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Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; n), nột; oo, as in good ; ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; N, nearly like ng.

AA, åả, the name of several small rivers of Europe, in France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Germany.


A ALBORG, oll-borg, a t. of Denmark; cap. of a bishopric of the same name, in Jutland, on the S. side of the extensive arm of the sea called Lymfiord. Lat. 57° 2 N., Lon. 9° 57' E. Pop. estimated at about 9,000. (B.)

AAR or AARE, åảr, a r. in the N. part of Switzerland, which rises near the E. extremity of the canton of Berne, and, traversing the lakes of Brienz and Thun, passes through the cantons of Suleure and Aargau, and falls into the Rhine, 28 m. E. of Bâle. Length, about 170 m. It becomes navigable at its egress from the lake of Thun.

AARGAU, åảr-gou, (Fr. Argovie, ar'-go-vel; Lat. Argovia), a canton in the N. part of Switzerland, bordering on the Rhine. Area, 505 sq. m. Pop., in 1836, 182,755. (M.)

AARHUUS, OR/ -hooce, a seaport t. of Denmark, in Jutland; cap. of a bishopric of the same name, on the E. coast. Lat. 56° 9' 35" N., Lon. 10° 14' E. Pop. about 8,000. (B.)

ABAKANSK, å-bả-kảnsk, a t. of Siberia, on the Abakan', an affluent of the Yenisei, in the prov. of Kolyvan, remarkable für the ancient tombs discovered in its vicinity, which contain ornaments of silver and gold, and on which are to be seen statues of men froin seven to nine feet high, with carved work of an extraordinary character. It appears that this country, at present so imperfectly civilized, was once inhabited by a people acquainted with writing and other arts. (B.) Lat. about 54° N., Lon. 910 15' E.

ABANCAY, åb-ån-ki), a t. of Peru, 60 m. W. by S. from Cuzco. Lat. 13° 40'S., Lon. about 73° W. Pop. about 5,00). (B.)

ABANO, å-bål-no, a t. of Italy, near Padua, noted for its hot sulphurous baths. Permanent pop. 2,600. (B.)

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, nðt; võ, as in good;

ABASCIA or ABASSIA, ab-ash-e-a, a country of Russia, E. of, and bore dering on, the Black Sea. Adj. and inhab., ABASCIAN or ABASSIAN, abe ashl-e-an.

ABBEVILLE, åb -villl, a fortified manufacturing town of France, in the dep. of Somme, on the r. Somme, 25 m. N. W. of Amiens. Lat. 50° hay N., Lon. 1° 50' E. Pop. 13,842. (M.)

AB-BE-VILLE', a dist. of South Carolina, on the Savannah. Pop. 32,318. Seat of justice, Abbeville.

ABI-ER-BROTH - CK, or ARI-BROATH, a seaport t. of Scotland, in Forfarshire, 48 m. N. N. E. of Edinburgh. Lat. 56° 34' N., Lon. 2° 32 W. Pop. 7,218.

AB'-ER-DEEN', a city of Scotland, in Aberdeenshire, consisting of two parts; or, more properly, forming two distinct towns.

OLD ABERDEEN, on the right bank of the Don, was a place of some importance in the 12th century. It has a university called King's College, founded by James IV., in 1494.

NEW ABERDEEN, the cap. of Aberdeenshire, stands on the left bank of the Dee (which forms its harbour), 91 m. N. N. E. of Edinburgh. It has a university named Marischal College, in honour of Earl Marischal, who founded it, in 1593 or 1594. Lat. 57° 9' N., Lon. 2° 6' W. Entire population of the burgh, including both towns, 63,288.

AB'-ER-DEEN-SHỊRE, a co. in the E: part of Scotland, bordering on the sea. Pop. 192,387.

ABERGAVENNY, abl-er-gå-ne, a small t. in England, in Monmouthshire, 11 m. W. from Monmouth.

AB'-ER-ISTI-WITH (with) or ABERYSTWITH, a seaportt. of Wales, Cardiganshire. Lat. 52. 24' N., Lon. 4° 5' W. Pop. 4,975.

AB-ING-DON, a t. of England, in Berkshire, on the Thames, 56 m. W. N. W. of London. Pop. 5,585.

ABO, ål-bo, (Sw. ÅBO, 0/-boo), formerly the cap. of Finland, situated on a promontory, between the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland. Pop., formerly, 12,500. (P. C.) Lat. 60° 27' N., Lon. 22° 17' E. It was almost utterly destroyed by the dreadful conflagration of 1825, but is now slowly rising from its ruins. (B.)

ABOMEY, ab'-o-mà, a populous t. of Africa, cap. of the kingdom of Dahomey. Lat. about anyo 30' N., Lon. 1° 45' E. Pop. 24,000. (B.)

AB-00-KEER (Aboukir), a t. of Egypt, with a castle, 13 m. N. E. of Alexandria. Lat. 31° 20' N., Lon. 30° 7' E.

