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King George IV. proclaimed. Holiday at the ExIs the seventh Sunday before Easter.
St. SeIs the sixth Sunday before Easter, and St. Peter Nolasco, A. D. 1258.
rapion, A. D. 12-40. St. Cyrus and the first Sunday in Lent, which com
John. St. Marcella, A. D. 410. mences on Ash Wednesday.
Maidoc, or Maodhog, alias Aidar, “ The earliest term of Septuagesima otherwise Mogué, Bishop of Ferns, Sunday is the 18th of January, when
A. D. 1632. Easter day falls on the 22d of March ; the latest is the *22d of February, when
St. Peter Nolasco. Easter happens on the 25th of April ”
Butler. Ribadeneira relates, that on the 1st of Shepherd in his « Elucidation of the Aaigust 1216, the virgin Mary with a Book of Common Prayer” satisfactorily beautiful train of holy virgins appeared explains the origin of these days:
to this saint at midnight, and signified * When the words Septuagesima, Ser. it was the divine pleasure that a new agesima, and Quinquagesima were first order should be instituted under the applied to denote these three Sundays, title of Our Blessed Lady of Mercy, for the season of Lent had generally been the redemption of captives, and that extended to a fast of six weeks; that is, king James of Aragon had the same thirty-six days, not reckoning the Sun- vision at the same time, and “this order, days, which were always celebrated as therefore, by divine revelation, festivals. At this time, likewise, the Sun- founded upon the 10th, or as others say, day which we call the first Sunday in upon the 23d of August.” Then St. Ledt, was styled simply Quadragesima, Peter Nolasco begged for its support, or the fortieth, meaning the fortieth day and thereby rendered himself offensive before Easter. Quadragesima was also to the devil. For once taking up his the name given to Lent, and denoted the lodging in private, some of the neighiQuadragesimal, or forty days' fast. When bours told him, that the master of the the three weeks before Quadragesima house, a man evil report, had lately ceased to be considered as weeks after died, and the place had ever since been the Epiphany, and were appointed to be inhabited by is night spirits," wherein observed as a time of preparation for he commended himself to the virgin and Lent, it was perfectly conformable to the other saints, and “instantly his admoniordinary mode of computation to reckon tors vanished away like smoke, leaving backwards, and for the sake of even and an intolerable scent behind them.” These round numbers m count by decades. of course were devils in disguise. Then The authors of this novel institution, and he passed the sea in his cloak, angels the compilers of the new proper offices, sung before him in the habit of his order, would naturally call the first Sunday be- and the virgin visited his monastery: fore Quadragesima, Quinquagesima; the One night he went into the church and second, Sexagesima; and the third, Sep- found the angels singing the service tuagesima. This reason corresponds instead of the monks; and at another with the account that seems to be at pre- time seven stars fell from heaven, and on sent most generally adopted.”
digging the ground “there, they found a There is much difference of opinion as most devout image of our lady under a to whether the fast of Lent lasted an
great bell,”—and so forth. ciently during forty days or forty hours.
FLORAL DIRECTORY. Hartstongue. Asplenium Scolopendium.
Dedicated to St. Marcella.
Then came cold February, sitting
Of hasting prime did make them burgeon round. Spenser. This month has Pisces or the fishes for In short, with whatsoe'er our hearts we hold its zodiacal sign. Numa, who was chosen Are purified, was Februa termed of old; by the Roman people to succeed Ro- Lustrations are from hence, from hence the mulus as their king, and became their
name legislator, placed it the second in the of this our month of February came ; year, as it remains with us, and dedi- in which the priests of Pan processions made ; cated it to Neptune, the lord of waters. Of such as had no dirges when they died ;
In which the tombs were also purified Its name is from the Februa, or Feralia, For our religious fathers did maintain, sacrifices offered to the manes of the Purgations expiated every stain gods at this season. Ovid in his Fasti of guilt and sin; from Greece the custom attests the derivation :
came, In ancient times, purgations had the name
But here adopted by another name; of Februa , various customs prove the same; The Grecians held ihat pure lustrations could The pontiffs from the res and famen crave
Efface an impious deed, or guilt of blood A lock of wool; in former days they gave
Weak men; to think that water can make To wool the naine of Februa.
