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II. Undersecretary of State 13
The Undersecretary of State is the principal assistant of the Secretary of State in the discharge of his various functions, aiding in the formulation and execution of the foreign policies of the government, in the reception of representatives of foreign governments, etc. In matters which do not require the personal attention of the Secretary of State, he acts for the Secretary of State; and in the absence of the Secretary of State, he becomes the Acting Secretary of State. The Undersecretary of State is charged with the general direction of the work of the Department of State and of the foreign service, and is chairman of the Foreign Service Personnel Board. The following geographical divisions are under the Undersecretary in a limited sense:
(a) Division of Latin-American Affairs.-General supervision, under the Secretaries, of relations, diplomatic and consular, political and economic, with Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
(b) Division of Western European Affairs.-General supervision under the Secretaries, of relations, diplomatic and consular, political and economic, with Austria, Belgium, British Empire (Canada, the Union of South Africa, British colonies or protectorates not elsewhere enumerated, and, in conjunction with the Far Eastern Division, Australia, New Zealand, India, and other British or European possessions in the Far East), Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France (Morocco), Germany, Hungary, Italy, Liberia, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.
(c) Division of Near Eastern Affairs.-General supervision, under the Secretaries, of relations, diplomatic and consular, political and economic, with Abyssinia, Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Egypt, Georgia, Greece, Hedjaz, Mesopotamia, Palestine, Persia, Rumania, Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, Syria, and Turkey.
(d) Division of Mexican Affairs.-General supervision, under the Secretaries, of relations diplomatic and consular, political and economic, with Mexico.
(e) Division of Eastern European Affairs.-General supervision, under the Secretaries, of matters pertaining to Russia (including Siberia), and of relations, diplomatic and consular, political and economic, with Esthonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland.
(f) Division of Far Eastern Affairs.-General supervision, under the secretaries, of political and economic relations with China and leased territories, Japan, Siam, the Far Eastern possessions of European countries (in conjunction with the Division of Western European Affairs), and Siberia (in conjunction with the Division of Eastern European Affairs).
(g) Division of Current Information.-Preparation of news items for the press, receiving and replying to inquiries from newspaper correspondents, preparation and distribution to officials of the department of daily press summaries and special articles, furnishing them with press bulletins, copies of texts, and general information bearing upon foreign relations.
13 Departmental Order No. 321 of Feb. 21, 1995.
(h) Office of Co-ordination and Review.-Reviews and dispatches correspondence, advises officers of the various departments of changes to be effected in diplomatic correspondence and address, and maintains a file of outgoing correspondence and of precedent cases for ready reference.
III. Assistant Secretary 13
An Assistant Secretary is charged with economic and financial matters; communications (electrical communications, shipping, aircraft). In the absence of the Secretary of State and the Undersecretary of State, he becomes the Acting Secretary of State. He supervises :
(a) The office of the Economic Adviser, who gives advice and recommendations to the department on questions of general economic policy; unifies and co-ordinates economic matters within the department; establishes and maintains liaison with the various economic bureaus in other departments; handles economic cases which have no regional character or which overlap geographical divisions; drafts correspondence on matters falling within the following special fields: Natural resources, finance, foreign commercial policy, commercial treaties and tariffs, transportation, and communications.
IV. Assistant Secretary 13
An Assistant Secretary is charged with administration of the department, administrative matters concerning international conferences and commissions, and with matters pertaining to ceremonial and protocol; is charged with the presentation to the President of ambassadors and ministers of foreign countries newly accredited to the United States; is a member of the Foreign Service Personnel Board. He supervises the following divisions of which the duties are as indicated thereunder.