ABOOSHEHR, å-boo-shaih'rl, (Abuschehr or Aboushehr, also written Bushire, boo-sheer); and Bender or Bunder Boshavir, bo-shả-veer!,) a seaport t. of Persia, on a peninsula in the Persian Gulf, 10 m. W. S. W. of Shiraz. Lat. 28° 57' N., Lon. 50° 52' E. Pop. formerly estimated as high as 12,000, and even 15,000, but now reduced by pestilence war, and other causes, to 1,500. (B.)

AB-00-TIZH or ABOOTISH (written usually Aboutij or Abutige), a t. in Upper Egypt, on the W. bank of the Nile, celebrated for its excellent opium. Lat. 27° 5' N., Lon. 31° 20' E..

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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; N, nearly like ng. ABRANTES, ả-brản/-těs, a t. of Portuguese Estremadura, 74 m. N. E. of Lisbon. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

ABROLHOS, &-brolel-yoce dangerous sand-banks and rocks on the coast of Brazil, in about 18° S. Lat., 30° 20' W. Lon.

ABRUD BA'NYA, öb'-rood' båản/yõh', a small t. of Transylvania, remarkable for its gold mines. Lat. 46° 28' N., Lon. 22° 10' E.

ABRUZZO, ả-broot/-so, an extensive territory forming the N. E. portion of the Neapolitan dominions. It is divided into Abruzzo Ultra (ool-trả) and Abruzzo Citra (cheel-trả), or, farther and nearer Abruzzo.


AB-YS-SIN-I-a, a kingdom of Africa, bounded on the E. by the Red Sea, N. by Sennaar, W. and S. by Sennaar, Kordofan, and barbarous regions; about 770 m. long, and 550 broad. The ranges of mountains,

afford a sufficient supply of water. In consequence of this physical structure, Abyssinia is exceedingly fertile, and is exempted, in a great measure, from that sand which dooms so large a portion of Africa to · sterility. The chief alimentary plants are, millet, barley, wheat, maize, and teff.* All travellers concur in praising the fine wheaten bread of Abyssinia ; but it is eaten only by people of rank. Teff grows on every soil, and affords the bread which is in universal use.

This once powerful kingdom, which during so many ages preserved its independence against the efforts of paganism and the sword of Mahomet, is now a prey to anarchy, and completely dismembered. Among the various kingdoms into which it has been divided, the following are the principal : The kingdom of AMHARA, of Tigré, and of Shoa or SHWA. These will be spoken of in their respective places. The Abyssinians profess Christianity, but their religion is filled with Judai. cal observances.--Adj. and inhab., AB-YS-SIN/-!-AN.

ACAPULCO, ảc-å-pooll-co, a t. of Mexico, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. Its port is the finest in Mexico, and has few equals in the world. Lat. 16° 50' N., Lon. 99° 49' W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)

AC-CO-MACK', a county of Virginia, on the E. shore of Chesapeake Bay. Pop. 17,890. Seat of justice, Accomack c. h.


ACRA, ål-krą, or AC-CRẠ, a kingdom on the gold coast of Africa, about 26 m. in length, and from 12 to 20 in breadth.-Also the chief t. of

12,000. (B.)

ACRE, âl-k'r or å/k’r, (Turk. and Arab. Aklkả,) an ancient city and seaport of Palestine, in a pashalic of its own name, on a bay of the

*“The teff or tafo is a grain smaller than mustard seed, and well tasted Blumenbach thinks that it is the same with the Poa Abyssinica.” (M. B.)

Fate, får, fäll, fåt; mė, mit; pine or pine, pin; nd, nốt; öö, as in goud; Mediterranean, in a situation rendered unhealthy by the neighbouring marshes. It is small, but very populous and well fortified. This city has been celebrated from remote antiquity. Strabo calls it AKE (Axn). Another appellation is, St. Jean D'Acre, which it probably acquired from the knights of St. John, so distinguished for their valour against the Mahometans. It is 23 m. N. N. W. of Jerusalem. Lat. 32° 54' N., Lon. 35° 6' E. Pop. estimated at near 20,000. (B.)

A-DAİR', a co. in the S. central part of Ky., intersected by Green r. Pop. 9,898. Co. t. Columbia

ADAIR, a co. in the N. part of Mo., near border of Iowa. P, 2,342.

ADALIA, ả-dål-le-å, or SATALIA, a seaport and commercial t. of Asiatic Turkey, on the Mediterranean. Lat. 36° 53' N., Lon. 30° 45' E. Pop.

AD-AM$, a co. in the most westerly part of Ill., on the Mississippi r. Pop. 26,508. Co. t. Quincy.

ADAMS, a co. in the E. part of Ind., a little S. of the Maumee r. Pop. 5,797. Co. t. Decatur.

Adams, a co. in the S. W. part of Miss., on the Mississippi r. Pop. 18,622. Co. t. Natchez.

Adams, a co. in the S. part of Ohio, on the Ohio r. Pop. 18,883. Co. t. West Union.

ADAMS, a co. in the S. part of Pa., a little W. of the Susquehanna r. and bordering on Md. Pop. 25,981. Co. t. Gettysburg.

