request. Prior to this, the Welsh had hardly anything published dealing with the theory of Evolution; therefore some advocates of the advancement of scientific learning cordially advised the author to publish this first attempt at a Welsh version of Evolution. At first it created considerable commotion by reason of its novel views regarding theology. The Essay had been more serviceable and less offensive had it been more strictly scientific and less controversial. However, this Essay in book-form contains much material for serious thought, and cannot fail to suggest more liberal views of Goa s ways. Our people need a wider and profounder knowledge of science.

GOSSIPING GUIDE TO WALES, North Wales with Aberystwyth, Part I. and II., with Thirty-Four Maps and Plans, &c., and Photographic Illustrations: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., Stationers' Hall Court, London. Henry Blackwell, New York. Woodall, Minshall, Thomas & Co., Oswestry and Wrexham. Whole Edition (Two Volumes) 3s. 6d.

The present edition of the Gossiping Guide has been thoroughly revised, and much of it re-written, and much fresh information added. A glance at its contents will show that its materials

are practical, convenient and complete. Particular care also has been taken so to arrange the information as to enable the reader to discover all he wishes to know. A full and classified Index is added.

Vol. I. contains On and Off the Cambrian-Shrewsbury to Welshpool with excursions to the Vyrnwy-Welshpool to Brecon-Aberystwyth, Dinas Mawddwy-Aberystwyth to Devils' Bridge, Towyn, with excursions to TalyllynDolgelley, Barmouth, Harlech, Criccieth, Portmadoc, Pwllheli, Nevin, Cwm Bychan, Bardsey. The Festiniog Railway: From the Dee by Sea by Great Western-Chester, Wrexham, Ruabon, Llangollen, Bala, Corwen, Bettws-y-Coed, &c., &c.

Vol. II. or Part II.-With the Wild Irishman-Chester to Rhyl, Rhuthin, Denbigh, Llandudno, Pensarn, Colwyn Bay, Bettws-y-Coed, Dolwyddelen, excursions to Capel Curig, Bangor, Penmaenmawr, &c., &c., to which are added Botanical Ramblers in Snowdonia, a Botanical Ramble over the Great Orme; Remains of the Great ice Age in North Wales, and a valuable amount of information about Wales, its history, &c. The two volumes are about the most interesting and entertaining book a Welshman or an Englishman who visits Wales can possess. They contain innumerable facts.

In the December "Cronicl," the Welsh Congregational monthly, Eynon under the caption "Why?" discusses the question of the paucity of candidates for holy orders in the Church of England. One reason he gives is that the Church has ignored Welsh worthies through

the ages. Some of the best men Wales ever had have been neglected and even persecuted by the Church, and its best livings bestowed on aliens and apostates. Eynon also suggests that the Church is in a worse state of division and dissension than the Dissenters, since it has high, low, broad and all manner of creeds and religious practices within its walls. They are merely kept together by the state and social advantages involved. He quotes Canon Barnett as saying that the lack of candidates for holy orders is caused by the spirit of worldliness. Commercialism over-rides everything.

The Editor of "Cymru'r Plant" promises other tales for the coming year by Winnie Parry. Sigma will furnish philosophical short essays for the children; and brief articles descriptive of the great powers of Europe will be written especially for "Cymru'r Plant." "Cymru'r Plant" will also contain stories of Wales, prepared to interest and enlighten the young ones. A better monthly could not be placed in the hands of the children of Wales.

The contents of the "Cerddor" for December: "Musical Expression" by D. Jenkins, Mus. Bac.; "Old Lyrics," by D. E. Evans; "My Recollections," by W. Ivander Griffiths; Reviews, Reports of Eisteddfodau, Concerts, Musical Conferences, &c.

