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Army by land and water, including the transportation of troops and supplies by mechanical or animal means; with the furnishing of means of transportation of all classes and kinds required by the Army; and with such other duties not otherwise assigned by law as the Secretary of War may prescribe: Provided, that special and technical articles used or issued exclusively by other branches of the service may be purchased or procured with the approval of the Assistant Secretary of War by the branches using or issuing such articles, and the chief of each branch may be charged with the storage and issue of property pertaining thereto: Provided further, that utilities pertaining exclusively to any branch of the Army may be operated by such branches."

(1) Executive Office.-In charge of administration of Quartermaster General's Office; investigations; preparation of consolidated war plans; preparation of consolidated requirements; compilation of information on raw products and industrial conditions; general control over appropriations; in charge of matters relating to legislation; prepares final drafts of tables of basic allowances and tables of equipment; supervises standardization, including preparation of specifications and drawings for same.

(2) Supply Service. Has charge of all duties pertaining to the procurement, storage, and distribution of supplies.

(3) Construction Service.-Is charged with the construction, maintenance, and repair of all buildings, structures, and utilities of the Army (other than permanent fortifications).

(4) Transportation Service.-Is charged with the transportation of the Army by land and water.

(5) Remount Service. Is charged with the purchase of horses and mules required in connection with the operations of the Army and control of remount depots and stations.

(6) Administrative Service.-Handles all administrative matters of general nature not assigned elsewhere; prepares proposed orders, circulars, regulations, bulletins, and similar papers for publication and distributes those authorized; compiles and prepares history of Quartermaster Corps, and annual report of Quartermaster General's Office; acts on and handles all requests for legal advice and interpretation of laws and reviews contracts; handles all claims, and matters pertaining to patents; in charge of the civilian personnel of the Quartermaster General's Office. The Cemeterial Division, under this service has supervision over all matters pertaining to cemeteries, including interments, disinterments, and bringing home of remains of officers, enlisted men, and civilian employees who were killed in action or died in possessions of the United States or in foreign countries.

(7) Personnel Service.-Has charge of all matters pertaining to commissioned, enlisted, and civilian personnel of the Quartermaster Corps.

(e) The Chief of Finance.15-The Chief of Finance is charged with the disbursement of all funds of the War Department, and has responsibility for and authority over such funds; also the examination and recording of money

15 National Defense Act of 1920, § 9a, 41 Stat. p. 766 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, § 1784a[2]).

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accounts, the auditing of property accounts, and with such other fiscal and accounting duties as may be required by law or assigned to him by the Secretary of War. The Chief of Finance is also Budget Officer for the War Department, and in this capacity is charged with the preparation of estimates for the War Department.

(f) Surgeon General.16--The Surgeon General is the adviser of the War Department upon all medical and sanitary affairs of the Army. He has administrative control of the Medical Department; the designation of the stations of the commissioned personnel and civilian employees of the Medical Department and the issuance of orders and instructions relating to their professional duties; the instruction and control of the enlisted force of the Medical Department and of the Army Nurse Corps. The Army Medical Museum, the Army Medical Library, and the general hospitals are under his direct control. (g) Chief of Engineers.17 The Chief of Engineers is charged under the direction of the War Department, with control in technical matters over all of the Corps of Engineers and with the command of such portions of the corps as are not placed by the War Department under some territorial command nor assigned to some tactical unit containing other than Engineer troops. The duties of the Corps of Engineers comprise reconnoitering and surveying for military purposes, including the laying out of camps; the preparation, reproduction, and distribution of military maps of the United States and its possessions, including co-operation with other government and private mapping agencies, and in field operations of maps of the theater of operations; selection and acquisition of sites, and preparation of plans and estimates for military defenses; construction and repair of fortifications and their accessories, including submarine mine systems, installation and maintenance of searchlights and electric power and lighting systems, installation of fire control systems, and the maintenance pertaining to such latter systems which involve structural work; planning and supervising defensive or offensive works of troops in the field; military demolitions; military mining;, military camouflage; military bridges; water supply of troops in the field; examination of routes of communication for supplies and for military movements; and, within a theater of military operations, all general construction and road work, including maintenance and repair (except telegraph and telephone lines), and the construction, operation, and maintenance of all railways, utilities, ferries, canal boats, or other means of inland water transportation. It collects, arranges, and preserves all correspondence, reports memoirs, estimates, plans, drawings, and models which concern or relate in any way to the several duties above enumerated. The Corps of Engineers is also charged with the development, procurement, storage, and issue of certain classes of supplies and equipment.

