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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. AL-EP-PO, (Arab. Hål-leb or Hå-lep; Anc. Beræ/a ; -- not the Beræa mentioned in the New Testament: this was in Macedonia~its modern name is KARA VERIA, kål-rå ver-eel-a.) A city of Syria, and cap. of a pashalic of the same name. It was a few years since the third city of the Ottoman empire, yielding only to Constantinople and Cairo; but more than one-half of it was laid in ruins by the earthquake of 1822. Previously to this dreadful catastrophe, its commerce had raised it to the first rank among Asiatic cities, and procured for it the name of the modern Palmyra. Its population, together with that of its immediate environs, before 1822, is estimated by Balbi to have been near 200,000. Lat. 36° 11' N., Lon. 37° 10' E.-Adj. and inhab. ALEPPINE, al-ep-peen. (Arab. Hảl-léb-ee.)

ALESSANDRIA, ål-es-sản-dre-ắ, a t. and, formerly, important fortress of the Sardinian states; cap. of a prov. of the same name on the Tanaro, in Upper Italy, 48 m. S. W. of Milan. Lat. 44° 55' N., Lon. 8° 36' E. Pop. 36,000. (M.)

ALEUTIAN (X-lu/-she-an), or ALEU/TAN ISLANDS, an insular chain in the North Pacific, stretching from the peninsula of Kamtchatka, in Asia, to Cape Alaska, in N. America, belonging to the Russian government of Irkootsk. They are about forty in number, and contain among them several volcanoes. In 1795 a volcanic island rose from the sea, which in 1807 was found to be enlarged to about 20 m. in circuit, and the lava was then flowing down its sides. Aleutian is derived from the Russian word aleut (or aleoot), signifying a “bold rock." (P. C.)

AL-EX-AN-DRET-TA (called by the Turks Is-ken-der-oon' or Scander-oon), a seaport of Syria, on the Gulf of Scanderoon, 30 m. N. of Antioch. Its road is the only one in Syria which affords good anchorage. The air of the place is very insalubrious, so that it is never exerpt from pestilential fevers. Lat. 36° 36' N., Lon. 36° 10' E.

AL-EX-ANI-DRI-A, a co. in the N. E. part of Virginia. Pop. 10,008.

ALEXANDRIA, a city and port of entry; cap. of the above co., on the Potomac, 7 m. S. of Washington. It has a commodious harbour, sufficiently deep for the largest ships. Lat. 38° 49 N., Lon. 77° 4' W. Pop. 8,752.

ALEXANDRIA, (Anc. Alexandrila ;* called Is-kản-der-eel-yeh by the Arabs and Turks,) a large and celebrated city; the ancient capital of Egypt; founded by Alexander the Great, in the year 332 B. C. It is situated at the W. extremity of the Egyptian coast, on the borders of the desert, upon a neck of land between the Mediterranean and L. Mareotis. It was once the centre of science as well as of commerce. Its library, founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus, surpassed all others of which antiquity could boast. Even after its subjection to the Roman Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; nò, not; oo, as in gond; empire, Alexandria scarcely lost any of its splendour. It was consia dered second only to Rome, and still engrossed, as it had done before, the trade of India : goods being brought up the Red Sea, landed at Berenice, and carried across to the Nile, were conveyed down the river and through a canal to the city. After it was reduced by Omar, in 640, and subjected to the Saracen yoke, the caliphs transferred the seat of government to Cairo, and Alexandria was no longer the capital even of Egypt. The discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, by turning the commerce of India into a different channel, completed its downfall. Lat. 31° 13' N., Lon. 29° 55' E. Pop. above 25,000. (B.)-Adj. and inhab. ALEXANDRIAN. (Arab. Skản-der-ål-nee.)

* The accent should be placed upon the penultima of ALEXANDRIA whenever the ancient city is referred to. This accentuation is supported not only by the best authorities of the present day, but by the ancient Greek spelling, Adržavdpira (Alexandria). The same may be said of the ancient name of Philadelphia, which was written by the Greeks Qiladeldara (Philadelpheia).

