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They had been in the habit, for some time previous to my coming here, of trading with the Mexican people, who have heretofore bad trade permits granted them by General Carleton and by my predecessor; the consequence of which has been that an immense trade has been carried on with them, and they have been thereby encouraged to steal large numbers, amounting to thousands, of cattle from the inhabitants of Texas and trade them to these Mexicans for goods and provisions, and in some instances for whiskey and ammunition, which illicit commerce, as soon as ascertained, I immediately adopted measures to put an end to by issuing and publishing an order revoking all licenses and permits heretofore granted to trade with any Indians in this Territory, unless said licenses were duly approved by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington; and I gave notice that any person trading with any Indians without such license, duly approved by said Commissioner, would be prosecuted to the full extent of the law.
These Comanches I understand to be friendly disposed towards the government of the United States and towards the people of this Territory, but hostile towards the people of Texas. They have committed no depredations on the citizens of New Mexico, because their interests have dictated that they should not destroy this, the only market they have heretofore had for the stock they have stolen from the people of Texas. I considered it my duty, under the circumstances, to put an end to this traffic, because I considered it very unjust and cruel to the citizens of Texas to encourage these Indians in their depredations upon them by furnishing them a market for their booty. I know of instances in which traders from here have taken out a few hundred dollars' worth of goods and returned with as many head of Texas cattle as dollars invested.
Although, as I said before, they have committed no depredations upon the people of New Mexico, yet they made a raid upon the herds of the Navajoes at the Bosque in July last, and succeeded in running off some two hundred head of their horses and ponies and in killing four Navajoes. At the same time they told Mexican herders that they did not want any of the government stock; nor did they intend to take anything from the Mexicans ; that it was only the Navajoes they were after, and that the lands of the Bosque Redondo belonged to them and that the Navajoes had no right there. I understand that they are in the habit occasionally of visiting and trading with the sutlers at Fort Bascomb. The region of country now occupied by these Indians I understand to be that between 102° and 104° longitude and 33° and 37° north latitude. I have no doubt that the establishment of an agency for them at Fort Bascomb would exert a highly salutary and beneficial influence over them, prevent to a great extent their plundering the people of Texas, and pave the way to their final settlement upon a reservation of their own and their ultimate civilization and christianization. I would therefore recommend that such an agency be authorized and established, and that ten thousand dollars' worth of goods and presents be appropriated annually for their benefit. Understanding that they have large flocks and herds, and that game is abundant with them, no government aid in the shape of provisions will be needed or required.
The report of Agent Ward is so full and complete in the information it imparts and in the recommendations with reference to the Pueblo Indians, that it seems unnecessary that I should add anything thereto. I would, however, recommend that the law passed by the territorial legislature, allowing the sale of intoxicating liquors to Pueblo Indians, be repealed by an act of Congress and that such sale absolutely forbidden. I also recommend that by an act of Congress all suits against these Iudians shall be brought only in the United States district court, instead of being permitted to be brought before the alcaldes, (justices of the peace,) because these Indians are continually imposed upon and barassed by vexatious prosecutions brought before said alcaldes, who always decide in favor of the Mexicans and against the Indian, no matter how meritorious may be the case of the latter. I also recommend that by act of Congress the sale of the lands granted to these Pueblo Indians be absolutely forbidden, and that all sales heretofore made be declared null and void, and that all Mexicans and Americans occupying, claiming, or cultivating said lands be required to abandon and give up the same to these Pueblos, the only rightful and legitimate owners thereof, and that some provision be made in said act for reimbursing the amount actually paid by those purchasing said lands under the supposition and impression that the Indians had a legitimate right to sell the same. I make this recommendation because on many of these pueblos they have sold most of their best lands, or they are occupied by those having no shadow of title. The passage of these acts by Congress is absolutely necessary for the protection of the morals and rights of these Indians, and for the preservation of their lands for their own use, benefit, and support.
