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the churches, every individual bearing a her hand; whereat she marvelled, and burning candle, and the churches them- returned thanks to the glorious virgin, selves blazed with supernumerary illumi- who had not suffered her to be without a nations at mid-day.
mass on Candlemas-day, and all her life It is to be noted, that from Candlemas kept the piece of candle for a relic; and the use of tapers at vespers and litanies, all they that were touched therewith were which prevailed throughout the winter, healed of their maladies and sicknesses. ceased until the ensuing ALL HALLOW Mass; and hence the origin of an old English proverb in Ray's Collection
Poetry is the history of ancient times.
We know little of the times sung by Ho. * On Candlemas-day
mer but from his verses. To Herrick Throw candle and candlestick away."
we must confess our obligation for acCandlemas candle-carrying remained quaintance with some of the m: aners in England till its abolition by an order pertaining to this " great day in the in council, in the second year of king calendar.". Perhaps, had he not written, Edward VI.
we should be ignorant that our forefathers
fared more daintily during the Christmas The“ Golden Legend” relates, that a holidays than at other seasons; be unlady who had given her mantle to a poor aware of the rule for setting out the due man for the love of our lady, would not go quantum of time, and orderly succession, to church on Candlemas-day, but went into to Christmas ever-greens; and live, as her own private chapel, and kneeling be- most of us have lived, but ought not to fore the altar, fell asleep, and had a mira- live longer, without being informed, that culous vision, wherein she saw herself at the Christmas-log may be burnt until this church. Into this visionary church she day, and must be quenched this night imagined that a troop of virgins came,
till Christmas comes again. with a noble virgin at their head, “crown
Candleiras Ere. ed ryght precyously," and seated them
End now the white-loafe and the pye, selves in order; then a troop of young
And let all sports with Christmas dye. men, who seated themselves in like order; then one, with a proper number of can- Kindle the Christmas Brand, and then dles, gave to each a candle, and to the
Till sunne-set let it burne, lady herself he gave a candle of wax; Which quencht, then lay it up agen, then came St. Laurence as a deacon, and Till Christmas next returne. St. Vincent as a sub-deacon, and Jesus
Part must be kept wherewith to teend Christ as the priest, and two angels bear- The Christmas Log next yeare; ing candles; then the two angels began And where 'tis safely kept, the fiend the Introit of the mass, and the virgins
Can do no mischiefe there. Herrick. sung the mass ; then the virgins went and each offered the candle to the priest, How severely he enjoins the removal and the priest waited for the lady to offer of the last greens of the old year, and yet her candle ; then the glorious quene of how essential is his reason for their disvirgyns" sent to her to say that she was placement : not courteous to make the priest tarry so
Candlemas Eve. long for her, and the lady answered that
Down with the Rosemary, and so the priest might go on with the mass, for Down with the Baies and Misletoe; she should keep her candle herself, and Dowp with the Holly, Ivie, all not ofier it; and the virvin sent a second Wherewith ye drest the Christmas Hall; time, and the lady said she would not That so the superstitious find offer the candle; then “the quene of vir- No one least Branch there left behind : gyns" said to the messenger, “ Pray her to For look, how many leaves there be offer the candle, and if she will not, take Neglected there, maids, trust to me, it from her by force;" still she would not
So many goblins you shall see. offer the candle, and therefore the mes
Herrick senger seized it; but the lady held so Hearken to the gay old man again, and fast and long, and the messenger drew participate in his joyous anticipations of and pulled so hard, that the candle broke, pleasure from the natural products of the and the lady kept half. Then the lady new year. His next little poem is a coawoke, and found the piece of candle in lyrium for the mind's eye :
Ceremonies for Candlemasse Eve. England this day is called the “ Wives' Down with the Rosemary and Bayes,
Feast Day;" and he quotes a singular Down with the Misleto;
old custom from Martin's book on the Instead of Holly, now up-raise
Western Islands, to this effect :-" The The greener Box (for show.)
mistress and servants of each family dress The Holly hitherto did sway;
a sheaf of oats in women's apparel, put Let Box now domineere,
it in a large basket, and lay a wooden Untill the dancing Easter-day,
club by it, and this they call Brüd's Bed; On Easter's Eve appeare.
and the mistress and servants cry three Then youthful Box, which now hath grace, This 'they do just before going to bed.
times, ' Brüd is come, Brüd is welcome!' Your houses to renew, Grown old, surrender must his place
In the morning they look among the Unto the crisped Yew.
ashes, and if they see the impression of
Brud's club there, they reckon it a preWhen Yew is out, then Birch comes in,
sage of a good crop, and prosperous year; And many Flowers beside, Both of a fresh and fragrant kinne,
if not, they take it as an ill omen.” To honour Whitsontide. Green Bushes then, and sweetest Bents, A Dorsetshire gentleman communiWith cooler Oken boughs,
cates a custom which he witnessed at Come in for comely ornaments
Lyme Regis in his juvenile days; to To re-adorn the house.
what extent it prevailed he is unable to Thus times do shift; each thing his turne do's say, his knowledge being limited to the bold;
domestic circle wherein he was included. New things succeed, as former things grow The wood-ashes of the family being sold old.
