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A Procery Cest
Come Fide -
Federal Pore Comoroso
Gergecac Brad
Grant Wema Commission
Linco's Wema Commissa
Siate. War, ad Sany Deçerment Busings

Tar* Commission. 13; An Assistant to the Director. 13 Iurestigator.

Lats L'epartment.

State Dezartment. (3), Insestigator.

Department of Agriculture. 14, An Assistant to the Director. (4a) Investigator.

Post Office Department and Postal Service. (4b) Investigator.

Treasury Department. (4c) Investigator.

Public Health Service.
(5) An Assistant to the Director.
(5a) Investigator.

Federal Trade Commission.
Interstate Commerce Commission.
Railroad Administration.
Railroad Labor Board.
Shipping Board.

General Accounting Office.
(5b) Investigator.

Department of Commerce. (50) Investigator.

Justice Department. (6) An Assistant to the Director. (a) Investigator.

Department of the Interior,
(6) Investigator.

Veterans' Bureau.
National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers.

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5. Publications

Annual report of the Director of the Budget to the President of the United States.

139

CHAPTER 19

PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE 1. Mission

The Public Health Service is charged with the study of the diseases of man and conditions influencing the propagation and spread thereof, including sanitation and sewage, and the pollution, either directly or indirectly, of the navigable streams and lakes of the United States, and to issue publications in this connection for the use of the public. It is also charged with the enforcement of laws for the prevention of the introduction and spread of disease and with the medical care of certain beneficiaries of the federal government. 2. History

By the Act of July 16, 1798,2 "the master or owner of every ship or vessel of the United States, arriving from a foreign port into any port of the United States," was required, before the ship was admitted to entry, to render a'true account of the number of seamen employed aboard since last entered at any United States port, and to pay to the collector at the rate of 20 cents per month for every seaman so employed. The fund so accumulated was to be used to erect hospitals for "sick and disabled seamen." The President was authorized to appoint directors of the “Marine Hospital of the United States” in such ports as he deemed proper. The first hospital built under this act was located at Norfolk in 1800.

The following year the "officers of the customs revenue of the United States,” the master and crews of revenue cutters, and military officers commanding any fort or station on the seacoast were enjoined to observe the "quarantines and other restraints” established by the health laws of any state respecting any vessels arriving in or bound to any port or district thereof.3

The President was authorized to direct the expenditure of moneys for the relief of sick and disabled seamen, and provision was made for the deduction of 20 cents monthly from the pay of officers and men of the Navy for the similar purpose.

The Secretary of the Treasury was authorized to "employ additional revenue boats and officers to aid in executing quarantine and health laws.”

When vessels were sold or transferred abroad, the hospital dues owing to the United States were to be collected.

Warehouses at New York for goods imported in vessels subject to quarantine were authorized.?

1 Act Aug. 14, 1912, c. 288, $ 1 (37 Stat. 319 [Comp. St. $ 9128]). 21 Stat. 605. 3 R. S. $ 4792 (Act Feb. 25, 1799, c 12 [Comp. St. $ 9150]). 4 Act March 2, 1799 (1 Stat. 729). 8 Act July 13, 1832 (4 Stat. 577). 6 Act April 29, 1864 (13 Stat. 61). 7 Act Dec. 15, 1864 (13 Stat. 419).

The Secretary of the Treasury was authorized to make and enforce quarantine regulations to prevent introduction of cholera, and revenue officers and cutters were to aid in enforcement.8

During the Civil War the Marine Hospitals and their officers were used by the military authorities, both North and South, for the care of the military forces.

In 1870, the Secretary of the Treasury was authorized to appoint a Supervising Surgeon of Marine Hospital Service, "to supervise all matters connected with the Marine Hospital Service.” The monthly assessment on seamen's pay was increased to 40 cents.9

Canal boats were exempted from the benefits as well as from payment of the hospital dues 10

Collectors of Customs were required to act as disbursing agents for payments in construction of Marine Hospitals.11

The President was authorized to receive donations for the erection of hospitals for sick and disabled seamen.12

The hospital privilege was extended to sick foreign seamen at 75 cents per day 13

The Secretary of the Treasury was authorized to sell or lease Marine Hospital property not needed and which had not been furnishing relief to an average of 20 cases daily for the preceding four years:14

The appointment of the Supervising Surgeon General of the United States Marine Hospital Service was made subject to Senate confirmation.15

Vessels were required to keep "seamen's time books" as a basis for determining hospital dues. 16 The Government Hospital for the Insane was made available to insane patients of the Marine Hospital Service.16

The Act of April 29, 1878,17 "to prevent the introduction of contagious or infectious diseases into the United States," provided for notices from United States Consuls abroad to the Marine Hospital Service of the existence of such diseases in any port from which any vessel clears bound for a port of the United States. It also authorized the utilization by the federal service of state and municipal quarantine agencies. This act marks the beginning of the extensive use of the Marine Hospital Service as a federal health service.

