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Religion in its truest sense, as seen in deeds rather than words, as shown by life rather than creed, is still preg

nant.

Growth is toward a conception of responsibility rather than toward a distinct conception as to a policy. The conception of a Catholic policy and the carrying out of that policy is demanded of the Church, alike because of her apostolic responsibility and because of the need and the demand in the world to-day.

Herbert Hoyle, of Halifax, England, has invented a process by which he makes a fabric that resembles silk to a remarkable degree. The new fabric is made from China grass, which grows in the greatest profusion in India and the Strait settlement.

The land of every country is the common property of all the people of that country because the Creator made it as a voluntary gift to them. In the coal fields of Pennsylvania, there are, under present conditions, for the landlord millions, for the railroad, tens of millions; for the miner a bare subsistence.-Bishop of Meath.

For centuries the Eisteddfod has been the nursery of the literary gift of the people. In the absence of academic honors as an incentive to intellectual effort, the Eisteddfod has served as the people's university, whose prize constituted a popular method of rewarding merit; a rough and ready degree of the people that gave a certain status to talent and learning.

More than ever before in the world's history, men are beginning to see that the way of escape from strife and

slavery leads to the inner realm of being. Individuality can be achieved only as we lay hold of and reveal the real properties of the soul. Only by the apprehension of the governing law of the Universe-that law of love which speaks from within-can anarchy be overcome and true order be established. "The Arena."

When the sacredness of property is talked of, it should be remembered that any such sacredness does not belong in the same degree to landed property. No man made the land. It is the original inheritance of the whole species. Its appropriation is wholly a matter of general expediency. When private property in land is not expedient, it is unjust.-John Stewart Mill.

One defect of reformers in common -extreme intellectual narrowness. This arises from the dwelling of the mental vision too exclusively upon one point. This habit of mind is indeed the origin of all monomania, and curious are the phases it takes in the minds of social reformers; sometimes it is the very madness of impracticability.

Zoologists have held various views as to the origin of sex in animals, but the subject is confessedly speculative. Botany is very much more fortunate in this respect. It is not difficult to understand the evolution of multicellular plants from the unicellular, and we have a great deal of evidence that bears on the origin and differentiation of sex. Much is gained for biology in the understanding that sexual elements have arisen from asexual reproductive cells under the stress of environmental influences; that sexuality is not inherent in life although presented in almost all the higher organisms, and that how

ever complicated the extreme conditions may be, they have arisen through a process of gradual evolution.-"P. M. Science."

There has long been a controversy as to the cause of the autumn leaf's coloration. Some botanists have attributed it to frosts. We are finding that light frosts, not sufficient to kill leaves, greatly facilitate their coloration by causing an increase within them of a normal chemical ferment, which attacks the color compounds or color gcnerators in the cells. We are finding that the oxidation of these color compounds by this ferment causes the various shades of color, especially the purples, oranges, etc. The yellows are normally present in the leaf.-Woods.

An artesian well in Grenelle, France, took ten years of continuous work before water was struck, at a depth of 1,780 feet. At 1,259 feet over 200 feet of the boring rod broke and fell into the well, and it was fifteen months before it was recovered. A flow of 900,000 gallons per day is obtained from it, the bore being 8 inches. At Passy, France, there is another artesian well 1,913 feet in depth, and 271⁄2 inches diameter, which discharges an uninterrupted supply of 5,500,000 gallons per day; it cost $200,000. An artesian well at Butte-aux-Cailles France, is 2,900 feet in depth, and 47 inches diameter. These are all surpassed by an artesian well in Australia, which is 5,000 feet in depth.

A system of wireless telegraphy, the messages of which it is stated cannot be tapped, or received by any instrument other than that for which they are destined, has been invented by a London electrical engineer, Mr. Johnson. Each transmitter in this system has differently tuned reeds, and when it is desired to send a message, the tune of the receiver to receive the same must first of all be ascertained, and the

transmitter must be adjusted accordingly. Each receiver has a different tune, thus rendering it absolutely impossible for messages to be tapped. The Admiralty has examined the system, and are so impressed with its advantages that three battleships are being fitted with it for the purpose of carrying out experiments.

Most American cities own their own water-works and socialism fills our very wash bowls for us. We think it would be too socialistic for cities to own their gas works; but in England where it would also be thought too socialistic for them to own the water-works, they often own the gas, and Manchester and Glasgow furnish it to the people at less than half the price which the people of New York pay to the companies. By the same principle, a writer thinks, not only much of the production and all the transportation, but much of the trade might be conducted by government; and he cites the case of South Australia, where the state has depots for receiving and export, and the farmer may consign his produce to the agricultural department and receive his pay, without any trouble or loss by middlemen.

THE USE OF SCENT.

Each sense may suffer offense and there is no reason why each sense should not be equally defended in this regard. And the use of scent on the pocket-handkerchief, which is where we commonly find it, is calculated to exercise a higher office than merely to please the sense of smell. The handkerchief may easily prove a source of infection, for it is made to be the common receptacle of secretions from the nose and mouth, and the employment C an antiseptic handkerchief is perfectly consistent with the dictates of common bacteriological evidences. The liberal use of scent on the handkerchief is calculated to make it antisep

tic and to destroy the germs in it, owing to the action partly of the spirit of the scent and partly of the essential oils dissolved in the spirit. Before, therefore, we condemn the persons who use scent upon the handkerchief for practicing a foppish or luxurious habit we should remember that they may actually be doing good to their neighbors by checking the distribution of infectious materials.-Sci. American.

