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had hired for that purpose. After the ground was broken an irrigating ditch was opened which, for want of time and means, is only one thousand yards long.
An acre of potatoes and one-half acre of corn, and a variety of other vegetables, were planted by the 15th of May. About this time the melting snow in the mountains had raised the river and filled the ditch. Everything would have soon been in fine growing condition but for the breaking of the embankment of the ditch at a point where it crossed a low slough. Before the breach could be repaired the river, in consequence of the cold weather, had receded to its low stage, and did not rise again until the middle of June. By that time twotbirds of the seed potatoes had become as dry as chips, and could never grow. The balance with everything else came up in the latter part of June and grew very finely. There will be about fifty bushels of potatoes, ten of corn, twenty of turnips, and a good supply of beets, onions, cabbages, watermelons, &c. The 1st of July I planted an acre and a half with turnips. The seed came up well, but was quickly devoured by the grasshoppers. I replanted them, but with the same result. These pests, which visit us occasionally, would be pretty thoroughly subdued by a general system of irrigation.
I have cut and stacked fifteen tons of bay. The yield was very light, for the reason that the river remained at a low stage until a late period in the season.
The Indians in the vicinity of this agency have been as peaceable as could be desired. They have manifested much interest in my first efforts at farming, and voluntarily offered to assist in any way they could, but having neither provisions to feed them nor tools for them to work with, I was obliged to decline their assistance. They seem to realize the importance of their soon becoming an agricultural people, and would no doubt, with proper management, make good farmers.
The agricultural land upon this reserve will average about one-quarter of a mile wide and is twenty-four miles long, lying on either bank of the Waiker river. Deducting the space occupied by the sloughs and the river bed, the arable iand will amount to about three thou sand acres. It is all more or less impregnated with salts and alkali, which will disappear, however, with each year's cultivation.
The average fall in the river is about five feet to the mile, while the good land lies some six feet above the river bed. Therefore, in order to get water upon the surface at all seasons of the year, a ditch without a dam must be at least one mile" long. Above the agency three miles a dam can be constructed from rocks which are close to the river bank. A ditch on each side of the river, from the dam down and past the agency as far as it could be taken without fluming past the bluffs which occur occasionally below, would irrigate about seven hundred acres of land. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
H. A. THOMAS, Farmer. FRANKLIN CAMPBELL, Esq.,
United States Indian Agent.
OFFICE SUPERINTENDENT INDIAN AFFAIRS,
Carson City, Nevada, May 10, 1866. Sir: On the 28th of March last I had the honor to address you a cominunication informing you that certain parties (four white men) had squatted upon the Truckee River reservation with a view to claim and bold for their own use and benefit certain tracts of desirable agricultural land, the same being part of said reservation, &c. On the 10th ultimo I caused a notice to be served upon each of them, requiring them to leave, and to desist from making further settlement and committing further trespass thereon. With the requirements of this notice they refused to comply, whereupon I made application to Lieutenant Colonel A. E. Hooker, commanding the district of Nevada, who promptly furnished me with eight soldiers, under the command of a lieutenant, for the purpose of ejecting them by force if necessary. Í proceeded to the reservation, where I met the officer in command, who, with the soldiers, aocompanied me to where the squatters were residing.
On being informed of my intention to eject them by force in case they refused to move, and seeing that I had a sufficient number of United States soldiers to accomplish the object, they expressed their willingness to leave immediately, which they proceeded to do without further delay, promising they would not again make any attempt to claim or settle upon the lands within the limits of the reservation. I remain, sir, respectfully, your very obedient servant,
H. G. PARKER,
Superintendent Indian Affairs, Nerada. Hon. D. N. COOLEY,
Commissioner, Washington, D. C.
OFFICE SUPERINTENDENT INDIAN AFFAIRS,
Carson City, Nevada, April 19, 1866. SIR: Agreeably to your instructions I have from time to time since their reception made calculations and estimates in relation to the cost of a building suitable for a school-house on one of the reservations in this State, of sufficient capacity to accommodate fifty pupils, including houses for the teachers, and boarding and lodging house for the scholars.
Much time has necessarily been occupied in computing and ascertaining from different sources the cost of materal and construction, and the collecting of other important facts in relation to the matter. Taking it for granted that the school, if established, will, as set forth in your letter of instructions, be conducted on the manual-labor or industrial principles in connexion with book education, I have, after a careful investigation of the subject, based upon the experience and judgment of intelligent mechanics and builders here, arrived at the conclusion that to erect the buildings for dormitories, refectories, school-rooms, dwelling-house for teachers, and furnish the same, and fence a quantity of laud sufficient for the purposes of the school, and furnish the requisite stock, tools, teams, seeds, &c., it will require an expenditure of eleven thousand five hundred dollars, ($11,500.)
