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various etymologies; but the most pro- in this month than in any other. In adbable one derives it from Juno, in honour dition to those of the last, the garden of whom a festival was celebrated at the sparkles with marygolds, golden-road, beginning of the month.” He says, “it larkspur, sun-flowers, amarynths, (which is now complete summer :
Milton intermingles with sun-beams for
his angel's hair,) lupins, carnations, Chi• Summer is ycomen in,
nese pinks, holyhocks, ladies' slipper, Loud sing cuckoo;
annual stocks, campanulas, or little bells, Groweth seed, And bloweth mead, .
martagons, periwinkles, wall-flower, snap
dragon, orchis, nasturtium, apocynum, And springeth the weed new.'
chrysanthemum, cornflower, gladiolus, « Thus sings the oldest English song fond of poetry, and of the Greek fables,
and convolvulus. The reader who is extant, in a measure which is its own music.—The temperature of the air, how- and does not happen to be acquainted ever, is still mild, and in our climate with professor Martyn's notes upon Virsometimes too chilly; but when the sea- gil, should here be informed, that the son is fine, this is, perhaps, the most de species of red lily, called the martagon lightful month of the year. The hopes of or Turk's-cap, has been proved by ihat spring are realized, yet the enjoyment is writer, at least to our satisfaction, to be but commenced : we have all summer be the real ancient hyacinth, into which the fore us; the cuckoo's two notes are now youth of that name was turned by Apollo. at what may be called their ripest-deep nothing to show for its being the ancient
The hyacinth, commonly so called, has and loud; so is the hum of the bee; little clouds lie in lumps of silver about one, which should be of a blood colour, the sky, and sometimes fall to complete and was said to be inscribed with the the growth of the herbage; yet we may Now, we were struck with the sort of
Greek exclamation of sorrow AI, AI. now lie down on the grass, or the flowering banks, to read or write ; the grass- literal black marks with which the Turk'shoppers click about us in the warming cap is speckled, and on reading the pro verdure; and the fields and hedges are in fessor's notes, and turning to the flower full blossom with the clover, the still more again, we could plainly see, that with exquisite bean, the pea, the blue and yels come allowance, quite pardonable in a low nightshade, the fox-glove, the mailow, superstition, the marks might now and white briony, wild honeysuckle, and the then fall together, so as to indicate those flower of the hip or wild rose, which characters. It is a most beautiful, glowblushes through all the gradations of ing flower; and shoots gracefully forth in delicate red and white. The leaves of
a vase or glass from among white lilies,
and the double narcissus :the hip, especially the young ones, are as beautiful as those of any garden rose. Νυν υακινθε, λαλει τα σα γραμματα, και Towards evening, the bat and the owl
πλεον Αι Αι venture forth, Aitting through the glim
Λαμβωνε σοις πεταλοισι. mering quiet; and at night, the moon looks silveriest, the sky at once darkest
Moschues. and clearest; and when the nightingale,
"Now tell your story, Hyacinth ; and show as well as the other birds have done sing
Ai Ai the more amidst your sanguine woe.' ing, you may hear the undried brooks of the spring running and panting through their leafy channels. It ceased,' says made up of two employments, as beauti
“ The rural business of this month is the poet, speaking of a sound of heavenly ful to look at as they are useful,—sheepvoices about a ship,
shearing and hay-making. Something It ceased ; yet still the sails made on
like a holiday is still made of the former, A pleasant noise till noon,
and in the south-west of England, the cus A noise like of a hidden brook,
tom, we believe, is still kept up, of throwIn the leafy month of June,
ing flowers into the streams, an evident That to the sleeping woods all night relic of paganism; but, altogether, the Singeth a quiet tune.
holiday is but a gleam of the same merry Coleridge. period in the cheap and rural time of our
ancestors." “There is a greater accession ot flowers,
June 2. St. Justin, Martyr, A. D. 167. St. Pam- Sts. Pothinus, Bp. Sanctus, Attalu.
philus, A. D. 309. St. Caprais, Abbot, Blandina, &c., of Lyons, A, D. 177. Şts A. D. 430.
St. Peter, of Pisa, A. D. Marcellinus and Peter, A. D. 304. St. 1435. St. Wistan, Prince of Mercia, Erasmus, or Ermo, or Elmo, A. D. 303. A. D, 849.
Corpus Christi Day,
and the performance of This saint is in the English almanacs
Mysteries. of this day; for what reason is unknown. He was an ancient martyr in no way church is held on the Thursday next after
This grand festival of the Romish distinguished from others who perished Trinity Sunday, in which order it also during the persecution under Domitian.
stands in the church of England calendar, CHRONOLOGY.
and in the English almanacs. It celebrates 1794, Lord Howe's memorable vic- the doctrine of transubstantiation. In all tory by sea over the French fleet.