ALGARVE, ål-garl-vå, or AL-GAR/-PI-4, once an independent kingdom, now the most southern province of Portugal; bounded on the W. and S. by the Atlantic, E. by Andalusia, N. by Alem-Tejo. Length, 85 m. ; greatest breadth, about 30 m.


ALG-EZ-!!-RẠs or ALGECIRAS, (Sp. pron. ảl-hå-theel-rảs,) a town of Andalusia, Spain, on the Gulf of Gibraltar. Lat. 36° 8' N., Lon. 5° 26' W. Pop. about 9,900. (P. C.)

ALGIERS, ål-jeerz/, or AL-GE/-RI-A (Arab. Al-Jéz-air,) a territory of northern Africa, forming one of the principal of the Barbary States, between 34o and 37° 7' N. Lat., and 80° 40' E. and 20 W. Lon.; bounded on the N. by the Mediterranean, E. by Tunis, S. by the Atlas, which separates it from the Beled-ool-Jereed, or Country of Dates, and on the W. by Morocco, from which it is divided by the desert of Angrab. It comprehends the greater part of the Numidia and Mauritania Tingitana of the ancients. In the sixteenth century, the celebrated corsair, Barbarossa, took possession of Algiers, and became its ruler. The utmost efforts of the emperor, Charles V., proved abortive against the power thus founded; and Algiers, under enterprising chiefs, became a great naval state, which continued for three centuries the terror of Christendom. More recently, however, from a want of intelligence in the rulers, and from not sharing in the rapid improvements of the European states, she had lost much of her relative importance and power; and finally, in the year 1830, was conquered by the French army, under Marshal Bourmont, and subjected to the dominion of France.--Adj. and inhab. ALGERINE, ål-jer-een.

ALGIERS, à celebrated city, and cap. of the country of the same name, is situated on the coast of the Mediterranean, upon the declivity of a hill, on which the houses rise gradually in the form of an amphitheatre, and terminate nearly in a point at the summit. It is not above a mile and a half in circuit. The largest street is said to be 1200 paces long, and not more than 12 feet wide. The population, previous to the French conquest, had been variously estimated, from 80,000 to 200,000, and even 300,000; but it is probable that even the first estimate was much beyond the truth. According to a census taken by the French in 1833, the whole number of inhabitants, exclusive of the garrison, amounted only to 23,753. (B.) Lat. 36° 49' N., Lon. 3° 25' E.


ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this; N, nearly like ng.

ALHAMA, ål-hål-mả, a t. of Spain, in Andalusia, 25 m. S. W. of Granada, celebrated for its baths. Pop. 6,300. (B.)

ALICANTE, ảl-e-can-tå, or AL'-!-CANT', a seaport and comercial t, of Spain, in Valencia, with a strong citadel. It is 78 m. S. of Valencia Lat. 38° 20' N., Lon. 0° 28' W. Pop. 25,000. (B.)

ALICATA, å-le-kảl -tå, a fortified t. on the S. coast of Sicily, 20 m. E. S. E. of Girgenti. Lat. 37° 5' N., Lon. 13° 55' E. Pop. 13,465. (M.)

ALKMAAR, ålk-mar', a well-built and strongly fortified t. of Holland, 20 m. N. N. W. of Amsterdam. Lat. 52° 38' N., Lon. 4° 45' E. Pop. about 9,000. (B.)

ALLAHABAD, ảl'-la-ha-bảd', (i. e. “ city of God,") an ancient city of Hindostan; cap. of a prov. of the same name. At the distance of about two miles from the town, is situated, at the junction of the rivers Ganges and Jumna, the celebrated fortress of Allahabad, founded by the emperor Akbar, in the year 1583, one of the most esteemed places of Hindoo worship and ablution. Every summer multitudes of pilgrims resort thither from all parts of India, and, encamping on the sands between the two rivers, perform their purifications and other ceremonies for nearly two months. This fortress stands in Lat. 25° 27' N., Lon. 81° 50' E., being, by the course of the Ganges, 820 m. from the sea. Pop. 20,000. (B.)

ALLE, ål/-leh, a r. of Prussia, which flows into the Pregel, about 30 m. E. of Königsberg.