Civil duties committed to the Chief of Engineers under the direction of the Secretary of War are principally as follows: The execution of work ordered by

16 National Defense Act of 1920, § 10, 41 Stat. p. 766 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, §§ 1806, 1807aaa[1]-1807aaa[13]).

17 National Defense Act of 1920, § 11, 41 Stat. p. 768 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, § 1842a).

Congress for the improvement of rivers and harbors, and other navigable waters of the United States, including examinations and surveys; administration and enforcement of laws for the protection and preservation of such waters, the establishment of harbor lines, establishment of anchorage grounds, of regulations for the use, administration, and navigation of such waters; regulations for the operation of drawbridges; removal of wrecks and other obstructions to navigation; approval of plans of bridges and dams; issuance of permits for structures, or for dredging, dumping, or other work in navigable waters; investigation and supervision, in co-operation with the Federal Water Power Commission, of power projects affecting navigable waters of the United States; supervision of operations affecting the scenic grandeur of Niagara Falls; surveying and charting the Great Lakes; improvement and care of public buildings and grounds in the District of Columbia, including among others, the Executive Mansion, Potomac Park, and Rock Creek Park; care and maintenance of the Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memorial; reclamation and development of Anacostia River and Flats, D. C.; maintenance and repair of the Washington Aqueduct; increasing the water supply of Washington, D. C.; the construction of monuments and memorials; and with general supervision of the work of the Board of Road Commissioners for Alaska.

(h) Chief of Ordnance.18 The Chief of Ordnance is in command of the Ordnance Department, whose duties are to design, procure, store, supply, and maintain the ordnance and ordnance stores of the United States Army, including artillery, artillery ammunition, small arms, bombs, and all munitions of war which may be required for the fortifications of the Army, the armies of the field, and for the whole body of the militia of the Union. The Ordnance Department performs all the technical engineering work necessary to investigate and construct experimental ordnance matériel for the adoption by the Army; prepares the necessary regulations for proof, inspection, storing, and for maintaining this matériel, as well as the detailed information necessary for the manufacture of munitions, for inspection of them, and for maintaining reserves prescribed by higher authority.

(i) Chief Signal Officer.19-The Chief Signal Officer has immediate charge, under the direction of the Secretary of War; of the development of all signal equipment; of books, papers, and all signal devices, including such meteorological instruments as are necessary for military purposes; of the procurement, preservation, and distribution of such of the before-mentioned supplies as are assigned to the Signal Corps for procurement and distribution by existing orders and regulations; of the co-ordination of the training of the personnel assigned to signal duties; of the construction, repair, and operation of all permanent military signal lines and equipment not excepted by regulations; the transmission of messages for the Army, by telegraph or otherwise, and of all other duties usually pertaining to military signaling; the direction of the Signal Corps

18 National Defense Act of 1920, § 12, 41 Stat. p. 768 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, § 1848).

19 National Defense Act of 1920, § 13, 41 Stat. p. 768 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, § 1860).

of the Army and the control of the officers and enlisted men and employees attached thereto; of the supply, installation, repair, and operation of military cables, telegraph and telephone lines, radio and meteorological apparatus and stations not excepted by regulations; of the supply, repair, and operation of field telegraph trains; of the preparation and revision of the War Department telegraph code; of general supervision of military radio operations and the enforcement of regulations concerning the same; of the co-ordination and standardization of all radio operations of the Army and the assignment of call letters, wave lengths, systems, and audible tones thereto; of the procurement and supply of photographs and motion pictures directed by the General Staff Corps, and in general of all photographic and cinematographic work of the Army not specifically assigned to other branches.