The expense to the government of this reservation is enormous. Not less than $1,500,000 is annually expended for clothing and feeding these Indians and for the expenses of feeding; clothing, and paying off the laborers on the reservation and military establishment attached thereto. These Indians have now been settled on this reservation for over three years, and
it is now high time that they should be self-supporting, at least so far as the need of grain for bread is concerned. But the fact is lamentably true that not one-fifth of the amount required was raised last year, and the crop this year is no better than last, which failure is, in my opinion, attributable to the want of skill and proper attention in the management of the labor, and in irrigating the lands at proper times and in a proper manner, and not to the poverty of the soil nor scarcity of water for the purposes of irrigation. Some chavge in this respect is much needed, and I would therefore recommend that the course with reference thereto suggested by Agent Dodd in his anuual report be adopted, and that the necessary appropriations for putting his plan into successful operation be made. Also, in addition to the usual appropriation of $100,000 for the purposes as specified in last year's appropriation, I would recommend that $50,000 be appropriated for the purchase of sheep and for the erection of the necessary buildings for this agency, as represented in Colonel Dodd's report.
The Indians in the northern portion of this Territory, on account of great scarcity of game, have suffered much for want of food during the past summer, and must suffer still more during the coming winter, unless provision is made for their subsistence. They will require an expenditure for provisions alone of at least $1,500 per month at the Abiquiu agency and $1,200 per month at the Cimarron agency. The goods, I am happy to inform you, have just arrived, with the exception of the traps, and I am now making arrangements to divide and send them out to the agencies for distribution. They will be of great service to these Indians, and no doubt will be thankfully received, and as the quantity is much greater than they have been in the babit of receiving for the last two or three years, their dissatisfaction will be much abated. If the Utes and Apaches are settled on the grant known as Ryado, they will require an appropriation of $15,000 for provisions, $8,000 for goods and presents, and $2,000 for the purchase of agricultural implements, and in the course of two years I think they would be selfsustaining. But if divided, and the Apaches sent south of Fort Stanton and the Utes to the San Juan, it will require an additional appropriation of at least $30,000 for their removal and location on such reservations, to be divided between the tribes pro rata, and it will probably be three years before they will there be able to raise what grain they may require for food.
The Capote and Wamenuches-Utes, if placed on a reservation on the San Juan, will require an appropriation of $18,000 for provisions, $10,000 for goods and presents, $3,000 for agricultural implements, $4,500 for agency buildings, and $4,500 for their removal and location.
For the permanent settlement of the Mescalero Apaches, I recommend an appropriation of $4,500 worth of goods and presents, $6,000 for provisions, $750 for agricultural implements, $2,750 for removal and location, $3,500 for agency buildings; total, $17,500; and I think that in three years they will be self-sustaining and need no further appropriations except for goods and agricultural implements.
For the permanent settlement of the Mimbres and Mogollen Apaches, I recommend an appropriation of $15,000 for provisions, $7,000 for goods, $2,000 for agricultural implements, and $3,000 for agency buildings, and have no doubt that in less than three years they will be enabled to raise all the grain needed for their own bread, and after that only an appropriation for the purchase of goods and agricultural implements would be required.
Finally, in addition to the foregoing, I recommend an appropriation of $14,000 for the incidental expenses of the Indian service of this Territory, making the total amount for all the Indians outsido of the Navajoes of $160,000. It is not intended nor expected by me that these appropriations for provisions asked for will alone sustain these Indians; but I do expect, and have every reason to believe, that if properly managed they will satisfy their wants and hun. ger, when taken in connexion and together with the fruits they may gather, the vegetables and grain they may raise, and the game they may be able to kill on the reservations proposed and in their respective neighborhoods, especially if said reservations are selected with a view to the accomplishment of this object. These appropriations, as suggested, amount in the ag. gregate to $160,000, an average of $10 66 cents to each Indian. The different tribes for whom these appropriations are asked, not including the Navajoes, number about as follows: Pueblos...