clean A pliant branch cut from a lofty pine, A bloody crime, or any sinful stain. which round the temples of the priests they
Massey's Orid. twine,
Our Saxon ancestors, according to VerIs Februa called ; which if the priest demand, stegan, “called February Sprout-kele, by A branch of pine is put into his hand; kele meaning the kele-wurt, which we
now call the colewurt, the greatest pot. he remarks that “ if February were not wurt in time long past that our ancestors the precursor of spring, it would be the used, and the broth made therewith was least pleasant season of the year, Novemthereof also called kele;. for before we ber not excepted. The thaws now take borrowed from the French the name of place; and a clammy mixture of moisture potage, and the name of herbe, the one and cold succeeds, which is the most in our owne language was called kele, and disagreeable of wintry sensations.” Yet the other wurt; and as this kele-wurt, so variable is our climate, that the Februor potage-hearbe, was the chiefe winter- ary of 1825 broke in upon the inhabitants wurt for the sustenance of the husband of the metropolis with a day or two of man, so was it the first hearbe that in piercing, cold, and realized a delightful this moneth began to yeeld out whole- description of January sparkled from the some yong sprouts, and consequently same pen. “What can be more delicately gave thereunto the name of Sprout-kele.” beautiful than the spectacle which someThe “ kele” here mentioned, is the well- times salutes the eye at the breakfastknown kale of the cabbage tribe. But room window, occasioned by the hoarthe Saxons likewise called this month frost dew? If a jeweller had come to “ Solmonath," which Dr. Frank Sayers in dress every plant over night, to surprise his “ Disquisitions ” says, is explained an Eastern sultan, he could not produce by Bede "mensis plancentarum," and any thing like the 'pearly drops,' or the rendered by Spelman in an unedited silvery plumage. An ordinary bed of manuscript" pan-cake month," because greens, to those who are not at the in the course of it, cakes were offered by mercy of their own vulgar associations, the pagan Saxons to the sun; and “Sol,” will sometimes look crisp and corrugated or “ soul,” signified "food," or cakes." emerald, powdered with diamonds.”
In “ The Months,” by Mr. Leigh Hunt,
Sunk in the vale, whose concave depth receives
Reply; forth gushes the imprisoned wave.
yet he declares that “her five modern
lives mention little else but wonderful St. Ignatius. St. Pionius, A. D. 250. St. miracles.” According to the same author,
Bridget. St. Kinnia. St. Sigebert II. she flourished in the beginning of the King
sixth century, her body was found in the St. Bridget.
twelfth century, and her head “is now St. Bride, otherwise St. Bridget, con- kept in the church of the Jesuits at Lisfers her name upon the parish of St. bon.” This writer does not favour us Bride's, for to her its church in Fleet- with any of her miracles, but bishop Pastreet is dedicated. Butler says she was trick mentions, ihat wild ducks swimborn in Ulster, built herself a cell ming in the water, or flying in the air, under a large oak, thence called Kill-dara, obeyed her call, came to her hand, let or cell of the oak, was joined by others of her embrace them, and then she let them ber own sex, formed several nunneries, fly away again. He also found in the and became patroness of Ireland. “But,” breviary of Sarum, that when she was sent says Butler, “a full account of her vir- a-milking hy her mother to make, butter, tues has not been transmitted down to us, she gave away an the milk to the poor; together with the veneration of her name;" that when the rest of the maids brought
in their milk she prayed, and the butter call the Purification of the virgin, they multiplied ; that the butter she gave away observe it with great pomp. It stands as she divided into twelve parts, “as if it a holiday in the calendar of the church were for the twelve apostles; and one of England. Naogeorgus thus introduces part she made bigger than any of the the day; or rather Barnaby Googe, in rest, which stood for Christ's portion; his translation of that author's, “ Popish though it is strange," says Patrick," that Kingdom :" she forget to make another inequality by "Then comes the Day wherein the Virgin ordering one portion more of the butter
offred Christ unto to be made bigger than the remaining The Father chiese, as Moyses law ones in honour of St. Peter, the prince of Then numbers great of Tapers large,
commaunded hir to do. the apostles."
