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be knows be is impudent, he may as well be otherwise; and it shall be expected that he blush, when he sees he makes another do it. For nothing can atone for the want of modesty; without which beauty is ungraceful, and wit detestable.



No. 21. SATURDAY, MARCH 24, 1710-11.

Locus est et pluribus umbris.

FOR. 1. EP. v. 28. There's room enough, and each may bring his friend.


I ay sometimes very much troubled, when I reflect upon the stare great professions of divinity, law, and physic; how they are exh of them overburdened with practitioners, and filled with multitodes of ingenious gentlemen that starve one another.

We may divide the clergy into generals, field officers, and subalterns. Among the first we may reckon bishops, deans, and are deacons. Among the second are doctors of divinity, prebendaries, and all that wear scarfs. The rest are comprehended under the subalterns. As for the first class, our constitution preserves it from any redundancy of incumbents, notwithstanding competitors are numberless. Upon a strict calculation, it is found that there has been a great exceeding of late years in the second division, szeral brevets having been granted for the converting of subalterns into scarf officers; insomuch, that within my memory the price of lustring is raised above twopence in a yard. As for the subalteros, they are not to be numbered. Should our clergy once etter into the corrupt practice of the laity, by the splitting of their freeholds, they would be able to carry most of the elections in England.

The body of the law is no less encumbered with superfluous het bers, that are like Virgil's army, which he tells us was so "rowded, many of them had not room to use their weapons. This prodigious society of men may be divided into the litigious and peaceable. Under the first are comprehended all those who are carried down in coach-fulls to Westminster Hall every morning in term time. Martial's description of this species of lawyers is full of humour:

“ Iras et verba locant."

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“ Men that hire out their words and anger;" that are more or less passionate according as they are paid for it, and allow their client a quantity of wrath proportionable to the fee which they receive from him. I must, however, observe to the reader, that above three parts of those whom I reckon among the litigious are such as are only quarrelsome in their hearts, and have no opportunity of shewing their passion at the bar. Nevertheless, as they do not know what strifes may arise, they appear at the hall every day, that they may shew themselves in a readiness to enter the lists, whenever there shall be occasion for them.

The peaceable lawyers are, in the first place, many of the benchers of the several inns of court, who seem to be the dignitaries of the law, and are endowed with those qualifications of mind that accomplish a man rather for a ruler than a pleader. These men live peaceably in their habitations, eating once a day, and dancing once a year,* for the honour of their respective societies.

Another numberless branch of peaceable lawyers, are those young men, who being placed at the inns of court in order to study the laws of their country, frequent the playhouse more than Westminster Hall, and are seen in all public assemblies, except in a court of justice. I shall say nothing of those silent and busy multitudes that are employed within doors in the drawing up of writings and conveyances; nor of those greater numbers that palliate their want of business with a pretence to such chamber practice

. If, in the third place, we look into the profession of physic, we shall find a most formidable body of men. The sight of them is enough to make a man serious, for we may lay it down as a maxim, that when a nation abounds in physicians, it grows thin of people. Sir William Temple is very much puzzled to find a reason why the Northern Hive, as he calls it, does not send out such prodigious swarms, and overrun the world with Goths and Vandals, as it did formerly; but had that excellent author observed that there were no students in physic among the subjects of Thor and Woden, and that this science very much flourishes in the north at present, he might have found a better solution for this difficulty than any of those he has made use of. This body of men in our own country may be described like the British army in Cæsar's time; some of them slay in chariots, and some on foot. If the infantry do less execution than the charioteers, it is, because they cannot be carried so soon into all quarters of the town, and dispatch so much business in so short a time. Besides this body of regular troops, there are stragglers, who, without being duly listed and enrolled, do infinite miscbief to those who are so unlucky as to fall into their hands.

* See Dugdale's Origines Juridicales, folio 1666.

There are, besides the above-mentioned, innumerable retainers to physie

, who, for want of other patients, amuse themselves with the stitling of cats in an air-pump, cutting up dogs alive, or impaling of insects upon the point of a needle for microscopical observations, besides those that are employed in the gathering of Feeds, and the chase of butterflies: not to mention the cockleshellmerchants and spider-catchers.

When I consider how each of these professions are crowded with multitudes that seek their livelihood in them, and how many men of merit there are in each of them, who may be rather said to be of the science than the profession ; Í very much wonder at the humour of parents, who will not rather choose to place their sons in a way of life where an honest industry cannot but thrive, than in stations where the greatest probity, learning, and good sense Inay miscarry. How many men are country curates, that might have made themselves aldermen of London by a right improvement of a smaller sum of money than what is usually laid out upon a learned education? A sober frugal person, of slender parts and a slow apprehension, might have thrived in trade, though he startes upon physic; as a man would be well enough pleased to buy silks of one, whom he would not venture to feel his pulse. Vagellius is careful, studious, and obliging, but withal a little thick-skulled; he has not a single client, but might have had abundance of customers. The misfortune is, that parents take a liking to a particular profession, and therefore desire their sons may be of it; whereas, in so great an affair of life, they should consider the genius and abilities of their children, more than their own inclinations. It is the great advantage of a trading nation, that there are very few in it so dull and heavy, who may not be placed in stations of life, which may give them an opportunity of making their

fortunes. A well-regulated commerce is not, like law, physic, or divinity, to be overstocked with hands; but, on the contrary, flourishes by multitudes

, and gives employment to all its professors. Fleets of merchantmen are so many squadrons of floating shops, that vend our wares and manufactures in all the markets of the world, and find out chapmen under both the tropics.



