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Army cases, and with the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, Navy Department, in Navy cases.

(87) Applications for back pay, extra pay, or bounty money for military service should be filed with the General Accounting Office War Department Division; for bounty, extra pay, or prize money for naval service with the General Accounting Office, Navy Department Division.

(88) Applications for artificial limbs or mechanical appliances should be filed with the Surgeon General, United States Army, War Department.

(89) Applications for headstones for graves of deceased soldiers should be filed with the Quartermaster General, United States Army War Department. 23. Address Inquiries

All inquiries regarding pension matters should be addressed to "The Commissioner of Pensions," Washington, D. C.

24. Publications

(1) "Synopsis of Pension Laws of the United States," issued by Bureau of Pensions and obtainable from the Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., for 10 cents, gives a brief summary of the various pension laws, as well as Regulations and Instructions Relating to Pension Laws with tables of rates for the different wars and various disabilities; also information in regard to the Soldiers' Homes.

(2) Annual Report of the Commissioner of Pensions to the Secretary of the Interior, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. The report for 1924 gives a summary of important decisions as to:

(a) The meaning of "vicious habits," as used in the Act of June 5, 1920.12 (Claim of John T. Smith.)

(b) Res Adjudicata. ("The Boyd Decisions.")

(c) The meaning of "bounty" and "gratuity," as used in section 2 of the Joint Resolution of July 1, 1902, as amended by the Joint Resolution of June 28, 1906 (and see Act of May 1, 1920 8).

(d) Doctrine of Constructive Discharge.

(3) Decisions of the Department of the Interior, Pensions and Bounty Land. 20 cents. Government Printing Office.

(4) Facts and Figures (interesting statistical facts relating to the Bureau of Pensions). Issued by the Bureau.

(5) Laws of the United States Governing the Granting of Army and Navy Pensions. Issued by the Bureau.

(6) Free Price List No. 19 of government publications on Army and Militia, Aviation, and Pensions, for sale by Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.

8 41 Stat. 585 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, §§ 8972b-8972i). 12 41 Stat. 982.


1. Mission



Congress established the bureau as a federal agency for the purposes of collecting all available statistics, facts, and other information about education, not only in the United States and its territories but in foreign countries, and, further, to disseminate such information and data concerning schools and related subjects for the benefit of those concerned with the development of education, and, finally, to promote the cause of education throughout the country.1

2. History

This activity originally was an independent "Department of Education," 1 but the Commissioner, though head of a "department," was not a member of the President's cabinet. Two years later it was changed to a bureau of the Department of the Interior, called the "Office of Education," effective July 1, 1869.2

Later important administrative powers and functions were assigned to the Bureau of Education. The bureau was made responsible for the administration of the education, support and medical relief of the natives in the Territory of Alaska by the Secretary of the Interior.3 Congress charged the bureau, subsequent to its establishment, with certain responsibilities in connection with lands and moneys appropriated by the federal government under the Morrill and Nelson Acts in behalf of colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts. The bureau is required to ascertain whether interest derived from sale of lands granted under the first Morrill Act 4 amounts to at least 5 per cent., and whether such money is being expended in accordance with the terms of the act. At the end of the fiscal year in 1921 this sum amounted to $1,009,614. Under the second Morrill Act and the Nelson amendment the federal government grants annually $50,000 to each of the forty-eight states and the territories of Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto Rico. This appropriation, which now amounts to $2,550,000 annually, is administered through the Bureau of Education, which audits the expenditures. of these funds and determines whether the money appropriated is being spent in accordance with the purposes for which it is appropriated. The bureau's activities have been increased by various other acts.8

1 Act March 2, 1867 (14 Stat. 434).

2 Act July 20, 1868 (15 Stat. 92, 106).

3 Act May 17, 1884 (23 Stat. 24, 27).

4 Act July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. 503).

5 Act Aug. 30, 1890 (26 Stat. 417, 419).

6 Act March 4, 1907 (34 Stat. 1281 [Comp. St. § 8877]).

7 Report of Commissioner of Education, 1923, p. 1. Government Printing Office.

8 Act May 20, 1886 (24 Stat. 69 [Comp. St. §§ 9379-9381]); Resolution April 12, 1892 (27 Stat. 395); Act May 28, 1896 (29 Stat. 140, 171); Act March 3, 1901 (31 Stat. 999, 1000); Act Jan. 27, 1905 (33 Stat. 616, 617, 619); Act March 3, 1909 (35 Stat. 837 [Comp.