AL'-LE-GUA-NY* MOUNTAINS, a chain of mountains, stretching from Maine to the N. part of Georgia. In New England they are less than 100 m. from the Atlantic coast, but gradually diverge as they advance southward, so that near their southern extremity, they are more than 300 m. from the sea. They divide the waters which flow into the Atlantic from those that flow into the Mississippi. Some writers on geography describe the Alleghany mountains as commencing in Georgia and terminating at the Hudson. But there appears to be no sufficient reason why the Green Mountains of Vermont, and White Mountains of New Hampshire, should not be included under the same general appellation with the rest of this chain. They are also sometimes called the Ap'-PA-LA-CHI-AN MOUNTAINS.

ALLEGHANY, à r. which rises in Pa., and after making a circuit into N. Y., returns again into Pa., and, uniting with the Monongahela at Pittsburg, forms the Ohio.

ALLEGHANY, a co. in the W. part of Pa., surrounding the mouth of the Alleghany r. Pop. 138,290. Co. t. Pittsburg.

ALLEGHANÝ, a co. in the S. W. part of N. Y., bordering on Pa. Pop. 37,808. Co. t. Angelica.

* We regret to perceive that it is becoming customary, even in works of a respectable character, to write this name Allegheny. It is difficult to conceive of any sufficient motive for departing from the ordinary spelling, which gives the true pronunciation, in order to adopt another, which contradicts the pronunciation. We are compelled, therefore, to place this in the list of retrograde innovations.

Fåte, får, fäll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; nð, nột ; oo as in good,

ALLEGHANY, a co. forming the W. extremity of Maryland. Pop. 22,769. Co. t. Cumberland.

ALLEGHANY, a co. in the central part of Virginia, near the source of James r. Pop. 3,515. Co. t. Covington.

A1/-Len, a co. in the S. part of Kentucky, bordering on Tennessee, a little W. of the Cumberland r. Pop. 8,742. Co. t. Scottsville.

ALLEN, a co. in the W.N. W. part of Ohio, on the Miami Canal. Pop. 12,109. Co. t. Lima.

ALLEN, a co. in the N. E. part of Indiana, intersected by the Maumeer. Pop. 16,919. Co. t. Fort Wayne.

ALLIER, ảl'-le-à, a r. of France, flowing into the Loire, 3 m. below · Nevers.

ALLIER, a dep. in the E. central part of France, intersected by the above r. Pop. 309,270. (B.) Capital, Moulins.

All-L0-A, seaport of Scotland, in Clackmannan co., on the N. bank of the Forth, 27 m. W. N. W. of Edinburgh. The harbour is safe and commodious. Lat. 56o my' N., Lon. 3° 46' W. Pop. 5,434.

ALMADEN, ål-må-den, a t. of Spain, in New Castile, 55 m. N. of Cordova. Its mines of quicksilver are regarded as the richest in Europe. Pop. about 10,000. The mines of Almaden have been long known, and are supposed to have been wrought by the Romans; a few years ago they yielded, annually, about 22,000 quintals of mercury. (B.)

ALMANSA, ål-mản/-sả, a t. of Spain, 60 m. S. W. of Valencia. Pop. 5,000. (M.)

ALMEIDA, ảl-male-dả, one of the strongest fortresses in Portugal, situated in the prov. of Beira, on the Spanish frontier. Lat. 40° 37' N., Lon. 6° 52 W. Pop. 1,150. (P. C.)

ALMERIA, ål-må-reel -å, a rich maritime t. of Spain, in the prov. of Granada, near the mouth of the r. Almeria, 77 m. S. E. of Granada, with a good harbour. Lat. 36° 44' N., Lon. 2° 31' W. Pop. 19,000. (B.)

ALMUNECAR, ảl-moo-nå-cảrl, a small seaport t. of Spain, with a good harbour and a castle, 38 m. S. of Granada. Lat. 36° 42' N., Lon. 3° 47' W.