I am of the opinion, however, that if I could have time to personally superintend the con; struction of the work, it might be done for an amount somewhat less. This, thongh, would depend to some extent upon the quantity of labor which the Indians might be induced to perform.
My experience is that the Indians will labor, if they can be led to understand that they are not to be made the victims of misdirected energy by laboring in vain. I have abundant evidence that many of them will make good farmers, in order to become which they only need to be encouraged.
After the first expenses of such an undertaking were paid, I incline to the opinion that the school could easily be made self-sustaining. Blacksmiths, farmers, and teachers can be procured here for seventy-five dollars per month. I bave the honor to be, sir, very truly, your obedient servant,
H. G. PARKER,
Superintendent Indian Affairs, Nerada. Hon. D. N. COOLEY,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington City, D. C.
OFFICE OF SUPERINTENDENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS,
Great Salt Lake City, Utah, September 20, 1866. Sir: I have the honor to submit my annual report of the general condition of Indian affairs within the Utah superintendency for that portion of the year past during which I have been acting as superintendent. The Indian tribes within this superintendency are :
1. The eastern bands of Shoshones and the mixed bands of Bannocks and Shoshones. These bands all recognize Washakee as chief. They number about four thousand five hundred souls.
2. The northwestern bands of Shoshones. These Indians number about eighteen hundred. Pokatello, Black Beard, and San Pitz are the principal chiefs.
3. The western Shoshopes. These Indians number about two thousand.
6. The Utahs. These Indians are now principally consolidated into two bands, one under the control of Tabby, who has succeeded to the chieftainship made virtually vacant by the old age and infirmity of Sow-i-et. This band is composed of the Tim-pa-nogs, the Vintas, and the San-pitches, and numbers about four thousand. The other Utahs are known as PabVants, and are controlled by Ranosh, and number about fifteen hundred.
7. The Pah Edes. These Indians number about six hundred. Their principal chief is Tut-sey-gub-bets.
8. The Pah-Utes. These Indians number about sixteen hundred.
THE EASTERN BANDS OF SHOSHONES.
These Indians are under the special supervision of Agent Luther Mann, whose annual report is herewith transmitted. They are the most wealthy of any Indians in the Territory, owing to their hunting grounds embracing much territory still frequented by the buffalo. The robos taken by them on their hunting excursions form an article of traffic of considerable im.
portance, and enable them by the sale of their surplus skins to purchase ponies, ammunition, &c. During the year these Indians have been entirely friendly. Washakre, their chief, is the noblest Indian, both in act and appearance, that I have ever known. When young he spent much of his time for many years in company with the famous Kit Carson, then an adrenturons trapper among the Rocky mountains. Carson and his companions had frequent skirmishes with hostile savages, and the familiarity which Washakee thus acquired with the aits of civilized warfare enabled him to rise to the chieftainship of his tribe. It is his boast that he bas never shed the blood or stolen the property of a white man. The propriety of soon locating these Indians upon a suitable reservation is discussed at large in the report of Agent Mann, and his views are such as meet my entire approbation. The Wind River valley, which is the favorite hunting ground for these Indians, will be the most suitable locality, unless it shall be found to be rich in mipes of gold and silver and springs of petroleum. Should this be the case, it would not perhaps be the policy of the government to prevent the development of its mineral resources by setting it apart as a reservation. Its location, too, is a considerable distance from the usual lines of travel, and would render the transportation of supplies, presents, &c., somewhat inconvenient and expensive. The miners are, however, already prospecting this valley, and the results of their researches will soon be known. The rapid development of the surrounding territory will soon render the isolation of the valley less complete, and should it not be valuable for mining an exploration of the same should be made, and the Shoshones permanently located thereon. These Indians receive an annuity of $10,000, according to the provisions of the treaty of July 2, 1863. This amount is usually sent in goods, and is ample to comfortably clothe the Indians in connexion with the proceeds of the sales of their surplus robes and fürs.
These Indians are very poor, their country affording but little game. They are peaceably disposed, and will probably become merged in the eastern bands within a few years, should Washakee live and retain his popularity and influence. A considerable number of these Indians, including the two chiefs Pokutello and Black Beard, have this season accompanied Washakee to the Wind River valley on his annual buffalo hunt. These Indiaus receive an annuity of $5,000 in goods by the provisions of the treaty of July 30, 1863. This is sufficient to clothe them comfortably, but it is necessary to furnish them, during the winter season especially, considerable amount of provisions to keep them from starvi Neither these Indians por the eastern bands have as yet displayed any inclination to agriculture, or an abandonment of their nomadic life.