7,000 Mimbres and Mogollen Apaches.
2,000 Capote and Wamenuche-Utes at Abiquin.
2,500 Utes and Apaches, Cimarron...
1,500 Mescalero Apaches.....
... 15, 025
The Comanches have never heretofore been under the control of this superintendency. There has been no appropriation for the benefit of the Pueblos for the last ten years ; nor have the Gila Apaches received any portion of the appropriations for the last four years. Deduct, then, the appropriations asked for the benefit of these three tribes, $63,000, and you have $97,000 as the appropriation required for the same Indians, for whom $50,000 has heretofore been appropriated.
In conclusion, I cannot but express the hope that the suggestions and recommendations made in this report will meet with the approval of your department, and that the necessary action on the part of Congress will be taken, so that the policy herein recommended may be put into successful operation. If, however, the reservation system, as herein set forth, is not adopted, the appropriations needed will be the same as recommended, with the exception of the amount required for the removal of Indians, for agricultural implements, and for agency buildings on the different suggested reservations. Your obedient servant,
A. B. NORTON,
Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Hon. D. N. COOLEY,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Extract from report of Special Agent John Wurd, Pueblos.
SANTA FÉ, NEW MEXICO, September 18, 1866. I would earnestly call your special attention and recommend that an appropriation of at least $10,000 be asked for for the purpose of purchasing farming implements, blacksmith and carpenter tools, steel, iron, &c., for the benefit of the Pueblos. These articles should be of the right kind and of the best quality; none except such should be purchased.
Enclosed herewith you will please find a "schedule" of such articles as I deem best adapted to their wants. There should also be established for their benefit a few mechanical shops with the necessary mechanics to take the charge of the same. This, besides being a great benefit or help to them in the way of repairing their tools, carretas, (carts,) mills, houses, &c., would also be the means of showing them the proper use of the tools, and in the course of a few years they would be able to have all the necessary mechanics among their own people. An appropriation of no less than $6,000 should be made for this purpose.
There has been so much said and written upon the subject of the education of the Pueblo Indians, that I am entirely at a loss to know what further remarks to advance in regard to this important matter. That the government is in duty bound to do something towards the education of the children of these honest, industrious and deserving people, l'equires no further arguments.
It has been proven in every possible way that these Indians have scarcely cost the gor. ernment any trouble or expense since they were annexed to the United States in 1846. They have not cost the government a solitary dollar for military expeditions, educational purposes, or indeed for any other improvements whatever, and the only hope now remaining is that the government, although tardy, will yet take the matter into consideration and act accordingly.
It is a strange conclusion to come at, but it certainly seems that the only way that an Indian can demand the attention of the government is by committing murders, robberies, and every other kind of depredations. The simple fact of an Indian being peaceable and well-disposed is of itself sufficient cause for him to be neglected and his interest and his welfare entirely disregarded.
The circumstances surrounding the Pueblo Indians have induced me to lay before you each and every particular connected with the affairs upon which this report is based, the importance of which I trust will prove sufficient apology for their length.
În conclusion, sir, allow me to add that this report has been made with all due consideration and respect, my only motive for writing as I have being simply with a view to represent matters to the department as truly and forcibly as possible, with the hope that by doing so something will be done towards improving the present state of our Indian affairs, and thereby contribute towards the general welfare and prosperity of this country, as well as that of the Indians, for whom I have always felt a lively interest. All of which I sincerely hope will meet your approbation and cordial co-operation. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Special Agent for Pueblos. Colonel A. B. NORTON,
Sup't of Indian Affairs, Santa Fé, New Mexico.
NAVAJO AGENCY, FORT SUMNER, NEW MEXICO,
August 28, 1866. Sır: In compliance with the regulations of the Indian department, I have the honor to present my first annual report. I must necessarily be brief, as I have but recently taken charge of this agency. I arrived here on the 28th day of June last with a train of annuity
goods and agricultural implements, consisting of one hundred and sixty head of cattle and seventeen large freight wagons, loaded with goods and implements, purchased by Mr. J. K. Graves, special Indian agent for New Mexico, last fall, for Navajoes.