ADANA, ả! -dv-nả, a t. of Asiatic Turkey in Caramania, on a river of the same name. Lat. 36° 59' N., Lon. 35° 6' E. Pop. estimated by M. Kinneir at near 30,000; but during the heat of summer it is almost deserted. (B.)

Adda, ảdi-dá, a river of Italy, which runs through the Valtellina into Lake Como, and joins the Po near Cremona.

ADI-DI-sỌN, a co. of Vermont, bordering on Lake Champlain. Pop. 26,549. Co. t. Middlebury.

ADEL, å-del, a territory of Africa, immediately S. E. of Abyssinia. Zeila is the chief town.

ADEN, ål-den or àl-den, a seaport t. of Arabia, on a gulf at the N. extremity of the Indian Ocean, to which it gives its name. The pop. of this place, said to have been 30,000 in the 17th century, had become reduced a few years since to about 800 (M.), when it was taken possession of by the British, and made a commercial depot, and a station for the steamers running from Suez to Bombay. It is now represented as being in a very flourishing state, the pop. being estimated at between 10,000 and 20,000. Lat. 12° 45' N., Lon. about 45° E.

Adige, ad-e-je, * (It. pron. ål-de-jà; Ger. Etsch ; Anc. Athlesis;) a r. of N. Italy, which rises in the country of the Grisons, on the borders of Tyrol, and flows into the Gulf of Venice, near the mouths of the Po. It is a rapid stream, and navigated with difficulty.

Like him wayworn
And lost, who by the foaming ADIGÉ,
Descending from the Tyrol -

Rogers's Italy, Part first, VIII.

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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; N, nearly like ng. ADIRBEITZAN. See AZERBAIJAN.

AD'-!-RON-LACK, a naine recently given to a cluster of mountains in N. Y., S. W. of L. Champlain. The highest summit, Mt. Marcy, has an elevation of about 5,460 feet above the sea.

ADLERBERG, ål-dler-béry or arl/-bérg, one of the largest mountains of Suabia, properly a branch of the Tyrolese Alps, which separates Suabia from the Tyrol.

ADI-MI-RAL-Ty, a large island on the W. coast of North America. Lat. 58° N., Lon. about 134° W. About 180 m. in circuit.

ADOUR, ảd -OOR), a r. in the S. W. of France, which rises in the Pyrenees, and runs into the Bay of Biscay near Bayonne.

ADOWAH, ål-do-wảh or ảl-do-vả, the cap. of Tigré, in Abyssinia, and the place of the greatest trade in all that country. (B.) Pop. 8,000. Lat. 14° 12' N., Lon. 39° 5' E.

ADRAMITI, ảd-rå-meel-te, (Anc. Adramyt/tium), a t. of Natolia, near the E. extremity of a gulf of the same name. Lat. 39° 34' N., Lon. 26° 50' E.

ADRIA, ål-dre-ả (Anc. Had/ria or At/ria), a t. of Italy, 30 m. S. S. W. of Venice. It was an important commercial city, and a station for the Roman fleet under the emperors, but is now greatly reduced, and, in consequence of the sea having receded, is situated about 20 m. inland. Lat. 45° 3' N., Lon. 12° 4' E. Pop. 10,000. (B.)

ADRIANOPLE, ad'-dre-an-0l-p’l, (Anc. Adrianopolis, i. e. the “city of Adrian;" Turk. Ed/ren-êh), the second city of European Turkey on the Maritza, in a rich plain, 135 m. N. W. of Constantinople. It was the seat of the Turkish dominion in Europe from the year 1366 to 1453, when the residence of the Sultans was transferred to Constantinople. Adrianople is the residence of a grand mollah and of a Greek, archbishop. It contains some interesting Roman antiquities and several remarkable Moslem buildings, among which may be mentioned the mosque of Selim II., regarded as the most magnificent edifice of the kind that has ever been erected. Its dome is said to be even higher than that of St. Sophia's, at Constantinople. Pop. estimated by Balbi at 100,000. Lat. 41° 41' N., Lon. 26° 40' E.

Ad'-RI-AT-IC SEA, or GULF OF VENICE, (Anc. Mare Adriat/icum, or Mare Su/perum,) a great arm of the Mediterranean, extending in a N. W. direction between the coasts of Italy on the W., left, and Albania and Illyria on the right. It lies between 39° 40' and 45° 50' N. Lat., and 12° 10' and 19° 40' E. Lon. Length about 500 m.; greatest breadth 130 m. The Adriatic derives its name from the once important seaport t. of Adria.

A-GE-AN SEA is that portion of the Mediterranean which lies between Asia Minor and Greece.

ÆRÖE, à-rö-e, a Danish island S. of Funen, about 14 m. long, with an area of 32 sq. m., and above 7000 inhab. (P. C.)

ÆT-NẠ or ET'NA, a celebrated volcanic mountain of Sicily, situated near the S. E. coast. Height 10,873 feet. Lat. 37° 37' N., Lon. 15°

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