(j) Chief of Air Service.20-The Chief of the Air Service is charged, under the direction of the Secretary of War, with the duty of procuring, by manufacture or purchase, maintaining, and operating all aircraft, aircraft engines, and aircraft equipment for the Army, including balloons and airplanes, all appliances and facilities necessary to the operation and maintenance of said aircraft; of installing, maintaining, and operating all radio apparatus and signaling systems within Air Service activities; of establishing, maintaining, and operating all flying fields, aviation stations, repair and supply depots, etc.; of training and operating organizations, officers, enlisted men of the Air Service, and candidates for aviation service in matters pertaining to military aviation; with the supervision, control, and direction over the Bureau of Aircraft Production-the Bureau. of Aircraft Production functioning only on matters in connection with the cancellation of contracts and with the approval or authority for funds.

(k) Chief of Chemical Warfare Service.21-The Chief of the Chemical Warfare Service is charged with the investigation, development, manufacture, or procurement and supply to the Army of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances; the research, design, and experimentation connected with chemical warfare and its material; and chemical projectile filling plants and proving grounds; the supervision of the training of the Army in chemical warfare, both offensive and defensive, including the necessary schools of instruction; the organization, equipment, training, and operation of special gas troops; and such other duties as the President may from time to time prescribe.

D. Bureau of Insular Affairs 22

To the Bureau of Insular Affairs, under the immediate direction of the Secretary of War, is assigned all matters pertaining to civil government in the island possessions of the United States subject to the jurisdiction of the War

20 National Defense Act of 1920, § 13a, 41 Stat. p. 768 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923. § 1860a[1]).

21 National Defense Act of 1920, § 12a, 41 Stat. p. 768 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, § 1848a[1]).

22 National Defense Act of 1920, § 14, 41 Stat. p. 769 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, § 345a).

Department, the Philippine Islands and Porto Rico being the ones so subject at the present time. The bureau is also the repository of the civil records of the government of occupation of Cuba (January 1, 1899, to May 20, 1902), and had assigned to it matters pertaining to the provisional government of Cuba (September 29, 1906, to January 28, 1909). It is charged with the purchase and shipment of supplies for the Philippine Islands and Porto Rico; makes appointments of persons in the United States to the civil service of the Philippines and Porto Rico and arranges their transportation. It gathers statistics of insular imports and exports, shipping, and immigration. Under the convention of February 8, 1907, and the general regulations of the President of the United States issued thereunder, the bureau has immediate supervision and control of the Dominican receivership for the collection of customs revenues and payment of the interest and principal of the adjusted bonded indebtedness of the Dominican Republic, and in some respects acts as the agent in the United States of the receivership. Briefly, the bureau looks after the interests of the Philippine Islands and Porto Rico in the United States and is their representative before the executive departments and the public here. It makes studies of questions relating to financial matters, tariffs, navigation, land laws, etc.; also commercial and industrial possibilities, as applied to those islands, and makes such recommendations as may be necessary.

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The Militia Bureau of the War Department is established by law to facilitate the administration and to promote the development of the National Guard while not in the service of the United States. It is vested with all the administrative duties (co-ordinating with department and corps area commanders) involving the organization, armament, instruction, equipment, discipline, training, and inspection of the National Guard; the conduct of camps of instruction of the National Guard and the administrative duties connected with the preparation of the National Guard for participation in field exercises and maneuvers of the Regular Army; the mobilization of the National Guard in time of peace; and all matters pertaining to the National Guard not in Federal service, National Guard Reserve, and the unorganized militia of the United States not herein generally enumerated which do not under existing laws, regulations, orders, or practice come within the jurisdiction of the General Staff or any division or bureau of the War Department, and which shall not operate to divest any bureau or division of the War Department of duties now properly belonging to it.

F. Inland Waterways Corporation

The Inland Waterways Corporation is charged with the direction of the duties incident to the development of national inland waterway transportation as delegated to the Secretary of War under the Transportation Act of 1920,24

23 National Defense Act of 1920, § 44, 41 Stat. p. 782 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, §§ 3074b-3074e).

24 41 Stat. 499 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, § 100714k).

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