Herrick. throughout the year as they were made,
the person who purchased them annually Brand cites a curious anecdote con- sent a present on Candlemas-day of a cerning John Cosin, bishop of Durham, large candle. When night came, this on this day, from a rare tract, entitled candle was lighted, and, assisted by its “ The Vanitie and Downefall of supersti- illumination, the inmates regaled themtious Popish Ceremonies, preached in the selves with cheering draughts of ale, and Cathedral Church of Durham, by one sippings of punch, or some other aniPeter Smart, a prebend there, July 27, mating beverage, until the candle had 1628,” Edinborough, 4to. 1628. Thé burnt out. The coming of the Candlestory is, that “ on Candlemass-day last mas candle was looked forward to by the past, Mr. Cozens, in renuing that popish young ones as an event of some conseceremonie of burning Candles to the ho- quence; for, of usage, they had a sort of nour of our lady, busied himself from right to sit up that night, and partake of two of the clocke in the afternoon till foure, the refreshment, till all retired to rest, in climbing long ladders to stick up wax the signal for which was the self-extinccandles in the said Cathedral Church : the tion of the Candlemas candle. number of all the Candles burnt that evening was two hundred and twenty, besides sixteen torches; sixty of those
Bishop Hall, in a Sermon on Candieburning tapers and torches standing upon, mas-day, remarks, that "it hath been an and near, the high Altar, (as he calls it,) been wont to be set on this day, that if
old (I say not how true) note, that hath where no man came nigh."
A contributor to the Genileman's Ma- it be clear and sun-shiny, it portends a gazine informs Mr. Urban, in 1790, that hard weather to come; if cloudy and baring visited Harrowgate for his health
louring, a mild and gentle season ensua few years before, he resided for some
ing.” This agrees with cne of Ray's time at that pleasant market-town Rip
proverbs : pon, where, on the Sunday before Can- “ The hind had as lief see diemas-day, he observed that the colle
his wife on the bier, giate church, a fine ancient building, was
As that Candlemas-day one continued blaze of light all the after
should be pleasant and clear." Doon from an immense number of can- So also Browne, in his “ Vulgar Erdles.
rors," affirms, that “ there is a general Brand observes, that in the north of tradition in most parts of Europe, that inferreth the coldness of succeeding win- pened that they came while he was at ter from the shining of the sun on Can- prayer, they did not interrupt him, but dlemas-day, according to the proverbial waited till he had ended, and never dedistich:
parted without his benediction. He was • Si Sol splendescat Mariâ purificante,
discovered in his retirement, imprisoned, Major erit glacies post festum quam fuit ante."" and cured a youth who had a fish-bone
stuck in his throat by praying." RibaThe “Country Almanac" for 1676, in the deneira further says that tius, an ancient month of February, versifies to the same Greek physician, gave the following effect :
Receipt for a stoppage in the throat : “ Foul weather is no news; hail, rain, and snow,
“ Hold the diseased party by the Are now expected, and
throat, and pronounce these words :esteem'd no woe;
Blase, the martyr and servant of Jesus Nay, 'tis an omen bad,
Christ, commands thee to pass up or The yeomen say,
down!” Jf Phæbus shows his face
The same Jesuit relates, that St. Blase the second day." Country Almanac, (Feb.) 1676. anointed themselves with his blood;
was scourged, and seven holy women Other almanacs prophesy to the like pur whereupon their flesh was combed port:
with iron combs, their wounds ran no" If Candlemas-day be fair and bright,
thing but milk, their flesh was whiter Winter will have another flight;
than snow, angels came visibly and healed But if Candlemas-day be clouds and rain, their wounds as fast as they were made ;
Winter is gone, and will not come again." and they were put into the fire, which The next old saw is nearer the truth than would not consume them; wherefore either of the preceding:
they were ordered to be beheaded, and
beheaded accordingly. Then St. Blase * When Candlemas-day is come and gone, was ordered to be drowned in the lake ; The snow lies on a hot stone."
but he walked on the water, sat down on
it in the middle, and invited the infidels FLORAL DIRECTORY.
to a sitting; whereupon threescore and Snowdrop. Galanthus Nivalis eight, who tried the experiment, were Dedicated to the Purification of thc drowned, and St. Blase walked back to be Virgin Mary.