At the close of No. 108, he desires his readers to compare with this

what is said there.

my reader in any thing that is reasonable ; but as for these three particulars, though I am sensible they might tend very much to the embellishment of my paper, I cannot yet come to a resolution of communicating them to the public. They would indeed draw me out of that obscurity which I have enjoyed for many years, and expose me in public places to several salutes and civilities, which have been always very disagreeable to me; for the greatest pain I can suffer, is the being talked to, and being stared at. It is for this reason, likewise, that I keep my complexion and dress as very great secrets; though it is not impossible but I may make discoveries of both in the progress of the work I have undertaken.

After having been thus particular upon myself, I shall in tomorrow's paper give an account of those gentlemen who are concerned with me in this work ; for, as I have before intimated, a plan of it is laid and concerted (as all other matters of importance are) in a club. However, as my friends have engaged me to stand in the front, those who have a mind to correspond with me may direct their letters to the SPECTATOR, at Mr. Buckley's, in Little Britain: for I must further acquaint the reader, that though our club meets only on Tuesdays and Thursdays, we have appointed a committee to sit every night for the inspection of all such papers as may contribute to the advancement of the public weal. ADDISON.*


No. 2. FRIDAY, MARCH 2, 1710-11.

Ast alii sex
Et plures, uno conclamant ore

JUV. SAT. vii. 167.
Six more at least join their consenting voice.
The first of our society is a gentleman of Worcestershire, of
an ancient descent, a baronet, his name Sir ROGER DE COVERLEY.
His great grandfather was inventor of that famous country-dance

* Many touches in the character of the Spectator will remind the reader of Addison himself. In general society he was quite as silent as this imaginary philosopher.—(M.)

+ The names of many people have been stated as those of characters whom the essayists are said to have drawn in their club. But there is no foundation for these conjectural statements. Sir Roger de Coverley and Will Honeycomb were plainly creations by Addison. As for the other mem

which is called after him. All who know that shire are very well acquainted with the parts and merits of Sir Roger. He is a gentleman that is very singular in his behaviour. but his singularities proceed from his good sense, and are contradictions to the manners of the world, only as he thinks the world is in the wrong. However, this humour creates him no enemies, for he does Dothing with sourness or obstinacy; and his being unconfined to modes and forms, makes him but the readier and more capable to please and oblige all who know him When he is in town he lives in Soho Square.* It is said, he keeps himself a bachelor by reason he was crossed in love by a perverse beautiful widowt of the next county to him. Before this disappointment Sir ROGER was what you call a fine gentleman, had often supped with my Lord Rochester and Sir George Etheridge, fought a duel upon his first coming to town, and kicked bully Dawsons in a public coffeehouse for calling him youngster. But being ill used by the above-mentioned widow, he was very serious for a year and a half; and though, his temper being naturally jovial, he at last got over it, he grew careless of himself, and never dressed afterwards. He continues to wear a coat and doublet of the same cut that were in fashion at the time of his repulse, which, in his merry humour, he tells us, has been in and out twelve times since he first wore it. 'Tis said Sir Roger grew humble in his desires after he had forgot his cruel beauty, insomuch, that it is reported he has frequently offended in point of chastity with beggars and gypsies: but this is looked upon by his friends rather as matter of raillery than truth. He is now in his fifty-sixth year, cheerful, gay, and hearty; keeps a good house both in town and country; a great lover of mankind; but there is such a mirthful cast in his behaviour, that he is rather beloved than esteemed. bers of the club, Sir Andrew Freeport would stand for any merchant, the Templar for any Templar, the soldier for any soldier, the clergyman for any respectable divine. See the preface to this edition, where the want of harmony between Addison and Steele's ideas of Sir Roger de Coverley is pointed out. It may be also observed that, with the exception of this paper (No. 2), which was of course submitted to Addison, these two essayists never showed their papers to each other before publication. Thus many inconsistencies and differences of opinion may be accounted for.-(M.)

* Then the most fashionable part of the town.

+ Dr. Johnson said, it appeared to him, " that the story of the widow was intended to have something superinduced upon it; but the superstructure did not come."— Boswell's Life of Johnson, vol. ii. p. 376, 3rd edit.

A noted sharper, swaggerer, and debauchee, well known in Blackfriars and its then infamous purlicus; and to expose whom, it has been said, the character of Captain Hackum, in Shadwell's comedy called the Squire of Alsatia, was drawn.

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