These Indians range throughout western Utah and eastern Nevada. They are extremely poor, their country being in great part a desert, and almost entirely destitute of game. These Indians are also the recipients of an annuity of $5,000. They are well disposed and friendly, no depredations of any kind having been brought to my notice during the past year. It is necessary to distribute a considerable amount of provisions yearly to these In. dians to prevent starvation among them. Their only offences for many years have been in stealing occasionally an ox when in danger of actual starvation.
These Indians range between the Great Salt Lake and the land of the western Shoshones. Many of them are quite industrious, maintaining themselves in good part by herding stock, and other labor for the settlers. Their country is destitute of game, and it is necessary to furnish them with a considerable amount of provisions. They are the recipients of an annuity of $1,000, which is entirely insufficient to supply their wants. It should be at least $5,000. These Indians are entirely friendly.
These Indians are the most worthless and indolent of any in the Territory. Their land is nearly all occupied by settlers, anong whom they beg their maintenance. To-Tado, or Little Soldier, their principal chief, a worthy and reliable Indian. All the band are well disposed. They are much opposed to leaving their present hauuts to locate upon a reservation.
Sow-i-et, long the head chief of the Utahs, now claims to be 130 years of age. He is Dearly blind, and exceedingly infirm. During the past year he has virtually abandoned all claims to the chieftainship, so far as concerns the supervision and immediate control of the Indians, and Tabby is now recognized as the leading chief. Sow-i-et is still much revered by his people, and his voice is and has always been in favor of peace. The Cintah-Utes occupy the country set apart in 1861 as a reservation for the Indian tribes of Utah. During the past year nearly all the Tim-pa-nogs and San-pitches have removed to Cintah valley, and while preserving their organization in part, recognize Tabby as chief. The Tim-pa-nogs and San-pitches are much more disposed to agricultural pursuits than the Uintabs, and their influence in this respect will be advantageous. All the Utahs are now well disposed and de sirous of peace, although some months since there was much danger of a general outbreak, as is more fully detailed in another portion of this report. The Pab-Vants are also favorably disposed to agricultural pursuits. Their chief, Ranosh, is a most worthy and reliable man, and with his tribe will probably be removed to the Cintah Valley reservation during the coming year. Early in the spring I procured to be ploughed for these Indians, at Cora creek and Deseret, about twenty-tive acres of lavd. and furnished to them seed grain, potatoes, and com. They have taken the entire care of the crop, and have raised several hundred bushels of wheat, corn, and potatoes, which will greatly assist them during the coming win. ter. The country now occupied by the Pah-Vants is destitute of game, nearly all that portion not a desert being occupied by settlements, and it is necessary to furnish to them a considerable amount of provisions at all seasons of the year.
The country occupied by these Indians is almost a desert. They are disposed to follow agricultural pursuits, cultivating small tracts of corn and potatoes. They are the poorest Indians in the Territory, and it is necessary for them to be in great part supported by the government and the settlers. They will be located on a reservation without difficulty so soon as the advantages of that system can be practically demonstrated. They occupy nearly all the southern half of the Territory, and are all friendly.
These Indians range principally in the southwestern portion of Utah and the southeastern portion of Nevada., They closely resemble the Pah-Edes, with whom they constantly mingle and intermarry. They are equally destitute and in need of aid. Some trouble occurred between a small band of these Indians and a party of miners at Pahranagat valley, originating in some of the whites, under false pretences, dispossessing the Indians of a small val. ley where they had been accustomed to raise corn. The Indians stole several horses in retaliation. The miners pursued and killed four Indians, after which peace was again ese tablished. No whites were killed. With this exception the tribe has been friendly, and in this instance the fault was entirely that of the whites.
EDUCATION AND WEALTH.
There are no schools of any kind yet established among the Indians in Utah. The wealth of the Indians consists almost entirely in horses, of which some bands have a considerable number. No accurate report can be made in respect to the number owned by the different bands, but from the best information I can obtain I should place it as follows: Eastern bands of Shoshones... Northwestern bands of Shoshones. Weber-Utes.. Goships...
Total number of horses..
The horses are all of the breed usually known as Mustangs, being very small, but capa. ble of great endurance. Their average value would be probably about $30, making the wealth of the tribe in the Territory $32, 100.
