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first, because both food and cookery have much direct influence in the formation of human character; and secondly, because the principles of the author, could they be carried out judiciously, would give the mother, who is supposed to be for the most part the housekeeper, a large amount of valuable time and means for direct instruction. The work is based on the principle that the family school is the true school, for wbich all other schools are only substitutes.

The LIBRARY OF HEALTH, AND TEACHER ON THE Human ConSTITUTION. Geo. W. Light, Boston, Publisher.

In January 1835, a periodical was established in this city, by the present editor of the Annals of Education, under the name of the Moral Reformer, and Teacher on the Human Constitution. Its object was to improve the public morals by promoting the public health; and this last, by correct physical education. As the name of the work, however, that of " Moral Reformer,”– for the secondary title seemed to be overlooked-led to a wrong impression respecting its character, it was changed to the name which now stands at the head of this article. With this title it has now been issued a year and a half longer.

The cbaracter of this work-the Library of Health-has not been essentially changed with the name. It is still, in substance, a work on bealth and early physical education in schools and families. The whole series of volumes-four in number, when this year's volume is completed—is believed to contain more on the subject of physical education, than any other series of books which can be obtained for the sum of five dollars any where in this country or in the world. If this seems like commending ourselves, our only apology is what seems to us to be the necessity of the case. It is but the merest act of justice, that the work should be better known as a work of physical education than it is, since more than two thirds of the articles-perhaps three fourths—bave that bearing, and are of that description.

Nothing more would be necessary, in order to substantiate the claim we have made in regard to the character of the Library of Health and its predecessor, than to present the list of contents found at the begin. ning of each volume. For this, however, we have not room, nor can it in a journal like this, he necessary. The following, as a specimen, will be abundantly sufficient. It is from the contents for the volume of last year, and is taken at randorn. • Rational Apothecaries; Reforın in Schools; Reforination; Reformiers, fate of; Rich enough; Right use of Pbysicians; Rising Early; Rosy Cheeks.'

The Youth's Penny Paper.

This little paper is published weekly at New York, by E. French, No. 146 Nassau Street. The price is fifty cents a year, twentyfive cents for

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six months, twelve and balf cents for three months, in advance; or one cent a week. The paper consists of four pages about the size of large octavo pages, and is edited by Theodore Dwight, Jr.

The Youth's Penny Paper, says the prospectus, is designed to afford entertainment and instruction for the young; to aid them in their studies; to acquaint thein with important passing events, as well as the elements of science; to inculcate religious and moral principles, to cultivate taste, and to prepare them for happiness and usefulness as members of society;-also, to assist parents and teachers in training the young. Each number, continues the prospectus, will contain one or more engravings; true tales or anecdotes, designed to improve the mind or character; sketches of real travel at honie or abroad; a hymn or song, often with music; or short le:ssons on various departments of knowledge appropriate to different ages; with brief familiar notices of the news of the day.

We are glad to see such a paper, and from such a source; for what the tact, talent, and perseverance of anybody can do towards sustaining such a paper, we are sure will be done by its untiring editor and zealous publisher. And if they can find men of like spirit with themselves, men we mean who care for something besides money, and who labor, in part at least, for a higher and nobler reward—to act as agents, all over the country, we doubt not their labors will do much good. We do not say–we dare not hope it—that their paper will he popular; for what paper or journal whose main object was to do good, has ever been popular, in this country or in any other? What does not touch our consciences or invade our liberty-our liberty to do as we please with our tiine faculties and money, without regard to God-may be popular; at least if it espouses some party or sect.

We speak rather discouragingly on this subject, because we have had some experience in these matters. We were employed by the philanthropic proprietor of the Juvenile Rambler,' to edit that paper for him about two years, till it was merged in Parley's Magazinc. Subsequently we edited Parley's Magazine four years—we will not say with what success—we leave that to others. We will only say that bad we sailed un. der the flag of a sect or party, and had other people been as willing as ourselves to work for nothing and keep themselves,' we have no doubt both works would have been better supported than they were; and we might have been willing longer to bear the burden of editing the latter.

We ought, perhaps, to say, that Parley's Magazine is published still, by Messrs Joseph S. Francis, of this city, and Charles H. Francis of New York; but who the editor is, we are not informed.

AMERICAN

ANNALS OF EDUCATION.

AUGUST, 1838.

EMBELLISHMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF TOWNS AND

VILLAGES.

The Committee appointed by the American Lyceum, at its Eighth Annual Session, to take into consideration the question ; • What embellishments and improvements may be made in towns and villages, with advantage to intelligence and morals,' respectfully report :

That while they have not been able to give the subject that attention which its exceeding great importance, in their view, demands, they have nevertheless bestowed upon it all the time which their numerous other engagements would permit; and in so doing have come to the following conclusions.

