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3. Activities

The bureau's functions and activities include: (1) Research and investigation; (2) educational surveys; (3) dissemination of information; and (4) field service. The increasing complexity of modern educational problems suggests the necessity of constant change in administration and content of curricula to meet present-day needs. These changes in the educational system, from the kindergarten to the university, should bě made only after adequate study and consideration.

For several years one of the most important and direct services which the bureau has rendered to educational administrators in the several states has been in the field of educational surveys.

In connection with the field service of members of the staff and through educational surveys, the bureau disseminates information on educational problems to all parts of the country. By far the greater part of this work is accomplished through bulletins and circulars which issued from time to time. Part of these are the results of researches made by members of the staff, and part are the results of studies which have been made by persons not connected with the bureau.

Thousands of individual requests for information by letter or in person are also answered by members of the bureau's staff in the course of every fiscal year.

In the promotion of education, the members of the bureau's staff are called upon to inspect schools and colleges, to address educational meetings and conventions, to hold conferences with educational leaders in the several fields, and to conduct educational surveys. Some of these activities are undertaken by the bureau as a means of maintaining close contact with educational conditions throughout the country, but the most of them are performed at the invitation of educational administrators in the several states. 4. Organization

The organization of the Bureau of Education is graphically represented in Organization Chart 28, post. To supplement the chart, the following functions are noted:

I. The Commissioner of Education.—The Commissioner of Education is the executive and technical, or scientific, head of the Bureau of Education. While responsible, and reporting officially, to the Secretary of the Interior, he is appointed by the President of the United States, with the advice and consent of the Senate, for an indefinite term, and holds office at the pleasure of the President.

He is charged with carrying out all of the duties which are imposed upon the Bureau of Education, with power to delegate authority. His work involves the supervision of administrative and technical matters in the home office (Washington) and extensive traveling throughout the country, during which he exercises general oversight of work in the field.

The Commissioner is looked to for inspirational leadership in the field of education throughout the United States.

St. § 3609]); Act Feb. 23, 1917 (39 Stat. 929, 932, 933); Act March 3, 1917 (39 Stat. 1070, 1105, 1106); Act June 12, 1917 (40 Stat. 105, 150); Act Nov. 23, 1921 (42 Stat. 224); Act May 11, 1922 (42 Stat. 507, 526); Act May 24, 1922 (42 Stat. 552, 582).

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II. Higher Education Division.—The Higher Education Division is concerned with the promotion of better methods in the field of university, college, technical school, and normal school teaching and administration, and research in the same field. The division is under the direction of a specialist in higher education.

III. Rural Schools Division.—The work of research and promotion in the field of rural education (primary and secondary), is under the control of the Rural Schools Division, which is headed by a specialist in rural education.

IV. City Schools Division.—The City Schools Division supervises the research and promotion program as it concerns city school systems (primary and secondary), including industrial and economic relations and kindergarten matters. The division is conducted by a specialist in city school systems.

V. Service Division. The functions of this division are the sum total of those activities of its sections which are self-explanatory.

VI. The General Service Activities comprise those functions which appear to be explained in the titles of the divisions operating under the Chief Clerk.

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5. Publications

(a) Annual Report of the Commissioner of Education to the Secretary of the Interior. Government Printing Office, Washington.

(b) Educational Directory, 1925. Government Printing Office, Washington. Price 25 cents. This is a personnel directory, covering the whole field of organized education and a list of educational publications.

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CHAPTER 30

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY* 1. Mission

The Geological Survey is charged, under direction of the Secretary of the Interior, with classification of the public lands and the examination of the geologic structure, mineral resources, and mineral products of the national domain.

2. History

The Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories and the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region, under the Interior Department, and the Geographical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian under the War Department, were discontinued, and the Geological Survey was established in their stead, in 1879.1 It was required to classify the public lands and direct an examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain. Congress authorized the issuance of reports upon the mineral resources of the United States. The Reclamation Service was organized under the Geological Survey in 1902,3 which connection was practically abolished July 1, 1906, except for the directorship and the disbursing, but actual separation did not take place until March, 1907.

