Page images
PDF
EPUB

CHAPTER 35

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1. Mission

The Department of Agriculture is charged with the promotion of agriculture in the United States in its broadest sense.

" 2

2. History

An agricultural section was established in the Patent Office in 1839, when $1,000 was appropriated from the patent fund to be expended by the Commissioner of Patents to collect agricultural statistics and "for other agricultural purposes. This affiliation was continued until 1862, when a separate department was created for agriculture under the administration of a Commissioner of Agriculture. A Bureau of Animal Industry was created in 1884.4 The department of Agriculture was not made an executive department until 1889. The secretary was directed in 1890 € to perform all the duties assigned prior to February 8, 1889, to the Commissioner of Agriculture.

In 1902, the Bureaus of Soils, Forestry, Chemistry, and Plant Industry were reorganized from various divisions." The Bureau of Crop Estimates grew out of the Bureau of Statistics 8 in 1914, which was superseded in 1921, by the Bureau of Markets and Crop Estimates, which, in turn, was superseded in 1922, by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, 10 which included, also, the offices of Farm Management and Farm Economics. A Solicitor was assigned the legal work of the department in 1910.11 A chief of the Division of Accounts and Disbursements was formed, and disbursing clerk was made administrative officer of fiscal affairs of the department.12 3. Distribution of Duties (A) The Office Proper of the Secretary of Agriculture. (1) The Secretary has general supervision and control of affairs of

department and formulation and establishment of general poli

9

cies. 3 6 6

(2) The Assistant Secretary assists in general supervision of work of

department; acts for Secretary in his absence.5 13

1 For historical sketch, see Agriculture Department Bulletin No. 3. 2 Act March 3, 1839, 8 9 (5 Stat. 354). 8 Act May 15, 1862, c. 72 (12 Stat. 387). 4 Act May 29, 1884 (23 Stat. 31). 8 Act Feb. 9, 1889, c. 122 (25 Stat. 659 [Comp. St. 88 789, 790, 791, 792]). 6 Act July 14, 1890, c. 707 (26 Stat. 288 (Comp. St. § 819]). 7 Act June 3, 1902, c. 985 (32 Stat. 303 [Comp. St. $ 795]). 8 Act June 30, 1914, c. 131 (38 Stat. 436 (Comp. St. $ 795a]). 9 Act March 3, 1921, c. 127 (41 Stat. 1343 [Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, § 795a (1)]). 10 Act May 11, 1922, c. 185 (42 Stat. 532 [Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, $ 795aa(2)]). 11 Act May 26, 1910, c. 256 (36 Stat. 416). 12 Act March 4, 1911, c. 238 (36 Stat. 1258). 18 Act June 30, 1906 (34 Stat. 670).

(B) Administrative Work. (1) Director of Scientific Work supervises all research work of depart

ment; general supervision of work of Office of Experiment Sta

tions. (a) Office of Experimental Stations administers the Agricultural

Experimental Station Acts 14 (al) State Experiment Stations. (a2) Insular Experiment Stations in Alaska, Hawaii, Porto

Rico, Guam, and Virgin Islands.

(a3) Experiment Station Record. (2) Director of Regulatory Work supervises all regulatory work of de

partment. (3) Office of Personnel and Business Administration.15 (a) Personnel Branch. (1) Personnel Office.- Prepares papers and maintains rec

ords relating to appointments, promotions, transfers,

and other personnel matters. (2) Personnel Classification Office.- Supervises and co-ordi

nates work under the Classification Act of 1923.16 (3) Inspection.—Handles personnel matters requiring dis

ciplinary action; assists in fiscal operations of

bureaus.
(3a) Personnel Section.

(3b) Fiscal Section.
(b) Chief Clerk.-Responsible for enforcement of general regula-

tions of department; is custodian of buildings; per

forms other assigned functions.17 (b1) Mail and Files. (b2) Telegraph and Telephones. (63) Mechanical Shops. (b4) Business Section, Secretary's Office. (b5) Watch Service. (66) Labor and Char Force. (b7) Space Assignments and Maintenance of Buildings.

(b8) Post Office. (c) Office of Purchase and Supplies.-Co-ordinates the purchase and

sales functions of department. (d) Division of Accounts.-Conducts the accounting work of all

units of Office of the Secretary and the Bureau of Home Economics. 18

14 Act March 2, 1887 (24 Stat. 440); Act March 16, 1906 (34 Stat. 64); Act Feb. 26, 1923 (42 Stat. 1292). • 15 Created by memorandum letter of the Secretary No. 530, of April 17, 1925. 16 Act March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1488). 17 R. S. 88 522, 523 (Comp. St. 88 793, 794). 18 R. S. $ 522 (Comp. St. $ 793) and Act March 4, 1911 (36 Stat. 1258).

(e) Traffic Manager.—Co-ordinates traffic work of department. (4) Office of the Solicitor.-Furnishes legal advice and services to the

Secretary and other officials of the department, and performs all duties of a legal character in the enforcement of the regu

latory laws administered by the department, as follows: 19 (a) Food and Drugs, Insecticides and Fungicides, and Seed Impor

tation. (b) Federal Aid Roads and Plant Quarantine. (c) National Forests and Markets. (d) Acquisition of Lands. (e) Compilation of Laws. (f) Meat Inspection, Animal Quarantines, Viruses, Patents, and

Contracts. (g) Wild Life Conservation, Estate Claims, and Fiscal Matters. (5) Office of Editorial and Distribution Work.

