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Political essay on the kingdom of New Spain, Հատոր 3
Alexander von Humboldt
Ամբողջությամբ դիտվող - 1811
Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain, Հատոր 2
Alexander von Humboldt
Ամբողջությամբ դիտվող - 1814
1803 square square agave America Anahuac ancient appears Aztec banana breadth called canal Cape capital century cerealia Cholula city of Mexico climate coast colonists constructed contains Cordilleras Cortez Cruz cultivation declivity desague dikes Durango east edifices elevation epoqua equinoxial Europe European feet fertile francs grain Guanaxuato Guautitlan height Huehuetoca Indians inhabitants Intendancy of Mexico Intendancy of Puebla Intendancy of San inundations island Juan kilogrammes lake of Tezcuco latitude maize manioc Martinez Mexican Monterey Motezuma mountains natives navigators Nootka Norte northern Oaxaca Old California Peru piastres plains plants port potatoes presidio province Puebla pulque pyramids river roots San Christobal San Luis Potosi Santa situated soil Sonora Spain Spaniards Spanish species square League square square STATISTICAL subterraneous table-land tants ANALYSIS Tenochtitlan tion town Trans Valladolid valley valley of Mexico vegetables Vera Cruz viceroy village volcano wheat Xalapa Zumpango
Էջ 407 - Guanaxuato, and the Villa de Leon, and which surround the richest mines of the known world. Wherever metallic seams have been discovered in the most uncultivated parts of the Cordilleras, on the insulated and desert table-lands, the working of mines, far from impeding the cultivation of the soil, has been singularly favourable to it. Travelling along the ridge of the Andes, or the mountainous...
Էջ 252 - In this foggy and cold region, therefore, want spurs on the Indian to labour, and excites his industry. At the height of San Miguel pines begin to mingle with the oaks, which are found by the traveller as high as the elevated plains of Perote, where he beholds the delightful aspect of fields sown with wheat. Eight hundred metres higher, the coldness of the climate will no longer admit...
Էջ 215 - ... north side an immense quantity of scorified and basaltic lavas containing fragments of primitive rocks. These great eruptions of the central volcano continued till the month of February 1760. In the following years they became gradually less frequent. The Indians, frightened at the horrible noises of the new volcano, abandoned at first all the villages situated within seven or eight leagues distance of the playas de Jorullo.
Էջ 147 - Humboldt, is undoubtedly one of the most gigantic hydraulical operations ever executed by man. We look upon it with a species of admiration, particularly when we consider the nature of the ground, and the enormous breadth, depth, and length of the aperture.
Էջ 524 - The cultivation of the maguey has real advantages over the cultivation of maize, grain, and potatoes. This plant, with firm and vigorous leaves, is neither affected by drought nor hail, nor the excessive cold which prevails in winter on the higher Cordilleras of Mexico. The stalk perishes after efflorescence. If we deprive it of the central leaves it withers, after the juice, which nature appears to have destined to the increase of the hampe, is entirely exhausted. An infinity of shoots then spring...
Էջ 404 - There are neither corvies nor villenage in New Spain; and the number of slaves is next to nothing. Sugar is chiefly the produce of free hands. There the principal objects of agriculture are not the productions to which European luxury has assigned a variable and arbitrary value, but cereal gramina, nutritive roots, and the agave, the vine of the Indians. The appearance of the country proclaims to the traveller that the soil nourishes him who cultivates it, and that the true prosperity of the Mexican...
Էջ 422 - ... of a cluster only at forty pounds, such a plantation would produce more than four thousand pounds of nutritive substance. M. Humboldt calculates that as thirty-three pounds of wheat and ninety-nine pounds of potatoes require the same space as that in which four thousand pounds of bananas are grown, the produce of bananas is consequently to that of wheat as 133 : 1, and to that of potatoes as 44 : 1.
Էջ 12 - The great city of Temixtitan is situated in the midst of the salt-water lake, which has its tides like the sea ; and from the city to the continent there are two leagues whichever way we wish to enter. Four dikes lead to the city ; they are made by the hand of man, and are of the breadth of two lances. The city is as large as Seville or Cordova.
Էջ 12 - The city is as large as Seville or Cordova. The streets, I merely speak of the principal ones, are very narrow and very large ; some are half dry and half occupied by navigable canals, furnished with very well constructed wooden bridges, broad enough for ten men on horseback to pass at the same time. The market-place, twice as large as that of Seville, is surrounded with an immense portico, under which are exposed for sale all sorts of merchandise, eatables, ornaments made of gold, silver, lead,...