The “ Golden Legend” says, that a
wolf having run away with a woman's February 3.
swine, she prayed St. Blase that she Holiday at the Exchequer.
might have her swine again, and St. St. Blase. St. Anscharius, A. D. 865. should, and the wolf brought the swine
Blase promised her, with a smile, she St. Wereburge, Patroness of Chester.
back; then she slew it, and offered the St. Margaret, of England.
head and the feet, with some bread and St. Blase.
a candle, to St. Blase. “And he thanked This saint has the honour of a place in God, and ete thereof; and he sayd to the church of England calendar, on what her, that every yere she sholde offre in account it is difficult to say. All the his chirche a candell. And she dyd all facts that Butler has collected of him is, her lyf, and she had moche grete prosthat he was bishop of Sebaste in Armenia, peryte. And knowe thou that to the, receiver of the relies of St. Eustratius, and to all them that so shal do, shal and executor of his last will; that he is well happen to them." venerated for the cure of sore throats ; It is observed in a note on Brand, that principal patron of Ragusa, titular patron
the candles offered to St. Blase were said of the wool-combers ; and that he was to be good for the tooth-ache, and for tormented with iron combs, and martyred diseased cattle. under Licinius, in 316.
Ribadeneira is more diffuse. He re- « Then followeth good sir Blase, who doih lates, that St. Blase lived in a cave, whi
a waxen Candell give, ther wild beasts came daily to visit him, And holy water to his men. and be cured by him ; " and if it hap- whereby thay safely live.
I divers Barrels oft have seene,
ed into Bradford from the surrounding drawne out of water cleare,
towns and villages, in such numbers as Through one small blessed bone
to line the roads in every direction; and of this same holy Martyr heare: almost all the vehicles within twenty And caryed thence to other townes and cities farre away,
miles were in requisition. Bradford was
never before known to be so crowded Ech superstition doth require such earnest kinde of play."
with strangers. Many thousands of indi
viduals must have come to witness the The origin of St. Blase's fame has baf- scene. About ten o'clock the procession fled the inquiry of antiquaries; it seems was drawn up in the following order :to have rolled off with the darkness of
Herald bearing a flag. former ages, never to be known again. Woolstaplers on horseback, each horse capaTo the wool-combers this saint is indebted
risoned with a fleece. for the maintenance of his reputation in Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers on England, for no other trade or persons horseback, in white stuff waistcoats, with have any interest in remembering his each a sliver over the shoulder, and existence; and this popularity with a a white stuff sash ; the horses' body of so much consequence may pos
necks covered with nete sibly have been the reason, and the only
made of thick yarn. reason, for the retention of his name in
Merchants on horseback, with coloured the church calendar at the Reformation. ThreeGuards. Masters'Colours
sashes. That it is not in the wane with them, is Apprentices and Masters' Sons, on horseclear from a report in the Leeds Mercury,
back, with ornamented caps, scarlet stuff of the 5th of February, 1825. The article
coats, white stuff waistcoats, and furnishes the very interesting particulars
blue pantaloons. in the subjoined account:
Bradford and Keighley Bands.
Mace-bearer, on foot.
Six Guards. Kung. Queen. Six Guards.
Guards. Jason. PRINCESS MEDEA. Guards. Bishop Blasi's Festival,
BISHOP BLASE. AT BRADFORD, 3d FEBRUARY, 1825.
Shepherd and Shepherdess.
Shepherd Swains. The septennial festival, held in honour Woolsorters, on horseback, with ornamented of bishop Blase, and of the invention of
caps, and various coloured slivers. wool-combing attributed to that person
Comb Makers. age, was on this day celebrated at Brad
Charcoal Burners. ford with great gaiety and rejoicing.