There are now on the reservation, of all ages and sexes, 6,915 Navajoes; a large inajority of whom appear to be contented and satisfied to remain on the reservation. In July last the Comanche Indians made a dash on the reservation, and succeeded in killing four Navajoes, and captured one hundred head of their horses. After this raid some of the Navajoes ap. peared dissatisfied, and expressed a desire to go to their old country, stating they could not live in peace on the reservation, as it was located on land belonging to the Comanches. They were assured that the reservation was for them, and the Comanches would be punished far trespassing upon their domains, since which time I have not heard any dissatisfaction expressed.
On the 1st of August last, two Navajoes arrived at the Bosque from the Navajo country, one of whom was a son of Manueleto, a Navajo chief, who refused to come to the reservation with this band. These Indians say they were sent by Manueleto and other head men to ascertain if they would be permitted to come and live at the reservation, and that they were afraid that they would be punished if they gave themselves up, especially those that ran away from the reservation last year.
I gave these two Indians passes to return to their old country and report to Manueleto and their friends the manner the Indians were treated on the reservation, and to say to them that they could come to and live at the reservation, and that they would not be harmed, but treated like their people now located there. They started away, apparently well pleased with the appearance of the Bosque.
Since their departure one hundred and twenty-two Navajoes have arrived at the reservation from their old country, forty-two men, forty women and forty children, all of whom except four deserted from the reservation last year; they were naked, sickly-looking, and had the appearance of being starved. They report that their people now in their old country are in a starving and destitute condition; that they were constantly being harassed by the troops and Indians hostile to them; that they could not raise any crops; and that all would come to the reservation if permitted to do so. I am of the opinion that nearly all those running at large will come to the reservation before winter sets in.
There is now under cultivation on the reservation abont three thousand eight hundred acres of land, two thousand eight hundred acres of which is a government farm, and the balance, one thousand acres, is cultivated exclusively by the Indians. The whole is under the control of the commanding officer of Fort Sumner. Non-commissioned officers and privates are detailed as overseers of the government farm, and the Indians perform most of the labor of making acequias, ploughing, planting, hoeing, &c.; a commissioned officer is selected to take charge and manage the working of the farm. The land is planted in wheat, corn, oats, barley, pumpkins, melons, &c. A large portion of the farm is, however, planted in corn, about one-quarter of which looks promising, but the balance will not yield more than one-third of a crop, which failure is attributed to bad seed. I am of the opinion that the failure may be attributed to the inexperience of those who superintend the Indians and manage the farm.
I am satisfied that officers who have been selected to take charge of the farm have used every effort and done everything in their power to succeed in raising good crops; but it cannot be expected that they could succeed with inexperienced men to superintend the Indians in their labor. Soldiers are detailed for this duty; many of them know but little about farming; those that are acquainted with farmivg will not take the necessary interest, as they were not enlisted for this purpose.
I would suggest that four thousand acres of good land be cultivated as a government farm for the purpose of subsisting the Navajoes in the following manner, which, if adopted, and properly managed, I think will produce sufficient breadstuffs to subsist them, and a surplus to pay off many of the employés.