both men and women beare BURIAL OF ALLELUIA.
To Church, being halowed there with pomp, In Mr. Fosbroke's “ British Monarch
and dreadful words to heare. ism," the observation of this catholic ce. This done, eche man his Candell tightes remony is noticed as being mentioned in
where chiefest seemeth hee, “Ernulphus's Annals of Rochester Cathe- Whose Taper greatest may be seene dral," and by Selden. From thence it ap
and fortunate to bee ; pears to have taken place just before the Whose Candell burneth cleare and bright, octaves of Easter. Austin says, " that it
a wondrous force and might used to be sung in all churches from Doth in these Candels lie, which
if Easter to Pentecost, but Damasus ordered
at any time they light, it to be performed at certain times, They sure beleve that neyther storme whence it was chanted on Sundays from Nor thunder in the skies be heard,
or tempest dare abide, the octaves of Epiphany to Septuagesima,
nor any Devil's spide, and on the Sundays from the octaves of Nor fearefull sprites that walke by night, Pentecost and Advent. One mode of
nor hurts of frost or haile." burying the Alleluia was this : in the According to “The Posey of Prayers, or sabbath of the Septuagesima at Nones, the Key of Heaven," it is called Candlethe choristers assembled in the great ves- mas, because before mass is said this day, tiary, and there arranged the ceremony. the church blesses her candles for the Having finished the last • Benedicamus,' whole year, and makes a procession with they advanced with crosses, torches, holy hallowed or blessed candles in the hands waters, and incense, carrying a turf (Gle- of the faithful." bam) in the manner of a coffin, passed From catholic service-books, quoted through the choir and went howling to in “ Pagano Papismus," some particulars the cloister, as far as the place of inter- are collected concerning the blessing ment; and then having sprinkled the wa- of the candles. Being at the altar, ter, and censed the place, returned by the the priest says over them several prayers ; same road. According to a story (whe- one of which commences thus: “o Lord ther true or false) in one of the churches Jesu Christ, who enlightenest every one of Paris, a choir boy used to whip a top, that cometh into the world, pour out thy marked with Alleluia, written in golden benediction upon these Candles, and letters, from one end of the choir to the sanctifie them with the light of thy other. In other places Alleluia was bu- grace," &c. Another begins: “Holy ried by a serious service on Septuagesima Lord, Father Almighty, Everlasting God, Sunday.”
who hast created all things of nothing, FLORAL DIRECTORY.
and by the labour of bees caused this Lesser Water Moss. Fontinalis minor. liquor to come to the perfection of a wax
Dedicated to St. Ignatius. candle; we humbly beseech thee, that by
the invocation of thy most holy name, Dedicated to St. Bridget. and by the intercession of the blessed
virgin, ever a virgin, whose festivals are February 2.
this day devoutly celebrated, and by the Holiday at the Public Ofices, except Excise, Stamps, prayers of all thy saints, thou wouldst and Customs.
vouchsafe to bless and sanctifie these canThe Purification. St. Laurence, Arch- dles," &c. Then the priest sprinkles the bishop of Canterbury, A. D. 619 candles thrice with holy water, saying CANDLEMAS DAY.
