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for the administration and control of the subordinate gaging and rainfall reporting stations in his district, and for the issue and distribution of flood warnings when necessary. For navigable rivers, daily stages are published in the interest of navigation.

"River district centers, almost without exception, are also full-reporting meteorological stations, and, as such, distribute the usual routine information, such as warnings of unusual weather conditions, etc." Head, Meteorologist in Charge, River and Flood Division, Weather Bureau, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

(0) Meteorological Physics consists of the investigation and explanation of all atmospheric phenomena, and the underlying causes of weather and climate and their changes.

(p) Instrument Division.—“This division supervises the maintenance of a high standard of instrumentation and equipment for the meteorological and seismological observational work of the bureau. This involves the supervision of the installation and methods of use of the instruments and equipment required for meteorological observations in the field; the installation and maintenance of automatic river gages; the adjustment and application of corrections of instruments in use by observers in the field; problems relating to protection from lightning; the testing, standardizing, and repairing of all apparatus; and the designing and constructing of new instrumental equipment.” Head, Meteorologist in Charge, Instrument Division, Weather Bureau, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

B. DISTRICTS (a) Forecast Districts.—There are five principal forecast districts, in addition to which the meteorologists at Honolulu, T. H., Juneau, Alaska, and San Juan, P. R., occasionally make forecasts for their respective territories.

(1) Washington District, for all states east of Michigan and Indiana, the Upper Mississippi valley, and east of the lower Mississippi river, from Kentucky southward, with Washington as central point.

(2) Chicago District, for Upper Mississippi valley and the Northwest, with Chicago as central point.

(3) New Orleans District, for Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma, with New Orleans as central point.

(4) Denver District, for Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, central point at Denver.

(5) San Francisco District, for California, Nevada, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, central point at San Francisco.

(b) Climatological Districts.-- There are 45 climatological sections, the New England States comprising one, Maryland and Delaware another; otherwise, each state and the territories of Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto Rico each constitute a unit.

Head, Section Director.

(c) Crop-Reporting Districts.—“Great agricultural regions of the country are grouped according to the staple crops cultivated therein, thus: Cotton region, corn and wheat region, tobacco region, etc. In some cases these regions overlap. and small regions are sometimes comprised wholly within greater regions. During the crop season, these groups of stations report by telegraph to their appropriate regional district centers, and the reports are given wide dissemination.” 12

(d) River Districts.—"Stations reporting river and flood information are grouped into districts, chiefly by rivers and their immediately contiguous watershed, each with a central station within the district. Several districts are engaged in handling the work for large rivers. Reports are made by mail or telegraph, as the work requires, to the central stations, and all are organized under, and supervised by, a responsible Director at the Washington office.” 13

(e) Stations.—The four classes of districts represent more than 200 regular stations, of which the personnel is employed full time. In addition there are more than 4,000 other stations reporting meteorological observations, and others reporting river observations. 14

5. Publications

(a) Annual Report of Chief of Weather Bureau.
(b) Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin.
(c) Weekly Snow and Ice Bulletin.
(d) Monthly Weather Review.

6. Meteorological Conditions as Evidence

Evidence of meteorological or weather conditions at any certain time may be had by application to the Chief of the Weather Bureau, who will issue a certificate, which, authenticated by the Department of Agriculture, is admissible in evidence and reads as follows:

United States of America, Department of Agriculture.

Washington, D. C., Pursuant to section 882 of the Revised Statutes, I hereby certify that it appears from the records of the United States Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C., that


Chief U. S. Weather Bureau. Be it known that

who signed the foregoing certificate, is the Chief of the United States Weather Bureau, and that to his attestation as such full faith and credit are and ought to be given.

In witness whereof, I, Secretary of Agriculture, have hereunto caused the seal of the Department of Agriculture to be affixed and my name subscribed by the Chief Clerk of the said Department, at the city of Washington, this day of [Signed]

Secretary of Agriculture.

12 Institute for Government Research, Service Monograph, No. 9, 1922, p. 46. 13 Institute for Government Research, Service Monograph, No. 9, 1922, p. 46.

14 Institute for Government Research, Service Monograph, No. 9, p. 44; Kenealy, James, Weather Bureau Stations and Their Duties. Department of Agriculture Yearbook, 1903, pp. 109–120.




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In general, the mission of the Department of Commerce is to foster, promote, and develop the foreign and domestic commerce, the mining, manufacturing, shipping, and fishing industries, and transportation facilities of the United States." 2. History

The early history of evidences of a governmental purpose to foster American commerce is clearly presented in a publication of the Department of Commerce:

"The record of events from the close of the Revolution to the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in 1787 shows that the desire to foster the commerce and trade of the states was the paramount and controlling argument which made the Union possible.

"The Constitutional Convention of the thirteen states was the direct outcome of the Annapolis Convention of five states, and this convention, in turn, was born of the Mt. Vernon Convention of delegates from the states of Virginia and Maryland, assembled to adjust and promote commerce and trade between those two states. The commissioners from Virginia and Maryland met at Alexandria, in the former state in the spring of 1785, but Gen. Washington extended to them the hospitality of his home, which they accepted, and the delegatesall prominent men of their day, and friends of Washington--conducted their deliberations at Mt. Vernon, aided, no doubt, by the counsel of their host, whose interest in and knowledge of the subject under discussion had long been manifest, and who, two years later, presided at the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia. The sole subject of this meeting at the home of Washington was the commerce and trade between the two states; but in reality these men were enacting the prologue to what was to be in fact an indissoluble union.

“The Mt. Vernon Convention recommended that representatives be appointed annually to confer on the commercial and trade relations of the states. In considering this report, Maryland passed a resolution inviting Pennsylvania and Delaware to join in these annual conventions; while, in the Virginia assembly, Madison penned a resolution appointing commissioners to meet such as should be delegated by the other states to take into consideration the trade of the United

*The President, acting under authority of Act Feb. 14, 1903 (32 Stat. 826), by executive order dated June 4, 1925, transferred to the Department of Commerce, from the Department of the Interior, the Bureau of Mines, except its oil and mineral leasing activities, and the Division of Mineral Resources of the Geological Survey. These added activities form the Bureau of Mines under the Department of Commerce, effective July 1, 1925. But these nominal transfers have no practical significance, so far as doing business with the affected Bureau and Division is concerned, for they all remain in their present quarters indefinitely and function as described in this vo!ume, except that they are under the control of the Secretary of Commerce as indicated. 1 Act Feb. 14, 1903 (32 Stat. 826).

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