« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
When the principal Mescalero chiets came, accompanying me to the city in December, 1862, to sue for peace, Major General Carleton proposed to them that when all the bands had sued for peace they should all return to dwell in their own country. During the time they lived alone in the reservation they never called to mind this promise. But after the location of the Navajoes among them, they then claimed it as a binding debt upon the military commander of the department. The same chiefs of the Mescaleros helped me to obtain the arrival at the reservation of the hostile bands who had remained apart, so that their freedom might be procured.
In conclusion, I have to commend to you the opinion which I have held for many years, to place these and all the Indians of the country upon reservations as the only mode, in my judgment, to relieve the government and the people of New Mexico from the constant depre. dations which they have borne for years. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
United States Indian Agent. Hon. J. K. GRAVES,
United States Special Commissioner.
SANTA FÉ, NEW MEXICO, January 4, 1866. Sir: In reply to the questions you have submitted to me concerning the bands of Jicarilla Apaches and Mohuache Utahs, I have to say that the two tribes have for many years lived together and in friendship, have intermarried and are much attached one to the other. The Jicarillas are about one thousand, and the Mohuaches six hundred souls.
In regard to their customs and habits the difference between the two tribes is small. The ['tabs have no desire to improve their condition-they desire only to live as savages and by the chase, and are opposed to living upon a reservation and living by agriculture. They say the Great Spirit created them free to hunt and fight, and not to work.
The Jicarillas are more intelligent; the greater portion of them take an interest in agriculture and in mechanical labo!; their women make earthen vessels, the sale of which to the whites, though at very inconsiderable prices, helps to support them.
The two bands have informed me that they wish to live together forever and in the same country they now inhabit; they are attached to one another as if one family.
According to the indications afforded by the Indians themselves, it is my opinion that the Jicarillas would not agree quietly to move to the Bosque Redondo, nor would the Mohuaches agree to unite the Capotes and Guibisnuches.
With a view to the welfare of the country and of the Indians themselves, the best plan would in my opinion be to locate the two tribes upon a reservation in their own country, as they contemplate themselves, as before stated, as one family, and would be quite contented if left to live in their own country, and they would thereby be more easily kept in subjection, and would the sooner adopt a civilized life, and especially would such be the result if supplied with schools and schoolmasters for the benefit of their children, which beneficent provision would not, I trust, be denied them.
My ideas and views concerning the bands of Indians under my charge are decidedly in favor of their being placed permanently upon a reservation and required to labor for a livelikood, and I recommend that the proposition be verified by the government. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
MANUEL S. SALAZER,
Indian Agent, New Mexico. Hon. J. K. GRAVES,
SANTA FÉ, New MEXIC), January 4, 1866. Sir: Your communication dated the second instant has been received, and I have the honor to reply; feeling, however, that I may not be able to satisfy your wishes in regard to a matter so difficult to solve at the first sight.
As I had the honor to inform you verbally, the Indians under my charge are estimated as follows: the Guibisnuches one thousand, and the Capotes seven hundred souls.
To the second inquiry, I reply that they are so much attached to their native region that it is difficult to remove them to another place without resorting to physical force against their religious creed, if it can be so called. These savages are possessed of the most heathenish superstitions against abandoning those places where the remains of their ancestors lie. In these same regions there are points suitable for their location, such as the Rio de San Juan, and others; but notwithstanding this, a great inducement would be necessary to keep them in subjection, as they consider their reduction to reservations as a species of slavery, and give for their reason that they have always been loyal to the government, and have never failed in their allegiance. This is evidently so, for since the United States first took possossion of this Territory there has never been, on the part of these two bands, any demonstration of disposition to be at war with the government.
To the third and last interrogatory I reply, that it is my opinion that one of the places to which I have above referred should be selected, distant from the settlements of the whites, for the establishment of the agency, this to be in the character of a fort, and garrisoned by one or more companies of soldiers: the Indians then to commence in the art of agriculture, and to be furnished with more rations that they now receive, and to be made to understand that they shall have to depend upon their own labor for their living, and in this way to induce them to work, giving them some goats, sheep to raise, &c.
It may, perhaps, appear to some that my ideas are injudicious ones, but, in my judgment, I conceive no other to be such. If they were to be carried out by force, it is my opinion that all the tribes speaking the same dialect and characterized by the same habits as the Capotes, Guibisnuches, Tabequaches, Moquaches, &c., ought to be placed upon a general reservation, and made to obey the laws and regulations which may be established by the government for their better condition and civilization, in order to prevent the Indians from committing depredations and the whites from encroaching upon them. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant.