In

No. 66 in the Musicians Gallery is R. Lloyd Jones (Llwydmor). He is a native of Llanllechid, a musical neighborhood, born November 19, 1853. 1895 he was made a fellow of the Tonic member of the Solfa College, and a Council, and in 1898 an examiner in technical instruction by the County Council of Glamorgan. In his paper on "Welsh Lyrics," D. E. E. thinks that Talhaiarn, Ceiriog, Mynyddog, Elfed and Dyfed have produced as fine lyrics as any we possess in Welsh; but the old songs although deficient in art, have some elements which are lacking

in those of our times. They have more of the impress of nature; there is mcre of the music and aroma of the field in them. Poets now sing what they have learned; the old sang what they felt.

The contents of the "Ymofynydd" for December are interesting. "The ev. Thomas Emlyn Thomas" by D. Thomas (Dewi Hefin); "Faith in Christ; " "The Crow's Nest;" "The Gains of the Century;" "Events of the Month;" The Editor's Column. Under the Crow's Nest, the Crow reviews the Rev. Cynddylan Jones's latest sermons just published. Credit is given to Cynddylan's theological genius, his fascinating style, his power of persuasion, but the Crow rises from their perusal as if from a dream; for he says that the theological teaching is as unsubstantial as a dream, from the standpoint of the "Ymofynydd." Cynddylan holds that unbelief or scepticism is the greatest sin, the sin of sins; the Crow takes the opposite view, and supports it with some very interesting instances.. Unbelief ΟΙ scepticism may be a mysterious form of faith. A story is told in this discussion of the Rev. A. J. Harrison, D. D., who was a Church of England "Missioner to Doubters" how intimately acquainted he was with Charles Bradlaugh, the infidel.. Of Bradlaugh, Mr. Harrison said that he had an immense faith, and that he was an unconscious worker for Christ, and that he expected to see him saved. Other anecdotes are also related to support the Crow s opinion that doubt is not so radically bad and ruinous as Cynddylan's remarks would lead one to think. Belief is the chief support of superstition as of orthodoxy; but it must be evident to every careful thinker, and history shows the fact, viz., that there is an element of doubt at the root of progress. Orthodoxy is a stumbling block to advancement. There is a kind of scepticism that serves progress and civilization. There is a withering belief as well as a progressive doubt, and

there is great truth in the response of Theodore Parker, who said of a certain sceptic, "that although he denied God, yet he lived His law." There are passages in the Bible which seem to regard unbelief with graciousness when it is accompanied by love of justice and mercy. The good Samaritan was despised by the orthodox Jew, yet our Lord honors him for his merciful act.

In the "Dysgedydd" for December, after the usual department devoted to religious and theological subjects, the Editor in his "Monthly Notes" pays his respects in a spirited manner to Richard Croker, of New York, and his army of corrupting politicians, known as Tammany. The Editor gives a fairly correct description of that notorious political society, which has done much to degrade the administration and the morals of New York City. Then he proceeds to discuss an incident which has aroused the indignation of the Welsh people throughout South Wales. On the occasion of a meeting held at Barry, the Rev. J .E. Flower, Secretary of the London Congregational Aid Society made a most serious charge against the morality of Welsh churches. He said that he could take his audience to churches among the Welsh wherein there was no discipline of any kind, their pastors even frequenting clubs and saloons with the reputation of tipplers and drunkards. When closely questioned for specific information, Flower admitted that he knew of only two ministers of the kind, and those two belonged to another, a denomination he did not wish to mention. This reminds us of the proverbial mouse and mountain fable. A mountain had a great inward commotion which threatened an awful eruption, but presently a mouse appeared!

Mr.