Divide the four thousand acres into ten lots or fields; employ, to superintend the Indians and teach them in their labor, for each field a good practical farmer and an assistant; make him responsible for the public property, implements, stock, &c., for working the farm, and that the land is properly cultivated; erect on each field a house for the farmer and assistant to live in, aod sheds and corrals for the stock and implements; settle the Indians who desire to work on the government farm on the outskirts of these fields, allotting to each family a little land for gardens and a permanent home. There should be employed eight or ten men who are acquainted with the principles of irrigation, and who have had experience in making acequias. The whole should be under the control of a good practical farmer. The Apache Indians, numbering three hundred and thirty-five, (335,)
who were located on the Bosque Redondo reservation, all deserted on the 3d of November, 1865, except nine, who are still on the reservation. The land they occupied has been consigned to the Navajoes to live upon and cultivate. They planted it in corn, pumpkins, melons, &c., and their crops looked promising. But unfortunately during this month, (August,) heavy rains fell, causing the Pecos river to orerflow a large portion of their fields, damaging their corn crop considerably, and washed away many of their huts, implements, &c., and destroying their pumpkins, melons, &c. The waters rose so suddenly that four children and one woman were drowned.
I would recommend that the Navajoes be furnished with at least twelve thousand (12,000) head of sheep. That the ewes be purchased in New Mexico, and the bucks in the States, in order to improve the stock. Sheep can be purchased in New Mexico for from three to four dollars per head. Twelve thousand head of sheep would furnish them sufficient wool for their blankets, which they can manufacture themselves.
In consequence of high water, I have not been able to ascertain the exact number of animals among the Navajoes on the reservation, but it is estimated as follows: Horses..
450 The amount of produce raised on the Navajo and Apache farms during the year 1865, according to the books of the commissary department at Fort Sumner, is as follows, viz: Pounds of corn.
423, 582 Pounds of wheat..
34, 113 Pounds of pumpkins.
38, 403 Pounds of beans..
3,515 The cost of subsisting the Navajoes, according to the commissary's books, is as follows, which amount does not include the pay of employés, but the actual cost of subsistence stores delivered at the post of Fort Sumner: From January 11, 1865, to December 3, 1865..
$748, 307 87 From January 1, 1866, to July 31, 1866....
407, 669 04 On July 31, 1865, there were on the reservation, of all ages and sexes, 8,491 Navajoes. There are now on the reservation, of all ages and sexes, 6,915, showing a decrease during the year of 1,576. The only manner that I can account for this large decrease is by deaths and desertions. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
THEO, H. DODD,
United States Indian Agent for Natajoes. Colonel A. B. NORTON,
Superintendent of Indian Afairs, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
INDIAN HOSPITAL, FORT SUMNER, New Mexico,
September 6, 1966. SIR: In compliance with your request, I make yon a report of the state of the Indians, as regards their health, since I have entered upon duty as their medical attendant, which I did November, 1865. I enclose a consolidated report of the number treated, and class of disease with which they were affected, since January 1, 1866, to August 31. As it is probable you may have soon entire control of them, I do this, and add a few suggestions that you may still further advance their welfare. I will give you a statement of how things are, and were when I came here. I found the Indian hospital to consist of nine small rooms, meas. uring 15 by 16, two of which were occupied as surgery, kitchen, and two as attendant rooms, leaving five for the sick, and which should admit of no more than twenty patients at a time, but in which I have often been forced to put fifty (50.). But at the time I came here the hospital was sufficiently capacious, there being no more than two or three in hospital at any previous time.
The building is a regular tumble-down concern; even rain comes through the roof-in fact I may say the place is only fit to keep pigs in. So, having an idea of what it is, you may see the necessity of a speedy change to a more suitable one. If the military puts up a building according to the plan forwarded them some six months ago, I think we will have something like a hospital. You can see from my report the vast preponderance of syphilis over every other disease, and which will always be the case as long as so many soldiers are around here, because the Indian women have not the slightest idea of virtue, and are bought and sold by their own people like cattle. At present I think the disease bas greatly decreased, and I do not think that syphilis has ever caused the death or shortened the life of a single Indian.
On this reservation I cannot say I have seen a single case of constitutional syphilis. But what does and will decrease the number of the tribe and finally wipe them out of existence is the extensive system of abortion carried on by the young women. You may remark how seldom it is a young woman has a child; in fact, none of the women, except they are thirty or forty, ever ihink of having one, if they can help it, so that two or three children are considered a large family.