Indian Agent, New Merico. J. K. GRAVES, Esq., Commissioner.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, OFFICE INDIAN AFFAIRS,
May 1, 1866). SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 13th March, 1866, with copies of correspondence with the War Department, relative to the future subsistence of the Indians at the Bosque Redondo reservation, in New Mexico, and directing an estimate to be prepared of such appropriations as may be required to provide for said Indians during the next fiscal year.
These Indians are captives; they were placed upon the present reservation by the military anthorities, and have heretofore been cared for mainly by the War Department. Their only means of subsistence are agriculture and the charity of the government. They have been brought from their country by force, and if allowed to roam and hunt, they would return to the mountain fastnesses, and again commence war with the whites. One campaign against them then would cost more than to keep them ten years where they are. Taking it for granted that they are to remain where they are, and be cared for as heretofore, I have, as data to go upon in making an estimate, first, the actual cost of subsistence purchased for them during the year 1865, by the War Department, as given in General Carleton's report of Feb. ruary 5, 1866, a copy of which is herewith ; second, the estimate of General Eaton, com. missary general of subsistence, as to what will be the cost of subsisting 6,000 Indians, at the Bosque Redondo, during the present fiscal year, a copy of which is herewith; third, a general estimate made by J. K. Graves, a special commissioner, sent out by this department in September last, to make investigation into the conduct of the Indian service in New Mexico; and, fourth, the cost of articles of subsistence, as ascertained from late accounts and reports from Indian agents in New Mexico.
The report of General Carleton shows that the cost of subsistence furnished in 1865, after deducting produce raised on the reservation, (valued at $73,246 93,) was $694,226 27. The cost of transporting this I have been unable to ascertain ; but as military supplies for New Mexico are purchased in St. Louis and taken by land, the land transportation from Leavenworth alone would amount (allowing two pounds per day to cach person subsisted) to about $800,000. Taking into consideration the cost of transportation from St. Louis to Leavenworth, the cost of cartage and other incidental expenses, the cost of subsisting these Indians Juring the year 1865 could not have been less than $1,500,000. General Eaton estimates that the cost of subsistence during the current fiscal year will be $638,848 73. This, of course, does not include transportation, and is based upon the supposition that the number of Indians to be subsisted will be 6,000. The average number subsisted during the last calendar year, as reported by General Carleton, was 7,909. General Eaton gives no reason for supposing that this number will be reduced to 6,000, but says it is probable.
Special Commissioner Graves estimates, in round numbers, that the cost of subsisting these Indians during the next fiscal year will be $675,000. But the data upon which I have based an estimate is the market price, in New Mexico, of flour, beef, and salt-the only articles of subsistence which, in my judgment, need be furnished. The cost of these articles there will be, as nearly as can be ascertained, 15} cents per pound for flour, 13 cents for beef, and 10 cents for salt.
Taking as correct the supposition of General Eaton, that the number of Indians to be sub
Sisted will be reduced to 6,000, and allowing one pound of four and one of beef to each Indian, and three pounds of salt to each one hundred, daily, the cost of subsistence will amount to $630,720. The value of produce raised last year in the reservation is estimated by General Carleton at $73,246 93. Although the crops in New Mexico are uncertain, I presume the Indians will raise subsistence during the next fiscal year to the amount of $100,000, which will leave to be provided by the government, subsistence to the value of $530,720, including transportation to the reservation.
The Indians of course must be clothed; but, as they have shown remarkable skill and ingenuity in making blankets and clothing when furnished with the raw material, I would suggest that they be furnished with sheep. In this way they will be able to procure clothing, and, eventually, subsistence. I think there should be eight thousand sheep purchased. which, delivered on the reservation, will cost twenty-four thousand dollars. In addition to this, there should be cotton goods purchased for them to the amount of at least fifteen thou. sand dollars.
For agricultural implements General Carleton recommends that a liberal appropriation be made, in order that the agricultural resources of the reservation may be developed, and the Indians become self-sustaining. I fully concur in his views in this matter, and would suggest that the sum of twenty thousand dollars, at least, be appropriated for this object.
It has long been in contemplation by the military authorities to crect a grist-inill on the reservation. Some arrangement for grinding is evidently necessary, but the cost of a gristmill, including transportation of material, would amount to over thirty thousand dollars. I would therefore suggest that portable mills be provided, and that the sum of live thos. sand dollars be appropriated for this object.