"Sprinkle me with," &c. and perfumes This being the festival which catholics them thrice with incense. One of the
consecratory prayers begins : “O Lord Mr. Fosbroke shows, from catholic authoJesu Christ, bless this creature of wax tc rities, that light-bearing on Candlemas us thy suppliants; and infuse into it, by day is an old Pagan ceremony; and the virtue of the holy cross, thy heavenly from Du Cange, that it was substituted benediction; that in whatsoever places it by pope Gelasius for the candles, which shall be lighted, or put, the devil may in February the Roman people used to depart, and tremble, and fly away, with carry in the Lupercalia. all his ministers, from those habitations, Pope Innocent, in a sermon on this fesand not presume any more to disturb tival, quoted in “ Pagano Papismus," inthem," &c. There is likewise this bene- quires, Why do we (the catholics) in diction : “I bless thee, O wax, in the this feast carry candles ?” and then he exname of the holy trinity, that thou may’st plains the matter by way of answer. be in every place the ejection of Satan, « Because,” says he, "the gentiles dediand subversion of all his companions, cated the month of February to the infernal &c. During the saying of these prayers, gods, and as, at the beginning of it, Pluto various bowings and crossings are inter- stole Proserpine, and her mother, Ceres, jected; and when the ceremonies of con- sought her in the night with lighted cansecration are over, the chiefest priest dles, so they, at the beginning of this goes to the altar, and he that officiates month, walked about the city with lighted receives a candle from him; afterwards, candles; because the holy fathers could that priest, standing before the altar to not utterly extirpate this custom, they orwards the people, distributes the candles, dained that Christians should carry about first to the priest from whom he received candles in honour of the blessed virgin a candle, then to others in order, all kneel- Mary: and thus," says the pope, what ing (except bishops) and kissing the can- was done before to the honour of Cedle, and also kissing the hand of the res is now done to the honour of the priest who delivers it. When he begins Virgin." io distribute the candles, they sing, “A Polydore Vergil, observing on the pagan light to lighten the gentiles, and the processions and the custom of publicly glory of thy people Israel.” After the carrying about images of the gods candles are distributed, a solemn proces- with relics, says, “Our priests do the sion is made; in which one carries a same thing. We observe all these cerecenser, another a crucifix, and the rest monies, but I know not whether the cusburning candles in their hands.
tom is as good as it is showy; I fear, I The practice is treated of by Butler in fear, I say, that in these things, we rather his notice of the festival under this please the gods of the heathen than Jesus head, “On blessing of Candles and the Christ, for they were desirous that their Procession.” It is to be gathered from worshippers should be magnificent in their him that“St. Bernard says the procession processions, as Sallust says; but Christ was first made by St. Joseph, Simeon, and hates nothing more than this, telling us, Anne, as an example to be followed by When thou prayest, enter into thy closet, all the earth, walking two and two, hold- and when thou hast shut thy door pray to ing in their hands candles, lighted from thy Father. What will then become of fire, first blessed by the priests, and sing- us, if we act contrary to his commanding.” The candle-bearing has reference to ment? Surely, whatever may become of Simeon's declaration in the temple when he us, we do act contrary to it.” took Jesus in his arms, and affirmed that Brand shows, from “ Dunstan's Concord he was a light to lighten the gentiles, and of Monastic Rules," that the monks went in the glory of Israel. This was deemed surplices to the church for candles, which sufficient ground by the Romish church, were to be consecrated, sprinkled with whereon to adopt the torch-bearing of holy water, and censed by the abbot. the pagans in honour of their own deities, Every monk took a candle from the saas a ceremony in honour of the presenta- crist, and lighted it. A procession was tion of Jesus in the temple. The pagans made, thirds and mass were celebrated, used lights in their worship, and Constan- and the candles, after the offering, were tine, and other emperors,endowed churches offered to the priest. The monks' canwith land and various possessions, for the dles signified the use of those in the pamaintenance of lights in catholic churches, rable of the wise virgins. and frequently presented the ecclesiastics In catholic countries the people joined with coffers full of candles and tapers. the priests in their public processions to