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Project.

I

Office. Belle Fourche

Newell, S. D. Boise

Boise, Idaho. Carlsbad

Carlsbad, N. M. Grand Valley

Grand Junction, Colo. Huntley

Ballantine, Mont. King Hill

King Hill, Idaho.
Klamath

Klamath Falls, Or.
Lower Yellowstone Savage, Mont.
Milk River

Malta, Mont.
Minidoka

Burley, Idaho. Newlands

Fallon, Nev. North Platte

Mitchell, Neb. Okanogan

Okanogan, Wash. Orland

Orland, Cal. Rio Grande

El Paso, Tex. Riverton

Riverton, Wyo. Salt River

Phoenix, Ariz. Shoshone

Powell, Wyo. Strawberry Valley Provo, Utah. Sun River

Fairfield, Mont. Umatilla

Hermiston, Or. Uncompahgre

Montrose, Colo. Williston

Williston, N. D. Yakima

Yakima, Wash.
Yuma

Yuma, Ariz.
Minidoka-American Falls American Falls, Idaho.
Umatilla-McKay Dam McKay Dam, Or.
Yakima-Tieton Dam Rimrock, Wash.

1 District Counsel at
Mitchell, Neb.
Boise, Idaho.
El Paso, Tex.
Montrose, Colo.
Billings, Mont.
Boise, Idaho.
Portland, Or.
Billings, Mont.
Billings, Mont.
Boise, Idaho.
Berkeley, Cal.
Mitchell, Neb.
Portland, Or.
Berkeley, Cal.
El Paso, Tex.
Mitchell, Neb.

Billings, Mont.
Montrose, Colo.
Billings, Mont.
Portland, Or.
Montrose, Colo.
Billings, Mont.
Portland, Or.
Berkeley, Cal.
Boise, Idaho.
Portland, Or.
Portland, Or.

24. Publications

(a) Annual Report.

(b) The New Reclamation Era, monthly, published by the Bureau of Reclamation, sent regularly to all water users on reclamation projects under the bureau's jurisdiction. Others may subscribe upon sending subscription of 75 cents per year in advance, in postal money order or New York draft, payable to Special Fiscal Agent, to Chief Clerk, Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D. C.

(c) Incidental reports on subjects related to irrigation development.

(d) Price List No. 6 of Publications of the Reclamation Service, obtainable free upon application to the Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D. C.

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CHAPTER 32

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 1. Mission

The National Park Service, created in 1916,1 is the ninth bureau established in the Department of Interior. Its mission is to supervise, manage, and control the national parks and monuments that have been brought under the department's jurisdiction. The policy of the government in this connection was stated by the Secretary of the Interior on March 11, 1925, as follows:

"Owing to changed conditions since the establishment in 1917 of the N tional Park Service as an independent bureau of the Department of the Interior, I find it advisable to restate the policy governing the administration of the national park system to which the Service will adhere.

“This policy is based on three broad, accepted principles :

"First, that the national parks and national monuments must be maintained untouched by the inroads of modern civilization in order that unspoiled bits of native America may be preserved to be enjoyed by future generations as well as our own.

"Second, that they are set apart for the use, education, health, and pleasure of all the people.

“Third, that the national interest must take precedence in all decisions affecting public or private enterprise in the parks and monuments." % 2. Distinction between Parks and Monuments

The object of a monument is the preservation from destruction or spoliation of some object of historic, scientific, or other interest. Further than that, the object of a park is preservation of an area in its natural state for the more complete and perfect enjoyment by the people. It might be said that a monument is park raw material, if it actually contains latent park possibilities that later appear. Several of the present parks of the system originally had monument status, notably Grand Canyon, Lafayette, and Zion Parks. 3. History

The Yellowstone National Park was created by the Act of March 1, 1872,3 which marked the beginning of the national parks system under the Secretary of the Interior. No new parks were added to the park system until 1890, when Sequoia, Yosemite, and General Grant Parks were included. Within the next 29 years 16 other parks and 32 monuments were taken in, including the Hot Springs Reservation. Although the Hot Springs National Park 4 had been set aside about forty years earlier than the Yellowstone, it was not regarded as a

1 Act Aug. 25, 1916 (39 Stat. 535 (Comp. St. 88 787d-787g]).

2 Memorandum from the Secretary of the Interior to the Director of the National Park Service, dated March 11, 1925.

317 Stat. 32 (Comp. St. $8 5188, 5189). 4 Act April 20, 1832 (4 Stat. 505).

6

national park in the technical sense, but merely had been withdrawn from settlement or sale. The ideal status of the Hot Springs National Park was more merely that of a monument than that of a park.

Prior to 1917 all the parks were administered in the office of the Secretary of the Interior.

In 1906 an "act for the preservation of American antiquities” authorized the President to set aside any lands owned or controlled by the government containing “historic landmarks, historic or prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest,” as “national monuments.” 5

In 1913 the Secretary of the Interior assigned the Assistant to the Secretary to the administration of the parks. On June 5, 1914, a General Superintendent and Landscape Engineer was appointed, to reside at San Francisco, to have general supervision over all the park superintendents. Two years later there was statutory authority for the Secretary to employ a General Superintendent in the District of Columbia, and the office of the General Superintendent was moved from San Francisco to Washington.