There are no buildings on this reservation except two storehouses, erected by the military authorities at a cost of eighteen thousand dollars, and a few adobe huts. When this de. partment assumes the control of these lodians, it will be necessary to provide a house for i he agent upon the reservation, and also houses for the employés. Owing to the distance from the agency where building material can be procured, this will be expensive.
All the timber in that vicinity suitable for building purposes has been used in the construction of Fort Sumner, leaving none nearer than eighty miles. Therefore, to erect houses for the agent, physician, farmer, teachers, blacksmith, miller, carpenter, laborer, and interpreter, will cost at least twenty thousand dollars.
The accommodations for the sick on the reservation consist of two small adobe huts capable of accommodating about fifteen persons. These are, of course, wholly inadequate for hospital purposes, and I would therefore suggest that an appropriation of fifteen nundred dollars be made for this object, and five hundred dollars for medical supplies.
Common humanity will render the foregoing appropriations necessary. The interests of the government in rendering these Iudians a self-sustaining community by advancing them iu civilization will render otherz necessary.
They should have a blacksmith shop, supplied with tools, iron and steel, and a blacksmith should be provided. They should have a miller to teach them the use of purtable mills, so that they may grind their own grain. They should also have a physician, carpenter, and interpreter, and to encourage them in learning trades a few of them should be paid as laborers or apprentices. Some provision should also be made for the education of the children, who numbered in January last, according to the report of Captain Bristol, 2,486.
I would therefore suggest that an appropriation be made for the following employés, at the rates set opposite each: One physician, at a salary of.
$1,800 One superintendent of farming, at a salary of..
1, 200 One blacksmith, at a salary of......
900 One miller, at a salary of.....
900 One carpenter, at a salary of ....
900 Two teachers, at a salary of $800 each...
1, 600 Six laborers, at a salary of $400 each....
And that the sum of four thousand dollars be appropriated for the establishment and support of two schools.
To enable the Indians to carry on farming operatious to an extent sufficient to make them self-sustaining, they must be provided with work.cattle, wagons, &c., in addition to the agricultural implements. The most economical way in which this can be done will be to purchase a traiu on the Missouri, and use it in transporting the goods, agricultural implements, &c., to be purchased for the Indians in the cast. The train will cost very little more than the simple cost of transportation, and when it arrives at the reservation will be worth about as much as it cost on the Missouri. For this object, and for all cost of transporting the goods, (say 90,000 pounds,) I wouloi suggest an appropriation of thirty thousand six hundred and fisty dollars, as follows: For 20 wagons, at $225 each
$4,500 For 120 yoke of oxen, $130 each....
15,600 For pay of two wagon.masters five months, $125 per month.
1, 250 For pay of 20 teamsters five months, $60 per month..
6,000 Provisions for 22 employés five months, $30 per month....
There may, and no doubt will, be some expenditures necessary which cannot now be foreseen, and I have therefore included in the estimate herewith submitted an item of two thousand dollars for such contingencies. This estimate, which takes into account the cost of subsistence, clothing, all necessary agricultural assistance, transportation, and the advancement of the Indians in civilization, (beretofore entirely neglected,) will amount to six hundred and sixty-scven thousand and seventy dollars, which is twenty-seven thousand une hundred and fifty six dollars and twenty-seven cents less than the simple cost of the subsistence alone furnished by the War Department during the last year, and less than the land transportation of subsistence alone from Leavenworth to the Bosque Redondo would
As it seems to be the intention of the War Department to turn these Indians over to this department at the commencement of the next fiscal year, I would respectfully suggest that this estimate be submitted to Congress, with the request that action be taken upin it at as early a day as practicable. Very vespecifully, your obedient servant,
D. N. COOLEY, Commissioner. Hon. JAMES HARLAN,
Secretary of the Interior.
Es'imate of uppropriation required for the seulement and support of the Nevojoe Indians on the Bosque
Redondo reservution in New Mexico for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1867. For the purchase and transportation of subsistence for 6,000 Indians... $530, 720 For the purchase and transportation of clothing for 6,000 Indians..
15,000 For the purchase and transportation of 8,000 head of sheep...
24,000 For the purchase and transportation of agricultural implements and seed....
20,000 For the establishment and support of a blacksmith shop, including tools, iron, steel, &c.--.....
4,000 For the purchase of a portable grist-mill.
5,000 For the erection and support of hospitals, and purchase of medical supplies... 2,000 For the establishment and support of two schools.
4,000 For the erection of buildings for the agent and employéi....
20,000 For the pay of one physician, one farmer, one blacksmith, one willer, one carpenter, two teachers, and six apprentices.....