Roman catholic countries it is observed 1814. A newspaper of this day notices with music, lights, flowers strewed in the that the Tuesday preceding was observed street, rich tapestries hung upon the walls, at Burton, in Dorsetshire, as a great fes- and with other demonstrations of retival, in consequence of the arrival at joicing :* this is the usage still. Anthat place of a vat of Hambro' yarn, ciently in this country, as well as abroad, from London, being the first that had it was the custom to perform plays on come into the town for many years. The this day, representing scripture subjects. inhabitants met the waggon, took out the From an author before cited, the followhorse, decorated the vat with ribands, ing verses relating to these manners are and various emblems of peace, plenty, extracted :trade and commerce, and drew the same “ Then doth ensue the solemne feast through the village, preceded by a flag of Corpus Christi Day, and band of music, amidst the acclama- Who then can shewe their wicked use, tions of thousands, many of whom were
and fond and foolish play? regaled with bread, cheese, and strong The hallowed bread, with worship great, beer: one loaf (among others) baked for
in silver pix they beare the occasion, claimed the admiration of About the church, or in the citie every one present; its length being six His armes that beares the same two of
passing here and theare. feet three inches, breadth twenty-one
the welthiest men do holde, inches, depth fourteen inches, and its And over him a canopey weight considerably above 100 lbs. To
of silke and cloth of golde. explain the occasion of this rejoicing, it is Christe's passion here derided is, necessary to state that Burton, as a manu- with sundrie maskes and playes, facturing place, had suffered under the Faire Ursley, with hir maydens all, privation which was felt more or less doth passe amid the wayes : throughout the British dominions, by Aud, valiant George, with speare thou killest Buonaparte declaring them to be in a
the dreadfull dragon here,
The Devil's house is drawne about, state of blockade. By this decree, from
wherein therr doth appere the continent of Europe being within his power, he was enabled to injure and de- A wondrous sort of dained sprites,
with foule and fearefull looke, range the industry and commerce of our
Great Christopher doth wade and passe artisans and merchants to an extent that with Christ amid the brooke : was not contemplated. They have hap- Sebastian full of feathred shaftes, pily been liberated by an unlooked-for, the dint of dart doth feele, and wonderful, combination of circum- There walketh Kathren, with bir sworde stances; nor so long as good faith and in hand, and cruel wheele : wise dispositions prevail, can they be The Challis and the singing Cake prevented from arriving to a height of
with Barbara is led,
And sundrie other pageants playde, prosperity unparalleled in our annals.
in worship of this bred. FLORAL DIRECTORY. Yellow Rose. Rosa lutea, Dedicated to St. Justin,
The common ways with bowes are strawde, renown. Apollinarius, the elder, a proand every streete beside,
found philologer, translated the five books And to the walles and windowes all of Moses into heroic verse, and in the are boughes and braunches tide.
same manner composed the history of the The monkes in every place do roame, Israelites to the time of Saul, into a poem
the nonnes abrode are sent, The priestes and schoolmen lowd do rore,
of twenty-four books, in imitation of
Homer. He also wrote religious odes, some use the instrument. The straunger passing through the streete,
and turned particular histories and porupon his knees doe fall :
tions of the Old and New Testament into And earnestly upon this bread,
comedies and tragedies, after the manner as on his God, doth call.
of Menander, Euripides, and Pindar. For why, they counte it for their Lorde, His son the bishop, an eloquent rhetoriand that he doth not take
cian, and already an antagonist of JuThe form of flesh, but nature now
lian's, anxious that the Christians might of breade that we do bake.
not be ignorant of any species of Greek A number great of armed men
composition, formed the writings of the here all this while do stande, To looke that no disorder be,
evangelists, and the works of the apostles,
into dialogues, in the manner of Plato. nor any filching hande : For all the church-goodes out are brought, zen, patriarch and archbishop of Con
About the same time, Gregory Nazianwhich certainly would bee A bootie good, if every man
stantinople, one of the fathers of the might have his libertie."
church, and master to the celebrated Jerome, composed plays from the Old and
New Testament, which he substituted for The Religious Plays performed on the plays of Sophocles and Euripides at Corpus Christi Day, in the times of su: Constantinople, where the old Greek perstition, were such as were represented stage had flourished until that time. The at other periods, though with less cere- ancient Greek tragedy was a religious mony. From a volume on the subject, by spectacle; and the sacred dramas of the editor of the Every-Day-book he, re Gregory Nazianzen were formed on the lates so much as may set forth their origin same model; he transformed the choruses and the nature of the performances. into Christian hymns. One only of the arch
Origin of Religious Plays. bishop's plays is extant: it is a tragedy A Jewish play, of which fragments are cailed “ Christ's Passion;" the prologue still preserved in Greek iambics, is the calls it an imitation of Euripides; the first drama known to have been written play is preserved in Gregory Nazianzen's on a scripture subject. It is taken from works. The remainder of his dramas Exodus : a performer, in the character of have not survived those inimitable comMoses, delivers the prologue in a speech positions over which they triumphed for a of sixty lines, and his rod is turned into a time. serpent on the stage. The play is sup
It is not known whether the religious posed to have been written at the close dramas of the Apollinarii perished so of the second century, by one Ezekiel, a early as some of their other writings, that Jew, as a political spectacle to animate were ordered to be destroyed for, a crime his dispersed brethren with the hopes of a common in all ages, heresy; but this is future deliverance from their captivity.