The regular geologic and topographic surveys naturally gathered information about the forests from the first, and when the government began setting aside forest reserves the Survey was in a position to advise the Secretary of the Interior as to the localities of suitable forest lands. In 1897 Congress made an appropriation for surveying lands in reference to forest reserves, and the Survey began a systematic survey of the national forests, and the data collected

*The President, acting under authority of Act Feb. 14, 1903 (32 Stat. 826), by executive order dated June 4, 1925, transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Department of Commerce “the Division of Mineral Resources in the Geological Survey, the employees connected therewith, together with all appropriations for mineral resources under the Geological Survey, the records pertaining to said division, the records of all public property of said division in the District of Columbia or elsewhere as provided in the Act of February 14, 1903, supra." Such transfer was effective July 1, 1925, but the Division of Mineral Resources will remain indefinitely in its present quarters with the Geological Survey in the Department of the Interior Building, and the nominal transfer is of no practical significance, so far as ordinary business with the Division of Mineral Resources is concerned. It should be noted that there is a section of Mineral Resources for statistics under the Bureau of the Census (see Chart), and that, while the Division of Mineral Resources newly added to the Department of Commerce may ultimately be transferred to the Bureau of the Census, it is the present intention of the Secretary of Commerce to add Mineral Resources to the Bureau of Mines.

1 Act March 3, 1879 (20 Stat. 394).

2 Act March 2, 1895 (28 Stat. 960); Act March 3, 1901 (31 Stat. 1161); Act May 27, 1908 (35 Stat. 319).

3 Act June 17, 1902 (32 Stat. 388).
4 Act June 4, 1897 (30 Stat. 34 [Comp. St. 88 5123-5125]).

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during the succeeding eight years furnished the basis of forest reserve regulations administered by other bureaus.

The Survey has maintained, from the first, close touch with mining and mineral industries. Publication of its annual "Mineral Resources of the United States.” 5 and of its geologic maps showing areas of interest to the mining industry, appealed to the technologic element which sought representation in the executive organization of the government, and in time Congress authorized a systematic inquiry into the values of the several deposits of economic minerals. This tendency was strengthened by a further appropriation in 1908,7 to be expended by the Survey in investigating safety measures in mining. The Survey had also been authorized under the act of 1904, to make tests of fuels, and that line of work was extended by further appropriations,8 as well as for testing structural materials. Such technological activities were separated from the Survey in 1910 by creation of the Bureau of Mines and the Bureau of Standards.9

The provision in the organic act, calling for a "classification of the public lands," originally was interpreted as referring to a classification based upon geologic and mineralogic characteristics, but in the case of the evolution of the land laws the materiality of geologic evidence to particular provision of the land laws to specific tracts came to be more and more recognized, and in 1906 the Survey began a systematic valuation of public lands supposed to contain coal, in order to fix the government's selling price.

In 1916 the Survey, acting under a War Department appropriation, undertook the preparation of military topographic maps in conformity to the Army General Staff's program of national defense.

The Survey has rendered further service to the military establishment in making examinations of underground waters and soil drainage in several localities sought for cantonment purposes; in making special investigations to discover metals and non-metal minerals required in munition manufacture; and in training engineers whose services were of value as officers in the Army Engineer Officers' Reserve Corps.10

The Survey has made notable exploratory expeditions, of which the more recent are those made into Arctic Alaska, to determine the possibility of finding oil in quantities sufficient to augment the national supply, or at least to increase materially the naval fuel reserves.11 There was also the survey of the Colorado

1 Act March 3, 1879 (20 Stat. 394).

5 In accordance with Act March 2, 1895 (28 Stat. 960), these reports were made as part of the annual report of the Director, Geological Survey, from 1891-1899. By Act March 3, 1901 (31 Stat. 1161), and Act May 27, 1908 (35 Stat. 349), the reports of mineral resources were made in separate volume or volumes.

6 Act Feb. 18, 1904 (33 Stat, 15, 33). See, also, Act Jan. 5, 1905 (33 Stat. 602) and Act March 3, 1905 (33 Stat. 1156).

7 Act May 22, 1908 (35 Stat. 184, 226); Act March 4, 1909 (35 Stat. 915, 989).

8 Act June 30, 1906 (34 Stat. 607, 728); Act March 4, 1907 (31 Stat. 1295, 1335); Act May 27, 1908 (35 Stat. 317, 349); Act March 4, 1909 (35 Stat. 915, 989).

9 Act May 16, 1910 (36 Stat. 369).

10 For data under this heading, see Check List of U. S. Public Documents, 1789–1909. and Institute for Government Research, Service Monographs 1 and 3. 11 45th Annual Report of Director, Geological Survey, pp. 5, 6. .

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