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Fate, får, fåll, fát; mè, inėt; pine or pine, pin; nò, nốt; oo, as in good; Armenia, which is stated by Ritter to be 7,000 feet above the level of the sea. The smaller cone is separated from the greater by a plain of considerable extent, and is much lower. The surrounding people regulate their agricultural operations by the melting of the snow on the little Ararat, from the summit of which it entirely disappears in summer.

ARAS, år/-as, (Anc. Araxles), a r. of Armenia, which rises about 20

(Kur). Length estimated at above 500 m.

AR-AU-CAI-NI-ANS, a nation of Indians of S. America, inhabiting a country bounded on the N. by the r. Bio-bio, E. by the great Cordillera of the Andes, S. by Valdivia, and W. by the Pacific Ocean ; extending along the coast about 180 m., with a breadth, from the sea to the crest of the Andes, of perhaps 150 m. They are a brave and hardy people, very jealous of their honour, hospitable, honest, grateful, generous, and humane; but when not at war, indolent, haughty, and addicted to intoxication. The Araucanians have sustained an almost uninterrupted war against the Spaniards from the first invasion in 1537, until the present time. Their independence was formally acknowledged by Spain in 1773, and they were allowed to send an ambassador, who should reside at Santiago de Chili. (P. C.)

ARBE, ar/-bå, an i. in the Gulf of Venice, containing an area of about 29 sq. m., and between 3,000 and 4,000 inhabitants. Also, a small t. on the above island. Lat. 44° 45' N., Lon. 14° 50' E. (P. C.)


ARCHANGEL, ark-anel-jel, (Russ. pron. ÅRK-ång/-gel,) a prov. the most northern and the most extensive of Russia in Europe. Its superficial extent is estimated at 300,000 sq.m. Pop. perhaps 280,000. (P.C.)

ARCHANGEL, an archiepiscopal t.; the cap. of the above, on the Dwina, with a fine harbour, which, however, is ordinarily free from ice only from July to September. It was the only town in Russia of any commercial importance, previously to the founding of St. Petersburgh, in 1703; since which time its trade has diminished, though it is still the depository of foreign merchandise destined for Siberia. Pop. 19,262. (B.) Lat. 64° 32' N., Lon. 40° 43' E.

AR'-cor', a decayed city of Hindostan; the Mahometan cap. of the Carnatic. It is a place of great antiquity, and was once an important Indian fortress. Lat. 12° 54' N., Lon. 79° 22' E.

ARDÈCHE, AR'-daish), a small r. of France, which flows into the Rhone,

ARDÈCHE, a dep. in the S. E. of France, W. of, and bordering on the Rhone. Pop. 353,752. (B.) Capital, Privas.

ARDENNES, ar'-denn/,* (Lat. Arduen/na Sillva,) a celebrated forest of France, which gives name to the dep. of Ardennes.

* In the works of some of the poets, this name is spelled Arden, in which case it is to be accentuated on the former syllable.

“Beyond old ARDEN, in his sister's home"-
“ The warrior who from ARDEN's fated fount
Drank of the bitter waters of aversion."

SOUTHEY's Joan of Arc, Books I and IV

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. ARDENNES, a dep, in the N. of France, bordering on Belgium. Pop. 306,861. (B.) Capital, Mezières.

ARI-DRAH, a small kingdom of Africa, on the coast of Guinea.-Also, the cap. of the above. Lat. near 7° N., Lon. 2° 30' E. Pop. estimated at 20,000. (B.)

AREQUIPA, ảr-à-keel-pả, cap. of a prov. of the same name, and, after Lima, the largest and finest city of Peru, near the r. Quilca (keell-kả), about 50 m. from the sea. It was founded by Pizarro, in 1539. The houses are built chiefly of stone; low and very substantial, with a view to resist the shock of earthquakes. Its manufactures and trade are considerable. Pop. estimated at above 30,000. (B.)