3. Activities

The bureau's functions and activities include: (1) Research and investigation; (2) educational surveys; (3) dissemination of information; and (4) field service. The increasing complexity of modern educational problems suggests the necessity of constant change in administration and content of curricula to meet present-day needs. These changes in the educational system, from the kindergarten to the university, should be made only after adequate study and consideration.

For several years one of the most important and direct services which the bureau has rendered to educational administrators in the several states has been in the field of educational surveys.

In connection with the field service of members of the staff and through educational surveys, the bureau disseminates information on educational problems to all parts of the country. By far the greater part of this work is accomplished through bulletins and circulars which issued from time to time. Part of these are the results of researches made by members of the staff, and part are the results of studies which have been made by persons not connected with the bureau. Thousands of individual requests for information by letter or in person are also answered by members of the bureau's staff in the course of every fiscal year. In the promotion of education, the members of the bureau's staff are called upon to inspect schools and colleges, to address educational meetings and conventions, to hold conferences with educational leaders in the several fields, and to conduct educational surveys. Some of these activities are undertaken by the bureau as a means of maintaining close contact with educational conditions throughout the country, but the most of them are performed at the invitation of educational administrators in the several states.

4. Organization

The organization of the Bureau of Education is graphically represented in Organization Chart 28, post. To supplement the chart, the following functions are noted:

I. The Commissioner of Education.-The Commissioner of Education is the executive and technical, or scientific, head of the Bureau of Education. While responsible, and reporting officially, to the Secretary of the Interior, he is appointed by the President of the United States, with the advice and consent of the Senate, for an indefinite term, and holds office at the pleasure of the President.

He is charged with carrying out all of the duties which are imposed upon the Bureau of Education, with power to delegate authority. His work involves the supervision of administrative and technical matters in the home office (Washington) and extensive traveling throughout the country, during which he exercises general oversight of work in the field.

The Commissioner is looked to for inspirational leadership in the field of education throughout the United States.

St. § 3609]); Act Feb. 23, 1917 (39 Stat. 929, 932, 933); Act March 3, 1917 (39 Stat. 1070, 1105, 1106); Act June 12, 1917 (40 Stat. 105, 150); Act Nov. 23, 1921 (42 Stat. 224); Act May 11, 1922 (42 Stat. 507, 526); Act May 24, 1922 (42 Stat. 552, 582).

II. Higher Education Division.-The Higher Education Division is concerned with the promotion of better methods in the field of university, college, technical school, and normal school teaching and administration, and research. in the same field. The division is under the direction of a specialist in higher education.

III. Rural Schools Division.-The work of research and promotion in the field of rural education (primary and secondary), is under the control of the Rural Schools Division, which is headed by a specialist in rural education.

IV. City Schools Division.-The City Schools Division supervises the research and promotion program as it concerns city school systems (primary and secondary), including industrial and economic relations and kindergarten matters. The division is conducted by a specialist in city school systems.

V. Service Division. The functions of this division are the sum total of those activities of its sections which are self-explanatory.

VI. The General Service Activities comprise those functions which appear to be explained in the titles of the divisions operating under the Chief Clerk.

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5. Publications

(a) Annual Report of the Commissioner of Education to the Secretary of the Interior. Government Printing Office, Washington.

(b) Educational Directory, 1925. Government Printing Office, Washington. Price 25 cents. This is a personnel directory, covering the whole field of organized education and a list of educational publications.


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