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in the commercial systems of other nations. To take care of this work and the various calls made by the Congress for information respecting our commercial relations with foreign nations, a commercial and statistical bureau, without specific statutory basis, grew up in the Department of State. By the Act of August 18, 1856,° Congress amended the Act of 1842, and required the Secretary of State to include in his annual report to Congress all important commercial information gathered by our diplomatic and consular agents abroad. A special clerk was authorized by this act, with the title of Superintendent of Statistics. By the Act of June 20, 1874,10 the commercial and statistical office of the State Department was formally recognized as the Bureau of Statistics. The Bureau of Statistics began the publication of monthly consular reports in 1880. In 1897, on account of the confusion arising from the fact that there was also a Bureau of Statistics in the Treasury Department and a Bureau of Statistics in the Department of Agriculture, the name of the Bureau of Statistics of the State Department was changed to Bureau of Foreign Commerce. In the following year, the Bureau of Foreign Commerce began the daily publication of commerce reports. Upon the establishment of the Department of Commerce and Labor, in 1903," the Bureau of Foreign Commerce was transferred to that Department and merged with the Bureau of Statistics transferred at the same time from the Department of the Treasury.

(c) Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and Labor. When the Department of Commerce and Labor was established," therefore, one of its most important bureaus was the Bureau of Statistics, resulting from the consolidation of those statistical bureaus of the Department of the Treasury and the Department of State which had to do with the collection, compilation, and dissemination of trade data.

(d) Bureau of Manufactures, Department of Commerce and Labor.—The act creating the Department of Commerce and Laborestablished in that department a Bureau of Manufactures. It was the function of this bureau “to foster, promote, and develop the various manufacturing industries of the United States, and markets for the same at home and abroad, domestic and foreign, by gathering, compiling, publishing, and supplying all available and useful information concerning such industries and such markets.” The same act required all consular offices of the United States to gather and compile useful and material information and statistics relating to foreign and domestic commerce, transportation, and the mining, manufacturing, shipping and fishery industries, for the use of the Department of Commerce and Labor.

(e) Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.—The Bureau of Statistics and the Bureau of Manufactures were separately administered from the establishment of the Department of Commerce and Labor in 1903 until 1912. It was found, however, that these two bureaus had duties which were closely analogous, if not nearly identical. Their functions were very intimately related, and there was considerable duplication and overlapping of work between the two establishments. For these reasons, Congress, by the Act of August 23, 1912,11 consolidated the Bureau of Manufactures and the Bureau of Statistics into a single organization known as the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 3. Organization and Activities

732 Stat. 826 (Comp. St. $ 857). 911 Stat. 139. 10 18 Stat. pt. 3, p. 90.

(a) Included under the obligations with which it is charged by virtue of the various funds now being currently allotted to it by Congress are such duties as (1) “to report upon domestic as well as foreign problems relating to production, distribution, and marketing in so far as they relate to the important export industries of the United States;” (2) “to investigate and report upon such conditions in the manufacturing industries and trade of foreign countries as may be of interest to the United States;" (3) to promote American trade with Europe, Central and South America, and the Far East; (4) "to operate and maintain district and cooperative offices within the United States;” (5) to enforce the China TradeAct regarding the tax exemptions of American firms doing business in China; (6) to compile and publish statistics on foreign trade; (7) to investigate trade restrictions and regulations of foreign countries in relation to American commerce; (8) to prepare and circulate lists of available foreign agents for American firms.

(b) Organization at Washington.—The Bureau at Washington is headed by a Director, four Assistant Directors, and an Administrative Assistant.

(A) Administrative Divisions. There are, in the Washington office, a number of administrative divisions, whose titles indicate their functions: (1) Foreign Service Division, handles the administrative features of the foreign-office activities. (2) Division of District Offices. (3) Division of Correspondence and Distribution. (4) Administrative Assistant's Office. (5) Drafting and Photostat Work. (6) Accounts Section. (7) Personnel Work. (8) Supplies. (9) Editorial Division, which has full charge of all the many publications (other than those of the Division of Statistics) issued by the Bureau.

(B) Service Divisions. (1) Regional Divisions. The three regional divisions (European, Far Eastern, and Latin American) furnish basic information on economic conditions and broad commercial problems. They supervise, in general, the work of the bureau's foreign representatives in their respective territories; prepare and distribute confidential circulars; disseminate data through commercial bodies, trade journals, and newspapers; maintain regular sections in Commerce Reports, the weekly magazine published by the bureau; prepare for that publication monthly reviews of conditions abroad, on the basis of cabled reports from the foreign offices; and examine and utilize a mass of material appearing in foreign periodicals.

(2) Commodity Divisions.-A Commodity Division, manned by experts, places the resources of the government, with respect to commercial matters, at the disposal of a number of basic industries in the extension of their foreign trade.

11 Act Aug. 23, 1912 (37 Stat. 407 [Comp. St. $ 873]).

Each of these Commodity Divisions supplies material for a special section in Commerce Reports, distributes numerous special circulars, prepares articles for trade journals, sends out data on trade opportunities, prepares questionnaires to be answered by government representatives abroad, and co-operates with committees of trade associations or other representatives of American industry. In all the bureau is now co-operating with more than 60 trade organizations in this country.

These Commodity Divisions are: (2a) Agricultural implements.