AREzzo, å-ret-so, (Lat. Arre/tium,) an ancient and still considerable t. of Tuscany, 40 m. Š. E. of Florence. Arretium was one of the most wealthy and populous cities of ancient Etruria, and has ever since held an important place in the history of Italy. Arezzo is remarkable for having been the birth-place of many distinguished men, among others, Guido, the first restorer of modern music, and the celebrated Petrarch. Lat. 43° 28' N., Lon. 11° 52' E. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

ARGENTAN, ar'-zhảN'-tảN', a t. of France, in the dep. of Orne, 23 m. N. of Alencon. Lat. 48° 44' N., Lon. 0° 1' E. Pop. about 6,000. (P.C.)

ARGENTEUIL, ar'-zhản -tusl, a t. of France, in the dep. of Seine and Oise, on the right bank of the Seine. Lat. 48° 56' N., Lon. 2° 14' E. Pop. 4,700. (P. C.)

ARGENTIÈRE, ar'-zhản-te-air), a small t. of France, in the dep. of Ardèche, 20 m. S. W. of Privas. It derives its name from the mines of silver (argentum), wrought here in the 12th century. (M.)

ARGOON or Argun. See AMOOR. . ARGOSTOLI, ar-gosl-to-le, the chief t. of Cephalonia, with the best harbour in the island, and considerable commerce. Lat 38° 10' N., Lon. 20° 30' E. Pop. about 5,000. (B.)

ARG-YLE' (often written Argyll), a shíre in the W. of Scotland, bordering on the sea. Pop. 97,371.

ARGYRO-CASTRO, arl-ghe-ro-cas/-tro, (Mod. Gr. Arguro/-kastron, Turk. Ergree Kastree,) an inland t. of Albania. Lat. 40° 7' N., Lon. 20° 13' E. Pop. estimated at from 15,000 to 20,000. (P. C.)

ARICA, å-reel-kả, a seaport t. of Peru, once a flourishing and populous place, but now a miserable village. It has suffered much from earthquakes, particularly in 1608. During the war of independence, it was entirely desolated. Present pop. not above 400. (P. C.)

ARIÈGE, \'-re-aizh', a small r. of France, tributary to the Garonne.

AKIÈGE, a dep. in the S. of France, on the sources of the above r., and bordering on Spain. Pop. 260,536. (B.) Capital, Foix.

AR-KAN-sas or ARI-KAN-SAW', a r. of N. America; next to the Missouri, the largest affluent of the Mississippi. It rises in the Rocky Mountains, and, after a course of more than 2,000 m., flows into the Mississippi, in Lat. 33° 54' N., Lon. 91° 10' W. It is navigable almost lo its source.

ARKANSAS, one of the U. S., between 330 and 36° 30' N. Lat., and Fate, får, fäll, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pīne, pin; nó, nột; öö as in goud!, 89° 50' and 94° 40' W. Lon.; bounded on the N. by Missouri, E. by the Mississippi 1., which separates it from Tennessee and the state of Mississippi, S. by Louisiana, and W. by the Indian Territory; and divided into 51 counties.* Length, from E. to W., 264 m.; breadth, from N. to S., about 240. Area estimated at 54,500 sq. m. Pop. 209,639; of whom 162,068 are whites, 589 free coloured persons, and 46,982 slaves. Arkansas was admitted into the Union in 1836. Little Rock is the seat of government.

ARKANSAS, a co. in the E. part of Arkansas, intersected by the Arkansas r. Pop. 3,245. Co. t. Arkansas.

AR-KEE/-KO (Arkiko), a seaport on the W. coast of the Red Sea. Though a small and miserable place, it is the point through which all the maritime intercourse of Abyssinia is carried on. P. C.) Lat. 15° 38' N., Lon. 39° 37' E.

ARLES, arlz, (Fr. pron. arl; Lat. Arelalte,) an ancient t. of France, on the left bank of the Rhone, about 50 m. W. N. W. of Marseilles. It formerly held a conspicuous place among the cities of Europe, but has fallen greatly to decay. The numerous existing ruins attest its former magnificence, and constitute its principal claims to our attention. Lat. 43° 40 N., Lon. 4° 38' E. Pop. 13,342. (M.)

ARMAGH, ar-mål, an inland co. in the N. of Ireland. Pop. in 1831, 220,651. (P. C.)

