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(c) To instruct the School in subjects selected and approved by the


(d) To maintain the discipline of the School and bear responsibility


(e) To keep a record of attendance and an impartial, confidential rating of each pupil with respect to his qualifications for the Foreign Service.

(f) To act as a member of the School Board.

(g) To make reports on the work of the School and the individual pupils at the end of the term of instruction, or whenever required by the School Board or the Secretary of State.

(3) Each term of instruction shall begin and end on dates to be fixed by the School Board.

(4) Each foreign service pupil shall be assigned to one of the divisions or bureaus of the Department of State, where he will report for duty when not attending classes.

(5) The chiefs of the divisions or bureaus shall report to the Chief Instructor the character of the work done by the pupils assigned to them, together with any delinquencies.

5. Organization

All divisions, bureaus, and offices report to the Undersecretary concerning political questions; to the Assistant Secretaries as indicated by the nature of their several missions, except that, in administrative matters, business ordinarily is routed to the Chief Clerk.

The organization shown on the chart is self-explanatory in the light of the foregoing description of "Activities."

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(a) The Secretary of State is the only cabinet officer who does not make a yearly report on the business of his department, the only annual report of a Secretary of State being Secretary Olney's of 1896, which appeared in the volume of Foreign Relations and was also issued separately. From earliest times the President, in his annual message, gave a synopsis of our relations with foreign countries, and this was usually supplemented by certain State Department papers, sometimes a single treaty, but more often a number of diplomatic letters. From these accompanying papers grew up the publication now known as Foreign Relations.

(b) Among general State Department publications 17 the following may be noted:

(1) Attorneys General. Digest of published opinions of Attorneys General and of leading decisions of federal courts with reference to international law, treaties, and kindred subjects (by John L. Cadwalader). 1877.

(2) Papers and correspondence relative to claim against Brazil concerning (brig.) Caroline, and to proceedings of James Watson Webb respecting it. 1874. (3) Cuba. Correspondence of Department of State in relation to seizure of American vessels and injuries to American citizens during hostilities in Cuba. 1870.

(4) Executive officer of United States, 1789-1901. Oct. 19, 1901. (5) Extradition. Report on extradition, with returns of all cases from August 9, 1842, to January 1, 1890, and index, by John Bassett Moore. 1890.

(6) France. Combattants Français de Guerre Americaine, 1778-83, containing the name of every Frenchman who served with American colors in the Revolutionary War.

(7) French Spoliations.18 Report of Secretary of State relative to papers on file in Department of State touching unsettled claims of citizens of United States. against France for spoliations prior to July 31, 1801. 1884.

(8) Hawaii. Papers relating to annexation of Hawaiian Islands to United. States. 1893 (52 Cong. 2d Sess. S. Ex. Docs. 76 and 77); serial No. 3062.

17 See Checklist of U. S. Public Documents 1789-1909, Gov't Printing Office pp. 895-903. Publications should be obtained from Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C., who will, upon application, furnish a free price list (No. 65).

18 Authorized by Act Feb. 20, 1897 (29 Stat. 584).

(9) MacCord, Victor Hugo. In re claim of Victor H. MacCord against Peru; brief for United States. 1898.

(10) Nicaragua. Claims of citizens of United States against Nicaragua, May 20, 1879.

(11) Passports. American passport, its history, and digest of laws, rulings and regulations governing its issuance by Department of State. Gaillard Hunt. (12) American Foreign Service. Government Printing Office-price 5 cents. (13) A Short Account of the Department of State. Government Printing Office.

(14) Prize Cases. Reports of cases in prize argued and determined in Circuit and District Courts for Southern District of New York, 1861-65, by Samuel Blatchford. 1866.

(15) Red Cross. History of Red Cross. Treaty of Geneva and its adoption by United States. American Association of Red Cross. 1883.

(16) George Washington. Calendar of applications and recommendations for office during presidency of George Washington, by Gaillard Hunt. 1901.

(17) Daniel Webster. Correspondence between Daniel Webster and Lord Ashburton: (1) McLeod's Case; (2) Creole Case; (3) Subject of impressment. 1842.

(18) Various publications in regard to commercial regulations of foreign countries; privileges and restrictions of commercial intercourse of United States with foreign nations; changes and modifications in commercial systems of foreign nations.

(19) Information regarding appointment and promotions in consular service, diplomatic service, etc.

(20) General Index to International Law Situations, Topics, and Discussions, Naval War College, vols. 1-20, 1901-1920. Price, 55 cents.

(21) Digest of the International Law of the United States, Taken from Documents Issued by Presidents and Secretaries of State, and from Decisions of Federal Courts and Opinions of Attorneys General." Francis Wharton, Solicitor of Department of State. 1886.

(22) Digest of International Law, as Embodied in Diplomatic Discussions, Treaties, and Other International Agreements, International Awards, the Decisions of Municipal Courts, and the Writings of Jurists, and Especially in Documents, Published and Unpublished, Issued by Presidents and Secretaries of State of the United States, the Opinions of the Attorneys General, and the Decisions of Courts, Federal and State." John Bassett Moore, 1906.18 (23) Consular Regulations.

7. General Guide to Practitioners Before the State Department

(a) There are no requirements for admission of attorneys to practice. The division of functions indicated in the foregoing description under "Distribution of Duties," summarized, indicates that reference to the various offices for specified interests that the citizen is most likely to be interested in should be made as follows:

18 Authorized by Act Feb. 20, 1897 (29 Stat. 584).

(b) To the appropriate one of the six geographical divisions under the Undersecretary, for political or economic inquiries as to the relations of the United States with any foreign country; e. g., as to Cuba and the Platt Amendment, consult the Division of Latin-American Affairs; as to recognition of Russia, the Division of Eastern European Affairs.