Combers' Colours. There is no place in the kingdom where
Band. the bishop is so splendidly commemo- Woolcombers, with wool wigs, &c. rated as at Bradford. In 1811, 1818,
Band. and at previous septennial periods, the Dyers, with red cockades, blue aprons, and
crossed slivers of red and blue. occasion was celebrated with great pomp and festivity, each celebration surpassing The following were the numbers of the the preceding ones in numbers and bril- different bodies, as nearly as could be liance. The celebration of 1825 eclipsed estimated :-24 woolstaplers, 38 spinners all hitherto seen, and it is most gratifying and manufacturers, 6 merchants, 56 apto know, that this is owing to the high prentices and masters' sons, 160 woolprosperity of the worsted and woollen sorters, 30 combmakers, 470 wool-combers, manufactures, wbich are constantly add- and 40 dyers. The King, on this occaing fresh streets and suburban villages to sion, was an old man, named Wm.Clough, the town.
of Darlington, who had filled the regal The different trades began to assemble station at four previous celebrations, at eight o'clock in the morning, but it was Jason (the celebrated legend of the near ten o'clock before they all were ar- Golden Fleece of Colchis, is interwoven ranged in marching order in Westgate. with the commemoration of the bishop,) The arrangements were_actively super- was personated by John Smith; and the intended by Matthew Thompson, Èsq. fair Medea, to whom he was indebted The morning was brilliantly beautiful. for his spoils, rode by his side.-BISHOP As early as seven o'clock, strangers pour- BLASE was a personage of very be
coming gravity, also named John Smith; Long shall his name in British annals shine, and he had enjoyed his pontificate several And grateful ages offer at his shrine ! previous commemorations; his chaplain By this our trade are thousands daily fed, was James Beethom. The ornaments of By it supplied with means to earn their
bread. the spinners and manufacturers had a In various forms our trade its work imparts, neat and even elegant appearance, from In different methods, and by different arts, the delicate and glossy whiteness of the Preserves from starving, indigents distress'd, finely combed wool which they wore. As combers, spinners, weavers, and the rest. The apprentices and masters' sons, how- We boast no gems, or costly garments vain, ever, formed the most showy part of the Borrow'd from India, or the coast of Spain ; procession, their caps being richly adorned Our native soil with wool our trade supplies, with ostrich feathers, flowers, and knots While foreign countries envy us the prize. of various coloured yarn, and their stuff No foreign broil our common good annoys, garments being of the gayest colours;
Our country's product all our art employs ; some of these dresses, we understand, Our fleecy flocks abound in every vale, were very costly, from the profusion of So let not Spain with us attempt to vie,
Our bleating lambs proclaim the joyful tale. their decorations. The shepherd, shep- Nor India's wealth pretend to soar so bigh; herdess, and swains, were attired in light Nor Jason pride him in his Colchian spoil, green. The wool-sorters, from their num- By hardships gain'd, and enterprising toil, ber and the height of their plumes of Since Britons all with ease attain the prize, feathers, which were, for the most part, of And every hill resounds with golden cries. different colours, and formed in the shape To celebrate our founder's great renown of fleur-de-lis, had a dashing appearance. Our shepherd and our shepherdess we crown; The combmakers carried before them the For England's commerce, and for George's instruments here so much celebrated, raised on standards, together with golden Each loyal subject give a loud HUZZA,
HUZZA! fleeces, rams' heads with gilded horns, and other emblems. The combers looked
These lines were afterwards several both neat and comfortable in their flow- times repeated, in the principal streets ang wigs of well-combed wool; and the and roads through which the cavalcade garb of the dyers was quite professional. passed. About five o'clock they dispersed. Several well-painted flags were displayed,
FLORAL DIRECTORY, one of which represented on one side the
Great water moss.
Fontinalis Antepyrevenerable Bishop in full robes, and on
Dedicated to St. Blase.
February 4. association in the trade. The whole pro- St. Andrew Corsini, A. D. 1373. S cession was from half a mile to a mile in Phileas. St. Gilbert. St. Jane, or length.
Joan, Queen, A. D. 1505. St. Isidore, When the procession was ready to of Pelusium, A. P. 449. St. Rembert, move, Richard Fawcett, Esq. who was on Archbishop of Bremen, A. D. 888 horseback at the head of the spinners, St. Modan, of Scotland. St. Joseph, pronounced, uncovered, and with great of Leonissa, A. D. 1612. animation, the following lines, which it
Goe plow in the stubble had long been customary to repeat on
for now is the season these occasions, and which, if they have For sowing of fitches, not much poetical elegance, have the
of beanes, and of peason. merit of expressing true sentiments in Sow runciuals timely, simple language:
and all that be gray,
But sow not the white,
till St. Gregorie's day.
Tusser. To the great author of our combing trade, This day's devoted, and due bonour's paid ;
FLORAL DIRECTORY. To him whose fame thro' Britain's ísle resounds,
Goldilocks. Polutricum Comriure. To him whose goodness to the poor abounds; Dedicated to St. Jane.