(6) Library.20 (C) Director of Extension Work.-Supervises all extension work of department;

directs activities of units engaged exclusively in extension work. 41 (a) Farmers' Co-operative Demonstrations. (b) Demonstrations on Reclamation Projects. (c) Agricultural Exhibits. (d) Motion Pictures. (e) Agricultural Instruction.

(f) Collecting Seed Grain Loans. (D) Bureaus.

(1) Weather Bureau. (See Chapter XXXVI, post.)
(2) Animal Industry.- Investigation, control, and eradication of diseases

of animals, the inspection and quarantine of live stock, the inspec-
tion of meat and meat products, and animal husbandry. Adminis-

ters Meat Inspection Act 22 and Virus Act.23 (3) Bureau of Dairying.–This bureau is devoted to the dairy industry

through the following general projects : Bacteriology and chemistry of milk; breeding and nutrition of dairy cattle; dairy cattle management; dairy sanitation; dairy plant management; market milk; the manufacture of dairy products and by-products; and the introduction into the field of new principles and methods of dairying. 24 (4) Bureau of Plant Industry.—The Bureau of Plant Industry consid

19 Act May 26, 1910 (36 Stat. 416). 20 R. S. § 522 (Comp. St. 8 793).

21 Act Aug. 30, 1890 (26 Stat. 417, 419); Act March 4, 1907 (34 Stat. 1281); Act May 8, 1914 (38 Stat. 372–374 (Comp. St. $8 8877a-8877h)); Act June 30, 1914 (38 Stat. 438).

22 Act March 4, 1907 (34 Stat. 1260), as amended by Act July 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 241). See, also, Act Sept. 21, 1922 (42 Stat. 923); Act May 29, 1884 (23 Stat. 31); Act March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. 1089); Act Sept. 21, 1922 (42 Stat. 891); Act Aug. 30, 1890 (26 Stat. 414); Act Feb. 2, 1903 (32 Stat. 791 [Comp. St. $$ 8698-8700]); Act March 3, 1905 (33 Stat. 1264); Act June 29, 1906, c. 3594 (34 Stat. 607 (Comp. St. 88 8651-8654]).

23 Act March 4, 1913 (37 Stat. 828). 24 Act May 29, 1924, 88 1-5 (43 Stat. 243). See, also, Act May 9, 1902 (32 Stat. 193). 28 R. S. 88 522, 523, 526 (Comp. St. $$ 793, 794, 818); Act June 3, 1902 (32 Stat. 303); Act Aug. 24, 1912, 88 1-4 (37 Stat. 506 [Comp. St. 88 8744–8747]); Act Aug. 11, 1916 (39 Stat. 453); Act April 23, 1904 (33 Stat. 283).

ers plant life in all its relations to agriculture. The scientific work of the bureau is divided into 30 distinct groups, over each of which is placed a scientifically trained officer, who reports directly to the chief and associate chief of the bureau. The work of the bureau is conducted on the project plan, the investigations under each of the offices being arranged by projects consisting of groups of close

ly related lines of work.25 (5) Forest Service.-Administers the national forests; aids and advises

in timber growing on privately owned land; studies forest conditions, methods of growing timber, and methods of forest utilization; investigates the mechanical and physical properties of woods and the processes employed in the manufacture of forest products; and gathers information concerning the needs of the various woodusing industries and the relation of forests to the public welfare

generally. 28 (6) Bureau of Chemistry.-Analysis and investigation under the Food

and Drugs Act,27 and Tea Inspection Act;28 questions of agricultural chemistry of public interest; and other chemical investi

gations referred to it by the government.29
(7) Bureau of Soils.—Investigates the relation of soils to climate and

organic life; studies the texture and composition of soils in field
and laboratory; maps the soils; studies the cause and means of
preventing the rise of alkali in the soils of irrigated districts; the
relations of soils to seepage and drainage conditions; and the fer-

tilizer resources of the country.8
(8) Bureau of Entomology.-Studies insects in their relation to agriculture

and agricultural products and to the health of man and animals;
experiments with the introduction of beneficial insects; makes tests
with insecticides and insecticide machinery; and identifies insects
sent in by inquirers.31

26

30

[ocr errors]

26 Act June 3, 1902 (32 Stat. 303); Act Feb, 1, 1905 (33 Stat. 628); Act March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. 1103 [Comp. St. § 5121]); Act June 4, 1897 (30 Stat. 34), amended by Act June 6, 1900, c. 804 (31 Stat. 661); Act June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. 847); Act Feb. 1, 1905 (33 Stat. 628) ; Act May 23, 1908 (35 Stat. 259); Act March 1, 1911 (36 Stat. 961); Act Oct. 1, 1890 (26 Stat. 651 [Comp. St. 88 5210, 5211])'; Act June 7, 1924, C. 333, § 1 (43 Stat. 643); Act June 2, 1924, c. 230 (43 Stat. 252); Act June 3, 1924, c. 238 (43 Stat. 356); Act June 7, 1924 (43 Stat. 653); R. S. 88 2461-2463, and many others. A compilation of these statutes will be found in “Laws Applicable to the Department of Agriculture,” by O. H. Gates, 1924, c. 26.

27 Act June 30, 1906 (34 Stat. 768).
28 Act March 2, 1897 (29 Stat. 604).
29 R. S. 88 522, 523 (Comp. St. 88 793, 794); Act June 3, 1902 (32 Stat. 303).
30 Act June 3, 1902 (32 Stat. 303).

31 Act June 5, 1924 (43 Stat. 448, 449) ; Act Aug. 31, 1922 (42 Stat. 833 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, 88 8716%, 871643a]).

« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »