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ABBREVIATIONS, SIGNS, ETC., EMPLOYED IN THIS WORK
German. gov. government or province. Gr. Greek. Hung. Hungarian.
island. inhab. inbabitant. Ill. Illinois.
mile or miles. M. McCulloch.
north. N.C. North Carolina. N. H. New Hampshire. N. J. New Jersey. N. Y. New York. Norw. Norwegian. Pa. Pennsylvania. P. C. Penny Cyclopædia. Pop. population. Port. Portuguese. prov. province. pron. pronunciation. r. river. R. I. Rhode Island. Russ. Russian. S. C. South Carolina. Sp. Spanish. sq. m. square miles. Sw. Swedish. t. town. Tenn. Tennessee. Turk. Turkish U. S. United States.
Virginia. Vt. Vermont. W. west.
1. The vowels a, e, i, o, marked with a point underneath (A or a, por e, &c.) have an obscure sound, similar to short u, thus, MERTỌN should be pronounced almost můrl-tặn or măr/-t'n. (See Introduction, VIII.)
2. I with two points underneath sounds like é.
l'he following Table is intended to exhibit the striking discrepancy in the mode of writing the same geographical Damer, which occurs in the works of respectable authors. (See Preface, page xii., and Introduction, page 28.)
Small capitals are used to dennte the mode of spelling which occui's iu the Gazetteer, aud which the authors cons i. dered to be the preferable orthography.
An asterisk denotes that the pronunciation of the spelling to which it is appended is differe.. from that of the others. But when a name occurs with two or more different spellings, not marked by an asterisk, it is to be understood that the pronunciation of all these is essentially the same.
If the reader will bear in mind that oo in English, ou in French, and win Italian and German, have the same sound : that i in all the languages of continental Europe is similar to ee in English; that i, in two-thirds of the European lan. guages, is like our y; that ch in French, and sch in German, is equivalent to our sh, and that j (and g before e and i) ip French is like our limor zin azui'emand nearly like the German sch; a clue will be furnished to many of the per. perties with which geographical spelling and pronunciation so much abound. Some other difficulties are explained in the Table by reference to the Introduction: ē.g. Habana, Havana ; Xingu, Chingu.
(App.) placed after a name, indicates that it is to be found in the Appendix.
A BOOKEER, Aboukir.
CANTON, *Quangtong. [mire, Kashmira. ABOOSHEHR, Abuschehr, Abouchehr. Writ- CASHMERE, Cachemir, Kashmeer, Kache. ten also Bushire (boo-sheer').
Caubul. See CABOOL. Achmouneyn, OSHMOONEYN.
CELLE, Zelle, (XX. 18 and 30.) Aichstadt, EICHSTADT.
Charków, Kharkow, KHARKOF Knarkov AKHMYM, Achmim, Ekmim.
Chingu, XINGU, (XXVI. 11.)
COAHUILA, Cohahuila, (App.) AMOOR, Amour, Amur.
COMANCHÉ, Camanché, (App:) AMRETSIR, Amietseer, Umritseer.
CORDOVA, Cordoba, (XXVII. 4.) ANADEER, Anadir,
CORUNNA, *Coruña. Anatolia. See NATOLIA.
Courland, KOORLAND, Kurland. : . ANDUJAR, Anduxar.
DANTZIC, Danzig. ANGORA, *Engoor, *Enguri.
DARFOOÁ, Darfur, Darfour, Dar Foor. ANZOOAX, Anzouan, *Anjouan.
DEZFOOL, Dezphoul, Dezfoul, Dezful. ARKEEKO, Arkiko.
Djidda or Djeeda. See JIDDA. ARGOON, Argoun, Argun.
DOVRETIELD, Daavrefjeld, Dofrafield. ATCHEEN, Acheen.
DROHOBICZ, Drohovitsch. ATFE, Atfih.
DRONTHEIM, Trondhiem, Trondjena. AXOOM, Axum, Axoum,
DUNKIRK, Dunkerque. AYASOOLOOK, Ayasalouk, Ayasaluk. Ebora, Evora, (XXVII. 4.) AZOF, Azoph, Azoy.
EDINBURGH, Edinborough. Badakhshait, BUDUKHSHAN.
EICHSTADT, Aichstadt. Bairout. See BEYROOT.
*ELATMA, Yelatma, Ielatma. *BALFUROSH, Balfroosh, Balfrouch.
EKATERINBURG, Iekaterinbourg. Baschkirs, Bashkeers, (a race of Tartars, ELISABETGRAD, Yelisavetgrad.
dwelling south of the r. Irtish in Siberia.) ERZROOM, Erzeroum, Erzrum, Ardzroom. BASSORA, Bussora, Basrah, (XIX. 1 Obs.). Arzerum, Arzeroum. BEDOUIN, BEDOWEEN, Beduin.
FERRO, *Hierro. BEYROOT, Bairout, Beirout, Berut.
GHEEZEH, Gizeh, *Jizeh.
GHENT, Gent, *Gand. BRAHMAPOOTRA, *Burrampooter.
GLOUCESTER, Gloster. BUDUKHSHAN, Badakhshall, (XIX. 1 0 GOOLDSHA, Guldscha, Gouldja, *Kuldsha. Burma, BIRMA.
GOTTINGEN, Goettingen, (XX. 8.) *Burrampooter, BRAHMAPOOTRA.
Guelders, GELDERS. BURSA, Boursa, Boorsa, *Brusa.
HAARLEM, Haerlem, Harlem. Bushire. See ABOOSHEHR.
HAVANA, Habana, (XXVII. 4.) CABOOL, Cabul, Caubul, Caboul.
[dostan Cachoeira, CAXOEIRA.
HINDOSTAN, Hindustan, Hindoostan, *12. CAIRO, *Kahira, *Qahera.
HINDOO, Hindu. Camanche, COMANCHE, (App.)
HIMALAYA, *Himmaleh. CAMBODIA, Cambodja, *Camboge.
Iaroslav, Jaroslaw, YAROSLA?. CAMPEACHY, Campeche.
Indostan. See HINDOSTAN.
IVICA, Ibiza, (XXVII. 4, 5.) tic names.
| Jakutsk or Iakoutsk. See YAKOUTSK.
TABLE OF DIFFERENT SPELLINGS.
JALISCO, Xalisco, (App.)
1 Oural, URAL. JANINA, Yanina, Joannina.
OURGUENDJ, Oorghendj, Urghendj, *L Jaroslaw. See YAROSLAF.
ghenz, Urgantz. See Khiva, Gazeteor. Jeddo, YEDDO.
PETIC, Pitic. JESSO, Iesso, Yesso, Yeso.
RHINE, Rhein, Rhyn. JEYPOOR, Jyepoor, Jypoor.
ROOMELIA, Roumelia, Rumelia. JIDDA, Djidda, Djeeda.
ROOM ELEE, Rum Ili, Roum Ii.
[Russia.) | Schoa, SHOA, Xoa.
SHOA, Scloa, Xoa (XXVI, 11), kS1ws. KALOOGA, Kalouga, Kaluga.
SIOOT, Siout, *Osioot, *Esioot. KAMTCHATKA, Kamtschatha. (See Note, p. Sivas, SEEVAS. 292.)
*SLESWICK, Slesvig, *Schleswig. KHARKOF, Kharkow, Charkow, Kharkov. Siwah, SEEWAH. KHARTOOM, Khartum, Khartoum.
SOODAN, Soudan, Sudan. RHIVA, Kheeya.
SOORMOOL, Sourmoul, Surmul, (a small KIEF, Kiew, Kieff, Kiev.
town of Persia.) KIRMANSHAH, Kirmanshaw.
SOOLTANEEYEH, Sultanieh, Soultania. *KISTNA, Krishna.
SOORABAYA, Surabaya, Sourabaya. KLAGENFURTH, Clagenfurth.
Suez, Sooez, Soueys. KOAHOMA, Coahoma.
SUABIA, Swabia. KOOR, Kur, Kour.
TAHITI, Utaheite. KOORLAND, Kurland, Courland.
TABREEZ, Tabriz, *Tauris. KOORDISTAN, Kurdistan, Curdistan.
TABARFEYEH, Tabarieh. KOORSK, Koursk, Kursk.
TARsoos, Tarsous, Tarsus. KOORILE, Kurile, Kourile.
TCHERNIGOF, Czernigow, Tchernigoff Kuldsha. See GOOLDSHA,
TIBET, Thibet. KUTAIYEH, Kootaiah, Koutaieh.
*TIMBUCTOO, Tombuctoo, Tombouctno, La Baca, LA VACCA, (App.)
Tombouctou, *Teubocto. LANCEROTA, Lanzarota, (XX
Tools, Toula, Tula, LEIPSIC, Leipzig.
TOORKISTAN, Turkistan, LEYDEN, Leideni.
TONKIN, Touquin. Libadia, LIVADIA
TORZHOK, Torschok, Torjok.. LISLE, Lille.
Trondjem or 'Trondhiem, DRONTHEIM. LINTZ, Linz.
TRUXILLO, Trujillo, LIVADÍA, Libadia, (XXI. 11.)
TORNEO, Torneå, (XXVIII. 2.) LUCERNE, *Luzern.
TVER, Twer. MAAS, Maese, *Meuse.
URAL, Qural. MAASTRICHT, Maestricht.
Urfa. See OORFA. MAELAREN, Mälaren.
Urmiah. See OOROOMEEA. MAJORCA, *Mallorca.
USBECK, Oozbek, Ouzbek. Manchooria, MANTCHOORIA, Mandshuria. VIBORG, Wiborg. MARANHAM, Maranhão.
Vitebsk, Vitepsk, WITEBSK. MARAVI, Marayee.
VOLGA, 'Wolga. MARDEEN, Merdın.
VORONEZH, Voronege, Voronej, Word MARMORÁ, Marmara.
1 nesch, *Voronetz, Woronetz.
WASHITA, Quachitta. MATAREEYEH, Mataria. Mataryeh.
WISCONSIN, Wiskonsan, Ouisconsin. *MATHURA. Muttra, (XIX. 1 Obs.)
WÜRTEMBERG, Wirtemberg. MEKINEZ, Mequinez, Meknas.
XALAPA, Jalapa. MERGUI, Merghi,
Xalisco, JALISCO, (App.)
Xoa. See SHOA.
YAKOOTSK, Iakoutsk, Jakutsk, Yakutsk. NATOLIA, *Anatolia, *Anadoli, *Anatoli. Yanina. See JANINA. NEZHEEN, Nejin, Neschin.
YARKUND, Yarkand, (XIX. 1 Obs.) NIZHNEE, Nijni, Nischnei.
YAROSLAF, Iaroslav, Jaroslaw. OLIVENZA, Olivenga.
YEDDO, Jeddo. OORFA, Urfa, Ourfa.
YESSO, Jesso. OOROOMEEA, 'Urumiya, *Ourmiah, Urmia. Zahara, SAHARA. OOOSTI0OG, Ustiug, Oustioug.
Zaragoza, *SARAGOSSA. ntaheite, TAHITI.
ZEBU, Cebu, (XXVII. 5 and 18.) (whyhee, HAWAII.
Zelle, CELLE, (XX. 18 and 3.) OSHMOONEYN, Achmouneyn.
Zhitomeer, Jitomir, Schitomir, Zytourir, Ouachita, WASHITA.
*Zitomirz. Quisconsin, WISCONSIN.
ZUYDER ZEL, Zuider Zue.
3. ö has a sound similar to the French eu or nearly like that of e in her. It may be anglicized by e. (See Introduction, XX., 8.) ..
4. ü is like the French u, being intermediate between ee and 00. (XIX.,.5.)
5. A letter when it has a line underneath, or when italicised, is silent; e. g. in WALKER, GREENE, öb-oh.*
6. to, small capital, in the pronunciation of a name, indicates that its sound is similar to th in this.
7. to and K, small capitals, indicate the sound of the German ch or one similar to it. (VI. and XX., 19.)
8. th, small capital, has a sound nearly similar to the preceding, but more resembling a strongly aspirated h.
9. î (l liquid) is to be pronounced. like lli in million : it blends the sounds of l and y consonant. (XXVII., 12.)
10. Mand n, small capitals, are nasal, being similar in sound to ng. (XIX., 19.)
11. R, small capital, has the sound of rr in terror. (XIX., 24.)
12. v, small capital, indicates the sound of the French eu. It is pronounced nearly as u in tub or in fur.
13. tw, capital, has a sound similar to our v. 14. Y and ey, at the end of an unaccented sylable, sound like e in me. 15. Ai and ay are considered to be equivalent to a in fate. 16. Au and aw have the sound of a in fall. 17. eě indicates a sound similar to i in pit or in spirit.
18. Ow, when the o is not marked long (ow), is to be pronounced like ou in hour.
19. Gh is sometimes employed in pronunciation for g hard.
20. ġ is to be pronounced more softly than simple g. (XVII., 13, and XXVII., 10.) 21. ş sounds like z.