ARMAGH, a city of Ireland, and cap. of the above co. In the middle centuries it was celebrated as a place of learning, and, according to the Irish historians, had, at one time, 7,000 students at its college. At present it possesses several establishments for education, an observalory, a lunatic asylum, and a fever hospital. Armagh is the residence of an English archbishop, who is styled Primate of all Ireland. The Observatory is in 54° 21' 12'' N. Lat., and 6° 38' 52" W. Lon. Pop. in 1834, 10,764. (M.)

ARMAGNAC, ảr'-mản -yảk/, formerly a county of Gascony, in France; now chiefly comprehended in the dep. of Gers.--Adj. and inhab. ARMAGNAC.

AR-ME-NI-A (Turk. Ermineel yeh), a country of Asia Minor. It is not defined by any permanent natural boundaries. In the course of its history, we find its limits exposed to continual changes. In its widest application, it may be said to embrace the country from L. Ooroomeeyeh (Ourmiah), and the junction of the rivers Koor and Aras, on the E., to the upper course of the Kizil Ermac, on the W.; and from the upper course of the rivers Tchorak and Koor, on the N., to the Taurian Mountains, in the direction of Beer, Mardeen and Nisibis, on the S. The country, in general, is mountainous, and, owing to its height

* Arkansas, Ashley, Benton, Bradley, Carroll, Chicot, Clarke, Conway, Crawford, Crittenden, Desha, Drew, Francis St., Franklin, Fulton, Greene, Hempstead, Hot Spring, Independence, Izard, Jackson, Jefferson, Johnson, Lafayette, Lawrence, Madison, Marion, Miller, Mississippi, Monroe, Montgomery, Newton, Phillips, Pike, Poinsett, Polk, Pope, Prairie, Pulaski, Randolph, Saline, Scott, Searcy, Sevier, Union, Van Buren, Washington, Washita, White, Yell.

ou, as in our , th, as in thin ; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. above the level of the sea, is colder than might have been expected froin its geographical position. (See ARARAT.) The principal productions are wheat, barley, cotton, hemp, tobacco, and manna, besides ya. rious fruits. Many of the Armenians are engaged in trade, and bear a high character for integrity in their dealings. They forin the chief class of traders in the Persian empire, and are found scattered over various other parts of the world. Their religion is a species of Christianity.--Adj. and inhab. AR-ME-NI-AN.

ARMENTIÈRES, ar'-mản - te-air', 'a't. of France, in the dep. of Nord, near the Belgian frontier, on the Lys, 10 m. N. N. W. of Lille. Lat. 50° 41' N., Lon. 2° 52' E. Pop. 7,700. (M. B.)

ARMI-STRONG, a co. in the W. part of Pa., N. E. of Pittsburg, and intersected by the Alleghany r. Pop. 29,560. Co. t. Kittaning.

ARN-HEM (supposed to be the Roman Arenacum), a fortified city of the Netherlands; cap. of Guelderland. It was formerly one of the Hanse towns. Lat. 52° N., Lon. 5° 52' E. Pop. about 11,000. (B.)

Ar/-no (Lat. Arlnus), the principal river of Tuscaný, rises in the Apennines, and, passing through Florence and Pisa, flows into the sea, about 5 m. W. of the latter town. Length about 150 m. It is navigable to Florence.

ARNSBERG, arns/-bérg, or ARENSBERG, a t. of the Prussian States; cap. of a circle of the same name; the largest of the three circles which form the prov. of Westphalia. Lat. 51° 24' N., Lon. 8° 1' E. Pop. 3,200. (B.)

ARNSTADT, arn-stått, a t. of Saxony, on the Gera, 11 m. S. of Erfurt. Lat, 50° 49' N., Lon. 10° 57' E. Pop. about 5,000. (B.)

AR-OOSI-TOOK, a co. forming the N. E. part of Maine. Pop. 12,535. Co. t. Houlton.

ARPINO, AR-peel-no, (Anc. Arpi/num,) a city of Naples, near the confines of the kingdom, about 60 m. S. E. of Rome. It is celebrated as the birth-place of Cicero and Marius, to which circumstance it was önce indebted for its preservation. In the wars between the houses of Anjou and Aragon, for the possession of the kingdom of Naples, Arpino took part with the French against the Aragonese and the Pope. The pontiff (Pius II.) generously commanded Orsini, his successful captain, to “ spare Arpino for the memory of Caius Marius and Marcus Tullius.” It has manufactories of parchment, leather, paper, and of the best cloth made in the kingdom. Lat. 41° 41' N., Lon. 13° 37' E. Pop. estimated at above 8,000. (B.)