(c) Division of Foreign Service Administration.

(c1) Whereabouts and welfare of Americans abroad.

(c2) Consular protection of American interests.

(c3) Settlement of estates of deceased Americans abroad.

(d) Division of Passport Control.

(d1) By and to Whom Issued.-Passports are issued only by the Secretary of State, except in emergency abroad a temporary passport may also be obtained from such diplomatic or consular officers, and from such chief executive officers of the insular possessions of the United States, as the President shall designate.19 They are obtainable by persons owing allegiance to the United States.20 (d2) Application.-A blank form of application should be obtained from

a clerk of court, passport agency, or from the Department of State. Ask for the form applicable to (1) native citizen; 21 or (2) naturalized citizen; 22 or (3) person claiming citizenship through naturalization of parent or husband.

Affidavit of Applicant.-A person who is entitled to receive a passport, if within the United States, must submit a written application in the . form of an affidavit, to the Secretary of State. The application should be made by the person to whom the passport is to be issued, and signed in full by him, as it is not proper for one person to apply for another.23 If the applicant signs by mark, two attesting witnesses to his signature are required.

The affidavit must be made before a clerk of a federal court or a state court authorized by the Act of Congress of June 29, 1906, to naturalize aliens, within the jurisdiction of which the applicant or his witness resides, and the seal of the court must be affixed, unless there is in such place an agent of the Department of State, in which case the application must be made before such agent.

assport agents have offices at the custom houses in New York, San Francisco, and Boston; in Post Office Building, New Orleans, Transportation Building, Chicago, and White Building, Seattle. It is al

19 R. S. §§ 4075, 4078, amended by Act June 14, 1902, c. 1088 (32 Stat. 386 [Comp. St. §§ 7623, 7628]).

20 R. S. § 4076, amended by Act June 14, 1902, c. 1088 (32 Stat. 386 [Comp. St. § 7624]). See, also, Act March 2, 1907, § 2 (34 Stat. 1228 [Comp. St. § 3959]), and Act May 9, 1918, § 1, subd. 12 (40 Stat. 545 [Comp. St. 1918, Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1919, § 4352]).

21 Const. U. S. Amend. art. 14, § 1; R. S. § 1992, 1 Comp. Stat. 1901, p. 1268, Comp. St. § 3946; R. S. § 1993, 1 Comp. Stat. 1901, p. 1268, Comp. St. § 3947; Act March 2, 1907, § 6 (34 Stat. 1229 [Comp. St. § 3963]).

22 See Act March 2, 1907, § 2 (34 Stat. 1228 [Comp. St. § 3959]).

23 Act June 15, 1917, title 9, § 1 (40 Stat. 227 [Comp. St. 1918, Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1919, 7628a]).

ways preferable that the application be made at or near the place where the applicant resides. Where the application is not made near applicant's residence, the applicant must give the name and address of a reputable person residing in the place where the applicant resides, so that the clerk of court, or the department's agent, or the department itself may make the necessary inquiries of such person. Where it is necessary to make such inquiries by telegraph, the applicant will be required to bear the expense thereof. (d3) Women's Application.24-A married woman should sign her own christian name or names, with her husband's family name. If she is unmarried, she should state, if a fact, that she never has been married. If she is the wife or widow of a native citizen of the United States, the fact should be made to appear in her application, which should be made according to the form prescribed for a native citizen, whether she was born in this country or abroad. If she is the wife or widow of a naturalized citizen, she must transmit for inspection her husband's certificate of naturalization or a certified copy of the court record thereof, must state that she is the wife (or widow) of the person described therein, and must set forth the facts of his birth, emigration, naturalization, and residence, as required in the rules governing the application of a naturalized citizen.

It is essential that a married woman's marital relation be indicated in her application for a passport, because her citizenship follows that of her husband, except where the marriage is contracted after September 22, 1922, or the husband is naturalized after that date; therefore her husband's citizenship must be established. (d4) The Child of a Naturalized Citizen Claiming Citizenship through the Naturalization of the Parent.25-The applicant must state that he or she is the son or daughter, as the case may be, of the person described in the certificate of naturalization, which must be submitted for inspection, and must set forth the facts of emigration, naturalization, and residence, as required in the rules governing the application of naturalized citizen.

(d5) A Resident of an Insular Possession of the United States Who Owes Allegiance to the United States.26 In addition to the statements required under (d2), supra, the applicant must state that he owes allegiance to the United States, and that he does not acknowledge allegiance to any other government, and must sub

24 Sec. R. S. § 1994, 1 Comp. St. 1901, p. 1268, Comp. St. § 3948; Act March 2, 1907, §§ 3-4 (34 Stat. 1228, 1229 [Comp. St. §§ 3960, 3961]); Act Sept. 22, 1922 (42 Stat. 1021).

25 R. S. § 1993 (Comp. St. § 3947) and Act March 2, 1907, § 6 (34 Stat. 1229 [Comp. St. § 3963]).

26 See Treaty with Spain, ratified April 11, 1899, art. 9 (30 Stat. 1759); Act April 12, 1900, § 7 (31 Stat. 79 [Comp. St. § 3754]); Act July 1, 1902, § 4 (32 Stat. 692); Act March 2, 1917. § 5 (39 Stat. 953 [Comp. St. § 3803bb]); Treaty ratified with Denmark Jan. 17, 1917 (39 Stat. 1712).

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