In 1919 the Grand Canyon National Park was created, and provision made for letting privileges, leases, etc., at public auction "to the best and most responsible bidder.”? In 1920,8 the government accepted the cession of Sequoia, Yosemite, and General Grant Parks from California, and provided for a change of penalties for violation of rules and regulations established by the Secretary of the Interior. When the National Park Service was organized, there were 17 national parks and 21 national monuments. Since then Casa Grande ruin has been reclassified as a national monument, instead of a national park, thus reducing the number of parks, with those that have been added, to 19, and, 10 other monuments having been added, the number of monuments increased to 30.

The area of proposed addition to Yellowstone was set aside by Executive Orders No. 2905, of July 8, 1918, and No. 3394, of January 28, 1921, under congressional authority.” 4. Organization (a) Washington Administration. (1) The Director.—The Director, in addition to supervising the National

Park Service, is a member of the New National Capital Park Commission, having to do with the enlargement and development of the park system of the District of Columbia. The Act approved June 6, 1924, in creating this new commission, prescribed that the Chief of Engineers of the Army, the Engineer Commissioner for the District, the Director of the National Park Service, the Chief of the Forest Service, the Officer in Charge of Public Buildings and Grounds, and the Chairman of the Senate and House Committees on the District of Columbia shall constitute its

5 Act June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. 225 (Comp. St. $8 5278–5281]). 6 Act Feb. 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 23); Act July 1, 1916 (39 Stat. 309). 7 Act Feb. 26, 1919 (40 Stat. 1175 [Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1919, 88 5249vv-5249Zz]). 8 Act June 2, 1920 (41 Stat. 731). 9 Act June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. 847); Act Aug. 24, 1912 (37 Stat. 497 (Comp. St. $ 4524]).

membership. The commission, or a majority thereof, is author-
ized and directed to acquire such land as in its judgment is nec-
essary and desirable in the District of Columbia and adjacent
areas in Maryland and Virginia, within the limits of the appro-
priations made for such purposes, for suitable development of
the national capital park, parkway, and playground system, the
land to be acquired either by purchase or condemnation proceed-
ings. An annual appropriation for park extension in and about
Washington of not to exceed 1 cent for each inhabitant of con-
tinental United States is authorized, and this would now total

something over $1,000,000.
(2) Assistant Director.
(3) Assistant in Operations and Public Relations.

(4) Chief Clerk.
(b) Field Service.-General office at Yellowstone Park, Wyoming.

(1) Field Assistant to the Director. (c) Civil Engineering Division.—General office at 811 Couch Building, Port

land, Or. (1) Chief Civil Engineer. (d) Landscape Engineering Division.—General office at Yosemite, Cal. (e) Educational Division.-General office at Berkeley, Cal.

(1) Chief Park Naturalist. (f) The National Parks.

Crater Lake, Superintendent, Medford, Or.
Glacier, Superintendent, Belton, Mont.
Grand Canyon, Superintendent, Grand Canyon, Ariz.
Hawaii, Superintendent, Volcano House, Hawaii.
Hot Springs, Hot Springs, Ark.
Lafayette, Bar Harbor, Me.
Lassen Volcanic, Cal.
Mesa Verde, Superintendent, Mancos, Colo.
Mt. McKinley, Superintendent, McKinley Park, Alaska.
Mt. Ranier, Superintendent, Ashford, Wash.
Platt, Superintendent, Sulphur, Okl.
Rocky Mountain, Superintendent, Estes Park, Colo.
Sequoia, Superintendent, Three Rivers, Cal.
General Grant, Acting Superintendent, Three Rivers, Cal.
Sully's Hills, Acting Superintendent, Fort Totten, N. D.
Wind Cave, Superintendent, Hot Springs, S. D.
Yellowstone, Superintendent, Yellowstone Park, Wyo.
Yosemite, Superintendent, Yosemite National Park, Cal.

Zion, Acting Superintendent, Springdale, Utah. (g) The National Monuments.

Aztec Ruin, Custodian, Aztec, N. M.
Capulin Mountain, Custodian, Capulin, N. M.

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10 Where no custodian is indicated, there is no incumbent, or none is provided for.

Carlsbad Cave, Custodian, Carlsbad, N. M.
Casa Grande, Custodian, Blackwater, Ariz.
Chaco Canyon, Custodian, Crown Point, N. M.
Colorado, Custodian, Grand Junction, Colo.
Craters of The Moon, Arco, Idaho.
Devil's Tower, Custodian, Hulett, Wyo.
Dinosaur, Utah.
El Morro, Custodian, Ramah, N. M.
Fossil Cycad, Custodian, Minnekahta, S. D.
Gran Quivira, Custodian, Gran Quivira, N. M.
Hovenweep, Custodian, Mancos, Colo.
Katmai, Alaska.
Lewis and Clark, Mont.
Montezuma Castle, Custodian, Camp Verde, Ariz.
Muir Woods, Custodian, Mill Valley, Cal.
Natural Bridges, Custodian, Blanding, Utah.
Navajo, Custodian, Kayenta, Ariz.
Papago Saguaro, Custodian, Tempe, Ariz.
Petrified Forest, Custodian, Holbrook, Ariz.
Pinnacles, Custodian, Pinnacles, San Benito County, Cal.
Pipe Spring, Cedar City, Ariz.
Rainbow Bridge, Utah.
Scotts Bluff, Gering, Neb.
Shoshone Cavern, Wyo.
Sitka, Custodian, Sitka, Alaska.
Tumacacori, Acting Custodian, Blackwater, Ariz,
Verendrye, Custodian, Sanish, N. D.
Yucca House, Colorado.

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