In view of the condition and wants of human nature, as it now is, your Committee are fully of opinion that the health, the comfort, the intellectual and social, nay the moral and religious well being of man would be much promoted by a greater regard than is usual, to the structure, arrangement and embellishment of our cities, towns and villages. Of our larger cities, even Philadelphia and Boston, we do not hesitate to say that almost every thing, in their structure and condition, is at war with the highest physical and moral well being of their inhabitants. We do not indeed forget their beautiful commons and squares and public walks ; but it is impossible for us to believe that a few of these will ever atone for ihat neglect whose effects stare us in the face, not merely in passing through dirty and filthy avenues, but in traversing almost every street, and in turning almost every corner. A single common, beautiful though it may be, as any spot on the earth's surface, and refreshed though it were by the balmy breezes which “blow soft o'er Ceylon's isle ;' or a few public squares, remembrancers though they be of him whose

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General Remarks on Cities. .

praises will never cease to be celebrated while the city of brotherly love' shall remain, will yet never purify the crowded, unventilated cellars and shops—and dwellings, too--of a hundred or a thousand thickly congregated streets.

How then can these great marts of our country ever be brought to bear on the physical, intellectual, social and moral well being of man? Swallowing up, as they are, from year to year, much of the population of ihe country around them, especially its young men, and rendering them more sensual, more selfish, more etleminate, and more worldly, how can their influencetheir reaction-on the surrounding country be any other than injurious? The heart of the great body, commercial and politic, being diseased, and its fluids more or less corrupted, how can it send out to all parts of the system those healthful streams for which it was originally intended ? Graves, as cities are allowed to be, of the human species, are their victims destined to any “better resurrection ?'

But it is not the physical condition of cities and towns and villages alonefor much, nay most, which we would say on this subject, is applicable, in no small degree, to large towns and dense villages, as well as to our great cities—which your Comunittee regard as greatly susceptible of improvement. Nor is this topic of health directly embraced in the question on which we are required to report, except from its deep—we might almost say inseparable-connection with morals. Cities and towns and villages, especially in countries like our own, where every man is pre-eminently the artificer of his own fortune, are the graves of the human species mentally and morally, as well as physically.

They foster, we will not say inevitably, but at any rate with certainty, that selfishness, that avarice, that luxury, and that sensuality, which need no hot bed assistance. In one word, all the facilities which the social powers and social opportunities of man afford for elevating his whole nature, are now, too often, turned into a wrong channel ; and contribute but to hurry our rising population of every rank, but especially of those who are above the most abject poverty, the more swiftly down the stream of vice and corruption to present and future wo.

There is one deteriorating tendency, of cities and villages and towns, which deserves, in passing, a more particular consideration. We allude to the facilities which they afford for gratifying and more than gratifying a perverted and perhaps vitiated appetite. The shops, the cellars, the stalls, and the awnings are crowded often to excess, with the good, and sometimes with the bad things of this life ; and luxuries no less than necessaries, -confectionaries and extra stimulants no less than plain meat and Improvement of Roads, Side Walks, fc.

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drink—tempt and often seduce us. Nor is it physical abundance alone, which accelerates our ruin. The intellectual and sometimes the moral facilities of a dense population, as things now are, and in the hands of a perverted public sentiment, too often have the same tendency. The numerous books and papers which solicitand with no little success-our attention; the social concerts, the clubs, the lyceums, the religious assemblies, even, (for religious things may degenerate into dissipation, common and abundant as they are, and in the hands of humanity as as it now is, sometimes minister to our unhappiness.

The single grand principle which is overlooked in the present condition of large towns and villages is that the best specimens of human character are developed, not by abundance and ease and facility and luxury, but by difficulty. It is neither by gorging the stomach-physical or moral-hor by a starving process, that good character is formed; but it is ordained of man that he shall eat his bread to best advantage, in the sweat of his face ; and his is often a more efficient body as well as a more active mind which is built up on a few scanty crusts and crumbs obtained with difficulty, than his who riots in all the abundance physical, moral or intellectual, of the dense village or the denser city.

What then is to be done? Can we pull down our cities ? Can we speak with prophetic voice-at least with any hope of making an impression— Yet forty days,' or forty years, and Nineveh shall be overthrown?' Can we even render them sta. tionary in their progress till a series of healthful influences may be brought to bear upon their condition? We expect no such thing. They must-they will-go on. Men will herd together, and that too for selfish purposes. They who merely declaim against it might as well declaim against the north east wind. What then, we repeat it, can be done ?

The question which has led to these considerations more than hints at the true remedy for the disease. Since we can neither raze to the ground our cities, our towns or our villages, or even stop the wheels of their progress, one thing remains, which is to embellish and to improve them.

One of the first things incumbent on a town or village, both with a view to improve and to embellish it, is to furnish it with suitable and convenient roads, streets, side walks, &c. On this point, we know not that we shall oppose the views of the most rigid utilitarian. The first prominent step of the good Oberlin, fond as he was of putting works of utility in the foreground, was to make suitable roads, both to unite his people to each other, and to bind them more closely to neighboring cities. Those

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