(a) Chief Clerk.-General supervision of the clerks and other employees of the department and of routine departmental matters; purchase of supplies; custody of the property of the department; supervision and assignment of office rooms and space; issuance of passes, when required, to persons entitled to enter the building; authentication of applications for automobile licenses of foreign diplomatic officers residing in Washington; correspondence on departmental matters; leaves of absence and sick leave; preparation and custody of efficiency records of the department. The chief clerk signs authentications and such other papers as the Secretary of State may direct. The appointment section of his office has charge of the receipt and custody of applications for appointment in the departmental service and of the indorsements of applicants; correspondence relating thereto; preparation of nominations to the Senate of foreign service officers and other officers commissioned by the Department of State whose appointments are subject to confirmation by the Senate; issuance of commissions, exequaturs, and warrants of extradition; bonding of foreign service officers and other officers accountable to the department for moneys received or expended; preparation of copy for the department register, diplomatic and consular list, and mailing list; editing, proof reading, and distribution of the same; civil service and departmental personnel matters; oaths of office; custody of the seal of
13 Departmental Order No. 321 of Feb. 21, 1905.
the United States; issues requisitions on Public Printer for press work for the department.
(b) Bureau of Indexes and Archives.-Recording and indexing the correspondence of the department; custody of the archives; telegraph, telephone, and cipher communications.
(c) Bureau of Accounts.-Custody and disbursement of appropriations and indemnity funds; correspondence relating thereto; administrative examination of accounts.
(d) Division of Foreign Service Administration.-(Divided jurisdiction between the Assistant Secretaries IV and V.) General administration of the Foreign Service, including matters of appropriations and expenditures, rentals, equipment and supplies, organizations, instruction of diplomatic and consular officers, etc. Correspondence relating to the foregoing and to customs courtesies and free entry, letters rogatory, decoration of American citizens by foreign governments, international exchange of publications, diplomatic pouch service between the United States and foreign countries, and the designation of commercial, military, and naval attachés; whereabouts and welfare of Americans abroad, shipping and seamen, settlement of estates of deceased Americans in foreign countries, consular protection of American interests and, other than commerce, the general work of consular offices, such as immigration, quarantine, notarial acts, protection of the customs revenues, etc.
V. Assistant Secretary13
An Assistant Secretary directs the Consular Service and all consular activities in connection with the work of the several bureaus and divisions of the department; his office has charge of censoring, grading, and criticizing of commercial and economic reports; drafting of correspondence on consular trade assistance and reporting; distribution of commercial and economic reports to the Department of Commerce and such other government departments and organizations and nongovernment organizations as may properly receive them. Is also the budget officer of the Department of State, and is charged with the supervision of the preparation of all estimates of appropriations for the department and for the foreign service and of their presentation to Congress. Supervises the expenditures made from the appropriation for "emergencies arising in the Diplomatic and Consular Service." Is a member of the Foreign Service Personnel Board, also has jurisdiction over the
(a) Visé Office.-Matters pertaining to the entry of aliens into the United States with respect to the granting or refusal of visés; correspondence on matters pertaining to visé work; examination of visé applications submitted by American consuls abroad.
(b) Division of Foreign Service Administration.—(Divided jurisdiction. See IV, supra.)
VI. Assistant Secretary13
An Assistant Secretary deals with special questions relating to the Far East; special questions relating to the matters relating to the Washington Conference on Limitation of Armament; passport and deportation questions. He supervises:
13 Departmental Order No. 321 of Feb. 21, 1905.
(a) Division of Passport Control.-Examination and adjudication of applications for passports and for registration in consulates of the United States as American citizens; issuance of departmental passports; supervision over the department's passport agencies in New York, Chicago, San Francisco, New Orleans, Seattle, and Boston; direction of clerks of courts who take passport applications; custody of applications for passports and registration; correspondence regarding citizenship, passports, registration, and right to protection while abroad; issuance of letters of introduction.
(b) Division of Publications.-The chief of the division is the editor of the department; compiles the session laws, Statutes at Large of the United States, papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, and other publications; has custody of the original laws, treaties, proclamations, and executive orders; printing of the slip laws and printing and distribution of treaties, proclamations, and executive orders; custody of Indian treaties and other historical manuscripts, of papers relating to constitutional amendments and the ascertainment of electors, and of records of boundary and claims commissions. The office of the Geographer and the Library are in this division.