Special attention to yellow fever and cholera was authorized in 1878.18 An important step toward educating the public in health matters was the first act which authorized the collection of data for health bulletins.19

(See under "Publications," post.)

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8 Res. May 26, 1866 (14 Stat. 357). 9 Act June 29, 1870 (16 Stat. 169). 10 Res. Feb. 10, 1871, No. 27, $ 1 (16 Stat. 595). 11 R. S. § 3657 (Comp. St. § 6665). 12 R. S. $ 4801 (Comp. St. $ 9189). 13 R. S. § 4805 (Comp. St. & 9193). 14 R. S. § 4806 (Comp. St. § 9197); Act March 3, 1875 (18 Stat. 485). 15 Act March 3, 1875, c. 130 (18 Stat. 377 [Comp. St. 8 9131]). 16 Act March 3, 1875, c. 156 (18 Stat. 485). 17 20 Stat. 37. 18 Res. Dec. 21, 1878, No. 2 (20 Stat. 487). 19 Act March 3, 1879 (20 Stat. 402).

A national board of health was created by the Act of March 3, 1879,20 which was repealed in 1883.21

The President was authorized to call an international sanitary conference in 1880.22

The scope and effectiveness of quarantine regulations were progressively increased, especially under the incentive of the yellow fever peril.23

Measures to prevent the interstate spread of disease received attention, 24 and for the first time the Marine Hospital Service was so employed.

Hospital taxes were abolished and the cost of maintaining the Marine Hospital Service was placed on tonnage taxes.25

The benefits of Marine Hospitals were extended to life-saving personnel,26 and to light keepers and assistant light keepers of the Lighthouse Service.27

The proceeds of sale of unclaimed effects of deceased seamen were to go to a fund for sick and disabled seamen.28

A commission of Marine Hospital Service officers was appointed to investigate the crigin and prevalence of leprosy in the United States.?

Quarantine stations were provided for Porto Rico, 30 Hawaii, 31 and the Virgin Islands. 32

The name was changed from “Marine Hospital Service” to “Public Health and Marine Hospital Service" 33 in 1902, and to “Public Health Service" in 1912.34

In 1905 provision of the act placing the support of the service on duties from tonnage was repealed. 35

Physical and mental examination of all alien immigrants was provided for, as well as a board of appeal composed of Public Health Service officers, in cases of certified mental defects.3

29

36

20 20 Stat. 484. See, also, Acts of June 2 and July 1, 1879 (21 Stat. 5, 46), and August 7, 1882 (22 Stat. 315).

21 Act Feb. 5, 1893 (27 Stat. 449). 22 Res. May 14, 1880, No. 33 (21 Stat. 306). See, also, Act June 5, 1920 (41 Stat, 1022).

23 Res. June 14, 1879, No. 6 (21 Stat. 50 [Comp. St. § 9174]); Act Aug. 7, 1882 (22 Stat. 315); Act Feb. 15, 1893 (27 Stat. 449), amended by Act Aug. 18, 1894 (28 Stat., 372 (Comp. St. § 9157]), and Act March 3, 1901 (31 Stat. 1086); Act June 19, 1906, c. 333 (34 Stat. 299 [Comp. St. $89167-9172]); Act June 16, 1921 (42 Stat. 38).

24 Res. Sept. 26, 1888, No. 44 (25 Stat. 630) ; Act March 27, 1890 (26 Stat. 31 [Comp. St. 88 9176-9178]); Act Feb. 15, 1893 (27 Stat. 419 [Com.p. St. 88 9156-9166]).

25 Act June 26, 1884 (23 Stat. 57).
26 Act Aug. 4, 1894 (28 Stat. 229 [Comp. St. § 9192]).
27 Act Aug. 28, 1916, c. 414 (39 Stat. 538 [Comp. St. § 8448a]).
28 Act March 3, 1897 (29 Stat. 689 [('omp. St. § 8334)).

29 Act March 2, 1899 (30 Stat. 976). See, also, Act March 3, 1905, c. 1443 (33 Stat. 1009 (Comp. St. $ 9183 et seg.]), Act Feb. 3, 1917, c. 26 (39 Stat. 872 [Comp. St. 1918, Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1919, $$ 9188a-9188f]), and Act Sept. 21, 1922 (42 Stat. 995).

30 Act April 12, 1900 (31 Stat. 80 [Comp. St. § 3757]). See, also, Act July 1, 1902, c. 1383 (32 Stat. 731).

31 Act April 30, 1900 (31 Stat. 160 [Comp. St. § 3733]). 32 President's Executive Order Sept. 27, 1917. 33 Act July 1, 1902, c. 1370 (32 Stat. 712 [Comp. St. $ 9134 et seq.]). 34 Act Aug. 14, 1912, c. 288 (37 Stat. 309 [Comp. St. 88 9128, 9129]). 35 Act March 3, 1905 (33 Stat. 1217). 36 Act Feb. 5, 1917 (39 Stat. $85 (Comp. St. 1918, Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1919, § 428914i]).

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