certain, that the learning they endeavour. The emperor Julian made a law that no ed to supply gradually disappeared before Christian should be taught in the heathen the progress of Constantine's establishschools, or make use of that learning ; but ment. Suddenly acquiring power, and there were two men living at that time, finally assuming infallibility, observing who exerted their talents to supply the pagan feasts as religious festivals, conse deficiency of instruction and entertain- crating heathen rites into christian solemment that the Christians experienced nities, and transforming the non-obserfrom Julian's edict : these were Apollina- vances of primitive simplicity into prece rius, bishop of Laodicea, and his father, a dents for gorgeous ceremony, the church priest of the same city; they were both blazed with a scorching splendour that scholars, well skilled in oratory and the withered up the heart of man. Every rules of composition, and of high literary accession to the dominion of its ecclesias.
tics over his property and intellect induced * Naogeorgus, by Googe.
self-relaxation and sloth; to the boldness that seized a liberal supply for spiritual church until within a short time before support, succeeded the craft that extended the reformation, darkness overspread the it to a boundless revenue for effeminate world, and the great mass of the clergy indulgence. The miraculous powers of themselves were in a state of deplorable the church wonderfully multiplied; but ignorance. During this period, in order implicit belief in miracles was equivocal, to wean the people from the ancient specunless the act of faith was accompanied tacles, particularly the Bacchanalian and by liberal contributions at the altar. The calendary solemnities, religious shows purchase of pardons for sin, and the wor- were instituted partaking of the same ship of the relics exhibited in sumptuous spirit of licentiousness. shrines, were effectual ways of warring To these shows the clergy added the with the powers of darkness, and the cof- acting of mysteries, or representing the fers overflowed with contributions. These miraculous acts of saints circumstances active hostilities against Satan occasioned from apocryphal story, and subjects him to ascend upon earth, and, to terrify from the Old and New Testament. the devout, he often appeared to them in There are different opinions as to the the natural ugliness of his own proper religious class by whom they were inperson. When put to flight, by masses troduced into Europe, though it seems and holy water, he took lodgings incog. reasonable to suppose that they were in the bodies of careless people, nor adopted by the Italians in the depth of would he leave a tenement he occupied, the dark ages from the spiritual dramas till he was forcibly turned out of posses- of the Apollinarii, father and son, and sion by a priest acquainted with the forms Gregory Nazianzen; but, however that of ejectment. Dislike to clean linen was may be, there is no room for surprise that a peculiar mark of piety, and dirty here all writers concur in attributing the permits emitted the odour of sanctity. formance of mysteries, or religious plays, Though their holinesses were so violently to the clergy of the catholic church. hated by the devil, that he took the trou- As mysteries arose with Gregory Nable to assault and tempt them in the holes zianzen, it is not likely that his example of the earth and trunks of old trees where as a father of the church should be lost they inhabited, yet it was rewarded with sight of as soon as he had succeeded in visits to their chosen abodes from all the destroying the performance of the ancient orders of heaven; and by long familiarity Greek plays; yet English writers do not with the powers of the other world, these appear to have traced sacred representa“ tender-nosed saints could detect the tions in a dramatic form until many cenpresence of invisible angels.” They who turies after Gregory Nazianzen's death. turn their backs upon the concerns of The first dramatic representation in life were especial favourites above. A Italy was a spiritual comedy, performed pun reported that Christ opened her side at Padua in 1243; and there was a comwith his corporal hands, took out her pany instituted at Rome in 1264, whose heart, and then carefully placing his own chief employment was to represent the in the chasm, left it there and closed the sufferings of Christ in Passion week. The wound, at the same time doing her the rev. Mr. Croft, and the hon. Topham honour to wear her shift. Nor did the Beauclerc, collected a great number of faithful, who believed the former relation, these Italian plays or mysteries; and at doubt for an instant that the Virgin des the sale of their libraries, Dr. Burney purscended from heaven to visit the cells of chased many of the most ancient, which monasteries, and milk her breasts into he speaks of as being evidently much earthe mouths of monks. Doubts were ef- lier than the discovery of printing, from fectually removed by burning doubters. the gross manner in which the subjects All who were privileged to shave the top are treated, the coarseness of the dialogue, of the head in a circle, as a token of eman- and the ridiculous situation into which cipation from worldly superfluities, were most sacred persons and things are thrown. partners in the profitable trade of granting In 1313, Philip the Fair gave the most Licenses for unmolested existence at the sumptuous entertainment at Paris ever price of unconditional admission. Eccle- remembered in that city. Edward II. siastical policy accomplished its purpose: and his queen Isabella, crossed over from the human mind was in a delirium; the England with a large retinue of pobility, hierarchy at the summit of its ascendancy. and partook of the magnificent festivities