"Y Drysorfa" for December has a few papers and articles of much interest to the general reader. The number opens with a sermon on the text, Heb. xii. 23,

39

by the Rev. Wililam Powell, Pembroke; then follow "Some Historical Crumbs," wherein is narrated the following interview with an aged man who had seen and heard that thundering Welsh preacher of more than a hundred years ago, Howell Harris, of Trevecca. It is related of the Rev. Owen Thomas, D. D., when young that he, accompanied by a Rev. John Herbert, visited an old timer living in one of the valleys of Montgomeryshire, who had heard that fiery man of God, that Boanerges. After they had entered the bed-room where the aged pilgrim was, Dr. Thomas asked him if he had ever heard Howell Harris preach, to which he replied quietly that he had. "What kind of a preacher was he?" inquired Dr. Thomas. "Preacher? What kind of a preacher? in truth!" responded the old man excitedly. "You never heard the like of him in your life. Howell Harris preached what he had himself felt and seen, until people fainted away under his sermon. He preached as if he had heard the Great Judge pronounce the eternal sentence on all sinners! He preached of hell, as if he had been there and heard the groans of the lost; and of heaven until the people could fancy they heard the joy and hallelujah of the blest. Wonderful preacher! Powerful preacher!" he kept repeating in admiration. The interview took place 70 years after the death of Howell Harris. Other stories of the great old preachers are related, which are truly fascinating. The other papers are "Islwyn's Storm," by Dyfed; "Ruskin and Social Reform;" "The Prayer Meeting;" "The Forward Movement;" Sunday School Lessons; The Cardiff Association; Reviews, &c.

There is certainly now-a-days a need for a scientific study of the Welsh language. In "Ruskin and Social Reform," the writer makes use of the word "Economwyr." There are words in Welsh which are far more comprehensible.

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"Trysorfa y Plant" gives its readers a portrait and a brief but substantial sketch of the life and career of the Rev. John Roberts, Taihen. He is the son of the late W. Roberts, a venerable deacon of the Calvinistic connection in Anglesey. His father's home used to be a meeting place for preachers when John was a child, and afterwards an observing youth, and it is supposed that the society of these made a deep impression on his tender mind. soon evinced a desire for preaching, anu was eventually sent to a preparatory school kept by Dr. Hughes at Llanerchymedd, whence he went to Bala, where he studied for three years. His first charge was Abermaw, whence he had a call to minister to the churches at Cemaes, Moriah and Rhosbeirio, where he has remained for the last 46 has Of late, he years. confined his labors to the small church at Rhosbeirio by reason of his advanced age. Mr. Roberts has not traveled extensively through Wales, nevertheless he is held in high esteem by the connexion in the Principality. His address at the Association meeting at Amlwch gave complete satisfaction to the audience, and its inspiring influence upon all will be long remembered. His pulpit eloquence is not of the sensational class, but it rather flows like a deep river blessing the land through which it

traverses.

His wife is the daughter of the late Thomas Jones, Plas Bodewryd, of Rhosbeirio. Mr. Roberts's face betokens a man of weight and deliberation.

In the "Haul" for November we find that candidates for holy orders in the Church of England are becoming The "Haul" is scarcer every year.

ignorant of the cause of this falling off. It may be that the prospect for salary is uninviting. That is certainly a worldly reason. It cannot be a Christian reason, when we think of the Master and his Twelve Apostles, all poor, and not even expecting a regular salary or wages. They depended on the labor of their hands, and the kindness and hospitality of followers of Christ. Their salary was the satisfaction they derived from the performance of duty. As soon as religion became an institution, many things conspired to make the performance of simple evangelical work difficult. Preparation for the ministry became expensive; the preacher had to learn Greek and Latin in order to preach the good tidings and the simple truth of love towards God and man. The simple work of doing good and persuading others to go likewise became surrounded with rites and ceremonies by which a guild was formeda fraternity licensed by governments, or religious institutions to perform preaching and endow with special privileges, not to enlighten and improve the world, but to hold it in darkness. With the Reformation, this false idea of serving God and Christ became discredited and simple-minded people touched by the spirit of Christ recurred to the primitive Christian way of untrameled teaching and preaching. Sacerdotalism his since gradually lost its power, and simple instruction has increased in power. One of the reasons for the falling off of candidates for the ministry is the increased light which has shown the mediaeval ways inconsistent with modern views. As soon as will be the ministry of the Church with lifted level modern ideas, SO that educated and self-respecting minds can approve of its views and methods honestly and sincerely, the work will be again clothed with power and performed with success.

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