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THE SOCIAL SYSTEM.

Mr. Edmond Kelly's best argument in his "Government or Human Evolution" for the advantages of collectivism is that it would be an immense economy of labor, and so bring to men the blessing of ease and leisure. It would do away with the waste which private competition brings us in so many ways; as, for instance, in the case of twenty different grocers' wagons going through the same street, when one might deliver all the goods, as the postman delivers his. It would do away with the work of commercial travelers and salesmen to push their rival wares; and e says 35,000 such have been set free for more productive work by the mere organization of trusts in place of private competitors. It would save the nearly $500,000,000 a year that are said to be spent in that advertising which is not needed to give information to the people, but is merely to enable one manufacturer or dealer to get the start of another, and to force his particular soap or baking-powder into circulation. It would save the countless millions that are spent in building two or more rival railroads where the business could all be done by one. It would, ne thinks, save the vast sums invested in insurance; since his millennial state would provide for widows and children without the need of life insurance and most of the losses by fire would already be equalized by falling upon the public instead of private owners. He says that in the single year of 1897, the premiums

paid to New York companies amounted to $105,727,002; or, in other words, "the whole labor of 157,500 men was lost to the nation through the wasteful necessity of insurance alone."-Henry M. Simmons in "Unity."

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RIGHTHANDEDNESS.

The question why are we ordinarily righthanded is one which possesses an apparent interest for mankind. It was discussed long ago by Dr. Daniel Wilson and others, and it formed the subject of one of the sectional addresses delivered at the recent meeting of the British Association. There seems to be little doubt that the conclusion which scientific men are tending to support at the present day is that our righthandedness is the result of the location of the speech faculty in the left side of the brain. Most of our readers know that each half of the brain governs the opposite side of the body. The left half of the brain is therefore functionally a more active lobe than its right neighbor. The causes or conditions which have brought the left speech centre to the front over the right one, which practically lies dormant, are those which have produced righthandedness. That is to say, given the fact that the left half of the brain covers the right side of the body anything tending to raise that half as regards its duties would naturally confer upon the parts covered by it a greater degree of activity. Our righthandedness in this view of matters is the direct result then of the speech centres being located on the left side of the brain. This explanation is so far satisfactory that it deals with the facts as they stand. It may perhaps be assumed reasonably enough that in lefthanded persons the speech centre of the right side is that which represents the active one, and there is thus a transference of the muscular powers ordinarily possessed by the right arm to the left arm.-Dr. Andrew Wii

son.

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workmen's representatives and agents, in the fact of his complete life, being a professed and practical Christian, a leader of children's meetings, then called Bands of Hope, temperance juvenile societies, a good singer, inclined to public speaking in the interests of religion and morality. When 25 he moved to Cwmbwrla, near Swansea, and became the generai secretary of the Miner's Union, which started him on his successful career. He was eiected salaried agent of the district.

In 1877 he moved to the Rhondda Valley, the great center of the coai region in South Wales, where he rose rapidly in the affection and confidence of his fellowmen by his excellent work in behalf of the miners. It is highly creditable to him that he has retained the confidence of the miners for SO many years, and that he is to-day the miner's president, and a representative of labor in the Parliament of Great Britain. He is the only member for labor in Wales. With the parliamentary extension of the franchise, Mabon was nominated by the colliers in the Rhondda District and enthusiastically elected, in spite of the opposition on the part of mine-owners and others, who placed in nomination the son of a prominent and popular coal-proprietor and employer. He has been re-elected since; and his majority in the last election was the largest of any candidate in Great Britain. He is as popular to-day as ever, and is widely known as king of the Rhondda Valley.

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During his long stewardship in Parliament, largely through him and the English and Scotch labor members, many measures for the benefit of the coal miner have been passed, and the situation of labor in South Wales has been greatly relieved through his influence with the employers and his valuable representation in Parliament. The condition of the miners has been improved immensely during the last 20 years. The hours have been shortened, the surroundings and the inner con

veniences of the coal mines rendered much more comfortable.

We should not overlook the personal character and his national labors on the general lines of civilization. Mabon fills a prominent and national position as a leader and entertainer of the Welsh people in their annual gatherings, called the Eisteddfod. He has been a singer of power and inspiration, is a writer of popular verses, a man of versatility, and above ail a preacher of sweetness and light. These manifold duties he performs with alacrity and pleasure. In his position as Miner's president and representative of labor he is pre-eminently a man of peace, and a persistent advocate of arbitration.

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PRINCIPAL ERNEST H. GRIFFITHS.

Mr. Ernest Howard Griffiths the new Principal of the University of Cardiff, S. W., descends from a Welsh Congregational stock, being the son of the late Rev. Henry Griffiths, for many years principal of the Brecon Theological College, and grandson of the Rev. James Griffiths, who in his day was one of the best known ministers of Congregationalism in West Wales. The new principal of Cardiff was born in Brecon in June, 1851, during his father's tenure of the Brecon principalship, but he was only two years of age when his father left his native country for Liverpool, and since then the connection of the new principal with Wales has been a very intimate one. He received early education at private schools, and at the age of 17 entered Owens College, Manchester, and in the autumn of 1869 proceeded to Cambridge, where he obtained his degree in 1873. In that year he took up his residence permanently in that centre of learning, and soon established a reputation as a most successful private tutor. Some thousands of undergraduates passed through his hands during the years 1873-1901, and he has thus had extensive experience as teacher and organiser, and a close

his

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