From the complete establishment of the The pomp and profusion of the banquet. tings, the variety of the amusements, and The stage constantly represents hell and the splendour of the costume were unsur- paradise ; and Europe, Asia, and Africa, passed. On each of the eight days the are cantoned in three towers. Some meprinces and nobles changed their dresses taphysical beings are most curiously perIhree times ; while the people were some- sonified. Dame Silenee, for instance
, times entertained with representations speaks the prologue; Human Succour, of the Glory of the blessed, at other Divine Grace, and Divine Comfort, are the times with the Torments of the damned, supporters of the heroes and heroines of and various other spectacles. In 1402, the piece, while hell exhibits monsters and by an edict of Charles VI. dated Dec. 4, devils, to frighten the audience. They the mystery of the conception, passion, are constantly abusing Proserpine, who and resurrection of Christ, was performed is introduced with all the trappings of at St. Maur, about five miles from Paris. Tartarean pomp into this performance, At the council at Constance, in the year where there are no less than ninety-two 1417, the English fathers played the mys- dramatis personæ, among 'whom are the tery of the massacre of the Holy Inno. Virgin and God the Father. cents. The mystery of the passion was The story of Le Mystere du Chevalier performed on the entrance of the kings of qui donne sa Femme au Diable, played by France and England at Paris, on Decem- ten persons in 1505, is of a dissipated ber 1. 1420, in the street Kalende, before knight reduced by his profligacy to disthe palace, upon a raised scaffolding of tress and wickedness. In his misfortunes one hundred paces in length.
the devil appears, and proposes to make In the Royal Library of Paris, No. him richer than ever, if he will assign his 4350, is Le Mystere de la passion Jesus wife, that the devil may have her in seven Christ ; Paris, printed by Antoine Ver- years. After some discussion the knight ard, 1490, folio. This is a fine copy on consents, his promise is written out, and vellum with every page richly illuminat. he signs it with his blood. The seducer ed, and containing a MS. note in French, then stipulates that his victim shall deny purporting to be an extract from an old his God; the knight stoutly resists for a chronicle, entitled, “Histoire de Metz time, but in the end the devil gains his veritable,” whence it appears that its per- point, and emboldened by success venformance was attended by many foreign tures to propose that the knight shall deny lords and ladies whose names are specified, the Virgin Mary. This, however, being and that there were lanthorns placed in a still greater sin, he refuses to commit it the windows during the whole time of the with the utmost indignity and vehemence, plays: but the most curious part of the and the devil walks off baffled. At the MS, note is, that, “ in the year 1437, on end of seven years, the promise being the 3rd of July was represented the game due, the devil presents it to the knighi, or play, de la Passion, N. S. in the plain who, considering it a debt of honour, preof Vexmiel, when the park was arranged pares to discharge it immediately. He in a very noble manner, for there were orders his wife to follow him to a certain ņine ranges of seats in height rising by spot, but on their way she perceives a degrees; all around and behind were church, which after obtaining her hus. great and long seats for the lords and band's permission she enters, for the purladies. On the stage was represented the pose of offering her devotion; while thus mouth of hell, it is described as having engaged, the Virgin Mary recollecting the been very well done, for that it opened and knight's unsullied allegiance to her, as shut when the devils required to enter and sumes the semblance of his wife, and in come out, and had two large eyes of steel.” that character joins him. The moment
On the 27th of May, 1509, was per- that they both appear before the devil, he formed at Romans, in Dauphiny, before perceives who he has to deal with, and the Cordelier's church, the Mystery of the upbraids the unconscious knight for atThree Dons. In this religious play, which tempting to deceive him. The knight lasted three days, there are emissaries who protests his ignorance and astonishment, undertake very long journeys, and must which the Virgin corroborates, by telling come back before the play can be ended. the devil that it was her own plan, for the The scene, besmeared with the blood of rescue of two souls from his power, and the three martyrs, the Dons, is sometimes she orders him to give up the knight's at Rome, sometimes at Vienna, soon after promise. He of course obeys so high as
Lyons, and at other times in the Alps. authority, and runs off in great terror.