F The sounds of the figured vowels are explained at the top of the page, in the body of the work.
1. Every letter, or combination of letters, occurring in the pronunciation of a word or name, is to be pronounced with its proper English sound; e.g., ou is to be sounded as in our, sour, &c., and not like oo, as in tour, and some other words of French origin : g must be hard, as in get, give, &c.; ch, as in chill, choose, unless the h be marked as silent, in which case ch has the sound of k.
2. In the pronunciation of foreign European names, care should be taken not to allow å to fall into the third or broad sound of this vowelman error to which American and English speakers are very prone-it would be much less a fault, generally speaking, to pronounce it like a in fat. It should, however, be observed, that a preceding the nasal n in French, is usually broad, almost like o in not. (See Int. XIX., 19, 20, and 21.)
A, in some names, appears to have a sound intermediate between å and å.
The h, in this and similar instances, is employed in order to enable the learner more readily to pronounce the vowel short, as in not: were it omitted, thus, ob-o, the inexperienced pupil might be in danger of pronouncing thé o long, 28 in no, or indistinctly, as we often hear it in piano. .
It is intended that the mere English scholar shall pronounce these letters with their proper English sound (See Introduction. VI.)
Thus the a in the penultimate syllable of ALABAMA, is somewhat longer than in fat, though not so broad as in far. It may be remarked that some orthoepists assign such a sound to a in certain English words, e.g. in fust.
3. When & and o end a syllable in the pronunciation of a word, they are always to be pronounced distinctly with their first sound (as in me or no.)
4. E is rarely figured when occurring in a syllable with the primary accent (IX.); in other cases e, and also the other vowels, are frequently thus marked, in order to guard against their being pronounced indistinctly.
5. O marked long (o), though often ernployed in English names, in order to show merely that this letter has its first sound, when it occurs in the pro. nunciation of foreign words or names, always indicates that the sound of the vowel is to be prolonged. In like manner, o indicates that this letter has a sound like o, in not, to be pronounced distinctly but very short.
6. The sound of u before a vowel, in Spanish words, is usually repre. sented by w. Thus nuevo is pronounced nwa'-vo, which is nearly equiva. lent to noo-al-vo. In Italian, the u before a vowel appears to be sounded more distinctly : accordingly, we have indicated the pronunction of nuovo, duomo, by noo-o'-vo, doo-o'-mo. In these cases, however, noo-o and doo-o are to be pronounced almost in one syllable.
7. When two or more geographical names, with the same spelling, occur in succession, and the pronunciation of the first only is given, it is intended that all shall be pronounced alike.
9. The pronunciation of a name is distinguished from the name itself, by its not beginning with a capital. In examples like the following, Bres'-LAU or bres'-lou, the latter spelling has reference to pronunciation only, while the former gives the true mode of writing the name and the pronunciation at the same time. Had we written BRESLAU, bres'-lau or bres'-lou, the same end would have been attained, but at the expense of brevity,
9. The number of syllables in a word or name is indicated by the hy. phens; e.g. SMYTHÆ not being divided by a hyphen, is to be pronounced in one syllable; pane'-ya in two: the e, in such syllables as pane, is silent, being only used to render the preceding a long, as in fate. In some few cases, however, where a name of two or more syllables is necessarily familiar to all, we have not divided it by hyphens, nor indicated the pronunciation in any way; e. g., HENRY, WILLIAM, &c. In Latin names, the accent only has been marked.
10. When the right or left bank of a river is spoken of, the reader is supposed to be looking down the stream, or, in other words, going with the current.
11. It may be remarked, respecting the adjective and appellation of the inhabitants, derived from the names of places (see PREFACE, pages vi. and vii.), that, if the latter has man for its termination, in the singular, the plural is often expressed by the adjective; e.g., singular, FRENCHMAN; plural, THE FRENCH: singular, SCOTCHMAN; plural, THE SCOTCH, &c. We sometimes hear also 66THE SPANISH," instead of "THE SPANIARDS;" but such expres. sions are not to be approved..
12. When no date is given, the population of places in this country has reference to the census of 1850; the population of Great Britain to the census of 1841, and that of France to the census of 1836..
13. When, immediately after a geographical name, there occur one or more names beginning with a capital, enclosed in a parenthesis, these are to be understood as different modes of writing the first, but if the word enclosed begins with a small letter, it is merely the pronunciation of the first name.