INDIAN HOSTILITIES, A small band of outlaws, under the command of a chief named Black Hawk, have been engaged in hostilities for nearly two years. Their number did not at first exceed fitiy mea, and in the various skirmishes which have taken place, nearly that number have been killed, but accessions have been continually had from among the more reckless Indians of the different bands, so that their number has increased to about sixty men. They have made raids upon several of the small and defenceless settlements in the southern portion of the Territory for the purpose of stealing cattle and borses, fighting when pursued by the settlers, who sought to recover their stock. During the present year they have made two such raids upon the settlements of Salina and Round valley, stealing in each instance nearly two hundred cattle and horses. I applied in April last to the otficer in command of the United States forces at Camp Douglas, in this Territory, asking him to station one or two companies of sol. diers in the southeastern portion of the Territory to protect the settlers. He was not able to do so, however, as he was expecting that all his command, being volunteers, would shortly
be mastered out of service. The settlers raised some two bundred men from various parts of the Territory, who were stationed at the more exposed points, since which time no further depredations have been committed. I have made several trips to different pirts of the Terriwiy, accompanied by Indian guides, in the endeavor to have an interview with Black Hawk, but have been unable, as yet, to meet him. I have also sent several Indian runners to find and endeavor to induce him to meet me, and have recently received assurance that he was indisposed to further hostilities, and willing and anxious for peace. I expect to meet him at some point within the coming one or two months, and think no further trouble need be spprehended from him or bis band.
San Pitch, chief of the band of Indians known as San Pitches, was one of the signers of the treaty made during the summer of 1865, at Spanish Fork. He was, in March last, accused of having furnished Black Hawk with a quantity of ammunition, and was, with several of his principal men, arrested by the settlers on such charge. A guard was placed over the prisoners at Manti, in San Pete county. Their squaws, who were allowed to visit them, secreted knives about their persons and gave them to the Indians. San Pitch then attacked the guard, and in the fracas which ensued escaped, although he was so severely wounded that he died a few days after. He was a bad Indian, and, from investigations I bave since made, I am satisfied that he had been for a long time furnishing Black Hawk with ammunition, and also advising him as to the most feasible points for stealing cattle. He was, however, a relative of Tabby, the chief of the Vintah Utahs, and his death caused great excitement throughout the tribe. The Vintahs were previously somewhat ill-disposed from the non-reception of their presents, and from the fact that almost no provisions had been furnished them during the winter. The winter was one of unusual severity, and they had nearly perished of starvation. Agent L. B. Rinney, in charge at the Vintah agency, was guilty of gross neglect of duty, and had expended the liberal appropriation made by the government in such a manner as to be of almost no benefit to the Indians. The Indians were greatly exasperated against him from his having made.countless promises to them which were not fulfilled. The causes above named united in producing much ill-feeling among the Indians, who prepared for a general war. Large numbers were assembled in Uintah valley. The laborers at the Indian farm were much alarmed and left the reservation. Matters stood thus in March last, when I assumed the duties of superintendent. Agent Rinney was shortly after relieved, and I sent Thomas Carter, esq., to the reservation as special agent, with a few laborers, to commence work on the farm. I assured the Indians that as soon as it was possible to cross the mountains with teams I would visit them, and distribute an abundance of presents and provisions, and explain to them the intentions of the government. In May I started accordingly, with four wagons loaded with goods and flour. Ex-Governor Brigham Young sent out at the same time some seventy beef cattle, as a present to the Indians. I reached the valley with much difficulty, owing to the high water and deep snow in the mountains. After remaining nearly two weeks, holding numerous councils with the Indians, everything was arranged on a basis mutually satisfactory: The Indians were convinced that all the promises on the part of the government would be kept, and have since conducted themselves with entire propriety.
From the foregoing general statement of the present condition of our Indians, it will be seen that matters, so far as regards the preservation of the peace, are now upon an exceedingly satisfactory basis. The promptness and energy displayed on the part of the Indian department in forwarding the goods for the coming year by early mule trains, which reached this point early in September, will greatly promote the efficiency of the service. The goods for the coming year were purchased at much lower rates than have heretofore been paid, and although still insufficient for the needs of the service, except in cases before named, where specific treaty stipulations have been made with the different tribes, will go far toward making the Indians confortable during the coming winter. There will still be a necessity for the distribution of a large amount of provisions during the winter, as the Indians are extremely poor, and, like other people, will steal before they will starve.
THE VINTAH AGENCY.
Owing to the lack of funds, but little has been done during the present season toward preparing the Uintah valley to be the home for all the Utah tribes of Indians, as is contemplated by the various acts of Congress relative to the subject. Nothing bad been previously done toward making a farm at the ageucy. Special Agent Carter has accomplished all that could have been done in the liinited time and with the means available. Some twenty-five acres of land have been cleared from thick sage bushes, ploughed, enclosed with a substantial fence, and put into crops of wheat, corn, potatoes, turnips, carrots, &c. ; irrigation ditches have been constructed to water the whole, and the crops, except corn, are excellent. The valley is admirably adapted for both cultivation and grazing. The Indians have performed considerable labor at the farm, and shown great aptitude as herdsmen. It will doubtless be found more advantageous and economical to furnish them with stock, and to train them to its care and management, than to engage in extensive
farming operations. A specific appropriation should be made for this agency for the coming year ; no provision whatever was made for the current year, and the expenses at the agency have been defrayed from the fund