ALNWICK or ALNEWICK, an-nik, a t. of England, in the co. of Northumberland, 32 m. N. by W. of Newcastle. At the N. entrance of the town stands Alnwick Castle, a magnificent mansion, belonging to the duke of Northumberland. The original building is supposed to have been a stronghold in the time of the Romans. Lat. 55° 25' N., Lon. 1° 42' W. Pop. 4,945.

AL-PEX-NA (Anamickee), a co. in the N. E. part of Mich., bordering on L. Huron.

ALPS, ålps, mountains of Europe, which divide Italy from France, Switzerland, and Germany. Their general form resembles that of a crescent. Beginning near the mouth of the Var, on the Gulf of Genoa, they terminate, after many windings, near the Gulf of Trieste, on the Adriatic. The highest summit is Mount Blanc. (See BLANC, MOUNT.)

ALPS, LOWER, (Fr. Basses-Alpes, bảss ålp,) a dep. near the S. E. ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. extremity of France, bordering on Italy. Pop. 159.045. (B.) Capital, Digne.

ALPS, UPPER, (Fr. Hautes-Alpes, ote zảlp,) a dep. in the S. E. part of France, N of, and bordering on the preceding. · Pop. 131,162. (B.) Capital, Gap.

ALSACE, ảl'-sảss, a former prov. of France, now divided into the deps. of Upper and Lower Rhine.

Als, ảls, usually, though improperly, written ALSEN, ål/ -sen, a fertile island in the Baltic, lying between Fünen and the E. coast of Sleswick. It is about 20 m. long and 8 broad. Pop. about 15,000. (P. C.)

ALTAÏ ål-tål-e or ål-ti, mountains of Asia, which commence near the sea of Aral, and terminate at East Cape, on the Pacific Ocean, in the 170th degree of W. Long. They traverse, under different names, an extent of near 5,000 miles. The highest part of the chain is computed at 11,512 feet (1,800 toises) above the level of the sea. (B.)

ALTAMAHA, aul'-tạ-ma-hau', a r. of Georgia, formed by the union of the Oconee and Ocmulgee. It runs S. E., and empties into the sea about 60 m. S. W. of Savannah. It is navigable for vessels of 30 tons as far as Milledgeville, on the Oconee branch, about 300 m. from the sea.

ALTAMURA, ảl-tå-mool-rả, a t. of Naples, in the prov. of Bari. Lat. 40° 47' N., Lon. 16° 33' E. Pop. estimated at 16,000. (B.)

ALTENBURG, åll-ten-burg', (Ger. pron. all-ten-bõõrg',) a t. of Germany; cap. of the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg, on the Pleisse, with several important literary institutions. Lat. about 51° N., Lon. 12° 30' E. Pop, about 12,000. (B.)

ALTON, aull-ton, a flourishing t. of Ill., in Madison co., on the Mississippi, 3 m. above the mouth of the Missouri. A railroad 63 m. long connects it with Springfield. Pop. 3,875.

ALTONA or ALTENA, å]/-ton-å', a city of Holstein, the second town of the Danish dominions, as regards industry, commerce, and population; on the Elbe, about 2 m. W. of Hamburg. It is a free port, and contains a mint, besides several important literary and scientific institutions. The Observatory is in Lat. 53° 32' 51" N., Lon. 9° 56' 50" E. Pop. estimated at above 27,000. (B.)

ALTORF, ål-torf, or ALTDORF, (i. e. “Old Village,'') the cap. of the Swiss canton of Uri, about 2 m. from the S. E. extremity of the lake of Lucerne. Here the tyrant Gessler proceeded to those indignities which, through the patriotism of William Tell, laid the foundation of Swiss independence. Lat. 46° 53' N., Lon. 8° 38' E. Pop. about 1,500. (B.)

ALTZEY or ALZEY, ålt/-sí, a t. in the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, 14 m. N. W. of Worms. Pop. 3,600. (B.)

AMAGER, ål-må-ger, a small island in the Baltic, lying opposite to Copenhagen, with which it is connected by two bridges. It is about 9 m. long, and, on an average, 3 broad. It supplies the neighbouring town with garden vegetables, milk, butter, and cheese. A part of Copenhagen, called Christianshavn, is built on this island.


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