AR'-RA-CAN or ARACAN (called by the natives Rakhaing), a country of Chin-India, lying along the E. shore of the Bay of Bengal, between 170 and 21° 30' N. Lat., and 92° 20' and 94° 30' E. Lon. It formerly belonged to the Burmese empire, but in 1826 became one of the possessions of the East India Company. Its extreme length, from N.NW. to S. S. E., is, perhaps, 230 m., and its average breadth about 50 m. (P. C.)

ARRACAN, the ancient cap. of the above prov., on a small river of the same name. It was once a flourishing and populous city, so that the

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number of its inhabitants was estimated at above 100,000, but at present it does not probably amount to a third of that number. (B.) Lat. 20° 43' N., Lon. 93° 25' E.

AR-RAN, a mountainous and romantic i. on the W. coast of Scotland, forming a part of Buteshire. It is more than 20 m. long, and about 1% wide. Pop. 6,241.

AR/-RAS (Fr. pron. år'-rảs/), a fortified and important t. of France; formerly the cap. of Artois, and now of the dep. of Pas de Calais, on the S. bank of the river Scarpe, which begins here to be navigable, 108 m. N. by E. of Paris. It was the cap. of the ancient Atrebaltes, from which it derives its name, and was a manufacturing t. in the time of St. Jerome, about the beginning of the 5th century. Robespierre was a native of Arras. Lat. 50° 17' N., Lon. 2° 46' E. Pop. 23,485. (B.)


AR-TA (Anc. Ambra/cia, Turk. Narl-dả), a t. of Albania, on a river of the same name. It was a few years since a flourishing place, with a population estimated at above 9,000, (B.); but it suffered greatly in the struggle for Grecian freedom. Lat. 39° 13' N., Lon. 21° 4' E.

Artois, ar'-twảl, a former prov. of France, now comprehended in the dep. of Pas de Calais. It takes its name from the Atrebaltes, a nation of the ancient Gauls, who inhabited this region, and from whose name Arras is also derived.

ARUNDEL, år/-un-del, a t. of England, on the Arun, in the co. of Sussex, 50 m. S. S. W. of London. Lat. 50° 51' N., Lon. 0° 33' W. Pop. 2,624.

ASAPH (azl-af) St., an ancient city of Wales, in Flintshire, about 5 m. from the sea. Pop. of the parish, 3,338. .

ASCENSION, as-sen-shun, an i. in the S. Atlantic, between Africa and Brazil. It is 71 m. long, and 6 m. wide. It owes its name to the circumstance of its having been discovered on Ascension-day, in 1501. It was then barren and entirely uninhabited by men. In 1815 the British took possession of the island, as a military station, and established a garrison there. Lat. of the fort, 7° 56' N., Lon. 14° 24' W.

ASCENSION, a parish in the central part of Louisiana, lying on both sides of the Mississippi. Pop. 10,752. Seat of justice, Donaldsonville.

ASCH-AF/-FỆN-BURG or å-shảf l-fen-bóórg', a principality of Germany, now belonging to Bavaria.-Also, a t. in the above principality, 25 m. S. E. of Frankfort. Lat. 50° 1' N., Lon. 9° 7' E. Pop. about 7,000. (B.)

ASCHERSLEBEN, ảsh'-ers-là/-ben, a t. of Germany, in a circle of the same name, 18 m. S. E. of Halberstadt. Lat. 51° 46' N., Lon. 11° 27 E. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

ASCOLI, ảs/-ko-le, (Lat. As/culum), a t. of the Papal State, 15 m. N. W. of Teramo. It was a place of importance in the time of the Romans, and we find it often mentioned both in ancient and modern history. Ascoli is one of the best built and most pleasant towns in the Papal State. Lat. 42° 50' N., Lon. 13° 37' E. Pop. 12,000. (P. C.)

ASH-AN-TEE, a powerful kingdom of Africa, on the Gold Coast, Counded during the last century, by Saï Tootoo. Little is known to

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