(2b) Automotive (including aircraft, motorboats, service station equipment, etc.).

(2c) Chemical.
(20) Coal.
(2) Electrical equipment.

(28) Foodstuffs (including, also, tobacco, soap, yeast, and world surveys of cotton and wool).

(2g) Agricultural products section (economic conditions in Europe as affecting agricultural exports; market practices, including credit, financing, transportation, storage, distribution in foreign countries, etc.; statistical study of trends in world trade of agricultural products).

(2h) Hide and leather.

(21) Industrial machinery (factories, mining equipment, construction machinery).

(2j) Iron and steel; hardware.
(2k) Lumber.
(21) Minerals (including petroleum).

(2m) Paper and paper products (also bookbinding machinery and materials, box and envelope making machinery, printing and lithographing machinery and materials, pulp and paper stock).

(2n) Rubber.
(20) Shoes and leather manufactures.

(2p) Specialties (advertising devices; art goods and artists' materials; brushes and brooms; sponges; ceramics; sanitary ware; church, school, and theater equipment; cooking and heating apparatus; corks and stoppers; furniture; household utensils and fittings; jewelers' wares; lighting devices and fixtures, gas and oil; motion pictures and equipment; musical instruments and supplies; novelties and notions; office appliances; office and stationers' supplies; optical goods; pearl and other shells; plumbing fixtures and supplies; printed and lithographed matter; professional and scientific instruments; laboratory and hospital equipment; scales, balances, meters; sewing machines; washing machines; smokers' articles; store fittings and fixtures; toys and games; athletic and sporting goods; guns, ammunition, and fireworks; photographic goods; public and other amusement devices; juvenile vehicles; toilet articles, not preparations; undertakers' supplies). (29) Textiles.

(3) Technical Divisions.—The technical divisions at Washington are seven in number:

(3a) In the Division of Foreign Tariffs information is compiled with regard to customs tariffs and regulations of foreign countries. This division also furnishes information concerning consular regulations, treatment of commercial travelers and their samples, pure food and drug laws, sales or luxury taxes, consumption or excise duties, and quality standards officially established.

(3b) The Division of Commercial Laws furnishes, with respect to foreign countries, information concerning commercial laws and judicial procedure, the taxation of American firms doing business abroad, formalities in connection with bankruptcy proceedings, powers of attorney, the protesting of drafts, the legal aspects of construction enterprises, agency agreements, standardization of bills of exchange, etc.

(3c) The Finance and Investment Division attends to all financial and economic questions that are international in scope and to matters connected with the flotation of foreign securities in the United States, the investment of American capital abroad, and the general aspects of foreign trade financing.

(3d) The Division of Statistical Research handles the trade statistics of foreign countries. The Statistical Abstract of the United States, which it also prepares, presents in condensed form statements regarding the commerce, production, industries, population, finance, etc., of the United States, and a statement of the commerce of the principal foreign countries. The Commerce Yearbook comprises a descriptive and statistical summary of industrial, commercial, and general economic conditions and developments.

(3e) Statistical information with respect to United States imports and exports is received by the Division of Statistics in monthly and quarterly returns from the collectors of customs, showing the articles imported and exported, and the countries from which articles are imported and to which articles are export

These statistics are printed in monthly, quarterly, and annual publications.. This division now includes a Section of Customs Statistics at New York, formerly a branch of the Treasury Department. The division at Washington sends out many special statements and also furnishes reports to other government bodies.

(3f) The Commercial Intelligence Division maintains, for the benefit of American manufacturers and exporters, an active trade directory of business houses and prospective buyers and agents all over the world. This directory now contains more than 100,000 detailed reports, covering data required for a sales contact. The bureau also locates, in foreign markets, exporters of such raw materials as are needed by American manufacturers.

(3g) The Transportation and Communication Division covers foreign commercial aviation, cables, inland water transportation, mails and parcel post, press service to foreign countries, railroad transportation abroad in all its aspects, shipbuilding, and shipping (packing, rates, service; tonnage dues and charges; ship sales; ship legislation, except admiralty law; etc.). (4) Domestic Commerce Division.—A Division of Domestic Commerce de


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votes its attention to the study of merchandising methods, trade movements, and price trends within the boundaries of the United States.

(C) Foreign Agencies. (1) The bureau maintains commercial attachés abroad, whose reports on trade conditions and prospects are widely circulated among American firms. There are attachés at the following places:

Athens, Greece.
Berlin, Germany.
Bogota, Colombia.
Brussels, Belgium.
Bucharest, Rumania.
Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Copenhagen, Denmark.
Habana, Cuba.
The Hague, Netherlands.
Lima, Peru.
London, England.
Madrid, Spain.
Mexico City, Mexico.
Paris, France.
Peking, China.
Prague, Czechoslovakia.
Riga, Latvia.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Rome, Italy.
Santiago, Chile.
Tokyo, Japan.
Vienna, Austria.

Warsaw, Poland. (2) There are also offices headed by resident trade commissioners (juniors in rank to commercial attachés) at:

Alexandria, Egypt.
Batavia, Java.
Bombay, India.
Calcutta, India.
Canton, China.
Constantinople, Turkey.
Hamburg, Germany.
Helsingfors, Finland.
Johannesburg, South Africa.
Manila, P. I.
Melbourne, Australia.
Ottawa, Canada.
San Juan, Porto Rico.
Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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