VII. Solicitor 13
Deals with questions of municipal and international law; handles claims of citizens of the United States against foreign governments and of nationals of foreign countries against the United States; matters pertaining to international extraditions; the protection of interests of American citizens in foreign countries; rights of aliens in the United States; international arbitrations; and drafting and interpretation of treaties; legal questions in connection with passports, visés and naturalization. This office has contact with the international claims
VIII. Foreign Service Personnel Board
This board is composed of the Undersecretary of State, chairman, and the Assistant Secretaries mentioned under IV and V, supra, as members, and the members of the Executive Committee of the Foreign Service Personnel Board. It is charged with the preparation of efficiency records of foreign service officers; submission to the Secretary of State of names of foreign service officers recommended for advancement in the service, for designation as counselors of embassy or legation, and for promotion to the grade of minister; recommendations to the Secretary of State regarding the assignment of foreign service officers to posts and their transfer from one branch of the service to the other according to the needs of the service; recommendations to the Secretary of State regarding separations from the service. The office of the executive committee of the Foreign Service Personnel Board is charged with the receipt and custody of all applications for appointment in the foreign service and with arranging for examinations for entrance to the foreign service. Correspondence relating thereto;
13 Departmental Order No. 321 of Feb. 21, 1905.
14 See Thorpe, Preparation of International Claims, West Pub. Co., 1924, chap. XV, and International Law Chiefly as Interpreted and Applied by the United States, by Charles Cheney Hyde.
prints and distributes blank forms of application for appointment in the foreign service and pamphlets regarding requirements for entrance therein.12
(a) Executive Commitee of the Foreign Service Personnel Board.—The duties of said Executive Committee are:
(1) To take into its possession and consolidate immediately all records and material relating to the personnel of the foreign service, both diplomatic and consular.
(2) To keep the efficiency records of all Foreign Service officers and employees. (3) To collect, collate, and record pertinent data relating to foreign service personnel.
(4) To submit to the Foreign Service Personnel Board recommendations for the assignment of officers to posts and the transfer of such officers from one branch of the service to the other.
(5) To recommend the granting of leaves of absence.
(6) To interview applicants and prospective applicants for the Foreign Service. (7) To examine and recommend for appointment applicants for positions as subordinate employees in the Foreign Service.
(8) To maintain contact with Foreign Service officers and employees while on visits to the United States. For this purpose a register of visiting officers and employees shall be kept.
All personnel records are held strictly confidential, and no papers, documents, data or reports relating thereto are revealed, except to the Secretary of State, the members of the Foreign Service Personnel Board, and the Board of Review. "At least once a year, or whenever the Secretary of State shall so order, all personnel records, ratings, and accumulated material shall be examined impartially by a Board of Review, and a report rendered to the Foreign Service Personnel Board as to the relative standing of officers and employees. The Board of Review shall be composed of five members, of whom the chairman of the Executive Committee shall be the chairman, and the remaining four drawn from Foreign Service officers of high rank by the Secretary of State.'
IX. The Foreign Service School
The President, by Executive Order of June 7, 1924, having provided for the establishment of a Foreign Service School in the Department of State, the following rules and regulations were made for the governance of the School :16 (1) The Chief Instructor shall be selected from among Foreign Service officers of class five or over.
(2) He shall have the following duties:
(a) To prepare and submit to the School Board for approval a complete schedule of work to be covered during the term of instruction.
(b) To select instructors in the various subjects from among the qualified officers of the Department of State, the Foreign Service, the other executive departments of the government, and other available sources..
12 43 Stat. 140.
15 Departmental Order No. 295 of June 9, 1924. 16 Departmental Order No. 296 of June 9, 1924.