9,700 For the purchase of wagons and oxen, and expenses of transporting goods and agricultural implements....
30, 650 Contingent expen:es
SAXTA FÉ, New Mexico, September 28, 1866. SIR: I have the honor herewith to transmit this as my first annual report.
After stating the destitute condition of the Ctes and Apaches of the Cimarron agency, the superintendent proceeds:
Upon the supposition that they will not voluntarily consent to leave their present locality, would respectfully recommend that they be located on a reservation in the region of conn.
try now occupied by them, in order to save trouble, expense, or warfare in removing them. And I would respectfully suggest that a place ten miles south of Maxwell's, known as Ry. ado, be purchased. It is a place already improved and under cultivation, good soil, well watered with a good system of irrigation. The water is good and sufficient, the wood and timber abundant, and the tract of land is about fourteen miles square, with any quantity of bnildings-enough for the agents' storehouses, mechanics, laborers, missionaries' schools, shops, &c, and I think the place can be purchased for fifty thousand dollars. The buildings would cost half that to erect them now. If any more land is needed, the government owns what joins it on the south, and any quantity of land additional could be attached thereto if deemed necessary, or if they will consent to the arrangement. I think it preferable that the Mohuaches-Utes, numbering about five hundred and fisty, be focated on a reservation with the Capotes and Wamenuche bands of the same tribe, somewhere on the San Juan, or Rio Los Animas, and that the Jicarilla Apaches, numbering one thousand, be placed on a reservation with the Mescalero Apaches, somewhere south of Fort Stanton, which arrangement would save the expense of one agency.
[With regard to the Capote and Wamenuche-Utes in the northwest, who have also been in a state of great destitution, but who still manifest a disinclination to concentrate upou a res. ervation, Superintendent Norton says:]
But, whether by force or by choice, I respectfully recommend that these Indians be placed on a reservation on the Rio Los Animas, or San Juan, or some of its tributaries, and that a suitable appropriation be made for that purpose. They number twenty-five hundred souls, and if the Mohuaches-Utes of the Cimarron are placed on the same reservation it will make them nnmber about thirty-one hundred men, women, and children.
MESCALERO APACHES. With regard to the Mescalero Apaches little is known since they left the reservation of the Bosque Redondo, where the most of them had been located with the Navajoes. They were unable to agree with the Navajoes, and were therefore dissatisfied, and left at night in a body on the 3d of November last, ever since which time they have been committing depredations upon the settlements, and also some murders.
When not in the mountains south of Fort Stanton, (their native country,) they range between that and Los Vegas in search of booty. Only a few days ago they killed one man and wounded another, in the attempt to run off a large herd of sheep near Galestea. Their agent, Lorenzo Labadi, says they number about five hundred and twenty-five souls, and he has no doubt but that he can prevail upon them to settle on a reservation which might be selected for them south of Fort Stanton, and to live at peace with the inhabitants; but he does not think that they can ever be induced to return to the Bosque Redondo. I would therefore recommend that these Indians be located on a reservation south of Fort Stanton, in the selection of which I would suggest that their wishes be consulted, and that the Jicarilla Apaches, if they can be prevailed upon to leave the Cimarron, be placed on the same reservation; for these two tribes are intermarried, and are in fact one and the same people in language, character, and habits. Also I would recommend that Fort Stanton be abandoned, and that the garrison be moved to said reservation and a military post established thereon for the security of the agent, the protection of the public property, and for the control and government of the Indians; for the accomplishment of which object a suitable appropriation will also be required.
(In regard to the Gila Apaches, the superintendent thinks the Mimbres and Mogollen bands can be induced to make peace and retire to a reservation. He adds:]
I therefore respectfully recommend that Governor Mitchell, Doctor Steck, (the former agent, who says he has no doubt but that he can prevail upon them to locate on a reserva. tion and keep the peace,) and myself be authorized and empowered to treat with them and get them settled down, either on their old reservation or on a new one, subject to the approval of your department, and that an appropriation suitable be made for the accomplishment of this object.
COMANCHES. With regard to the Comanches, the most wild, treacherous, warlike, and brutal of all other Indians, there a large body of them (about two thousand) continually occupying the eastern portion of this Territory. The names of their different chiefs and number of lodges, which were given me by a reliable and intelligent man, who has lived and traded with them for years, are as follows, viz: Puertas, 30 lodges, about...
150 souls. Parua Caiua, 60 lodges, about.
275 Quajipe, 120 lodges, about.
500 Maue, 260 lodges, about....