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of March 2, 1889,5 the Secretary of the Treasury was directed to issue the necessary regulations for that purpose, and the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries was directed to make investigations concerning the supply of salmon and concerning the methods of taking and preserving salmon in Alaska. In 1893, by Act of Congress, the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries was required, when requested by the Secretary of the Treasury, to investigate the conditions of seal life on the Pribilof Islands.

The Alaskan fisheries were therefore under the joint supervision of the Department of the Treasury and the Fish Commission until 1903, when entire control was transferred to the Department of Commerce and Labor. Only the scientific work, however, was performed by the new Bureau of Fisheries. The regulatory and protective functions were administered in the office of the Secretary, through what was known as the Alaskan Fisheries Division. By order of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, dated December 5, 1905, the protection of the Alaska salmon fisheries was made the duty of the Bureau of Fisheries, and by order of December 28, 1908, the Alaskan Fisheries Division, and its work in the protection of the fur seal herds, was transferred to the Bureau of Fisheries.

The sealing privileges on the Pribilof Islands were for forty years leased to private companies, which paid the government a stipulated sum for each sealskin taken. Since 1910, however, the government has undertaken directly the business of killing the seals and curing and marketing the skins. By Act of April 21, 1910," the Secretary of Commerce and Labor was authorized to regulate the seal industry, and was charged with the duty of supporting and educating the native inhabitants of the Pribilof Islands, and with the enforcement of laws and regulations affecting other fur-bearing animals of Alaska. The duty of carrying out the provisions of these statutes and of the Act of August 24, 1912,8 giving effect to the Fur Seal Convention of 1911, was placed upon the Bureau of Fisheries. By the Act of May 31, 1920,9 the powers of the Secretary of Commerce with respect to fur-bearing land animals in Alaska were transferred to the Secretary of Agriculture, and the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Agriculture with respect to the walrus and the sea lion was transferred to the Secretary of Commerce.

In addition to its general functions respecting the fisheries of the United States, the Bureau of Fisheries has recently acquired certain special powers. The Act of June 20, 1906,10 as amended by the Act of August 15, 1914,11 conferred upon the Secretary of Commerce authority to regulate the landing, delivery, cure and sale of sponges taken from the Gulf of Mexico and on the Florida coast. By Act of June 21, 1916,12 the Secretary of Commerce was authorized to develop


8 25 Stat. 1009. 6 27 Stat. 585. 7 36 Stat. 327. 8 37 Stat. 499 (Comp. St. 88 8838-8849). 9 41 Stat. 716. 10 34 Stat. 313. 11 38 Stat. 692, 797. 12 39 Stat. 232,

methods of taking predacious fish and other aquatic animals and of utilizing them for food and other purposes.

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3. Activities

The bureau's functions fall under four main classes: Scientific investigation; fish culture; investigation of the methods employed in the fishing industry; and protection and regulation.

Its scientific inquiries are concerned chiefly with food fish, including lobsters, shellfish, etc., and their migration, reproduction, growth, and diseases; but the bureau also undertakes the study of the animal and plant life on which fish feed, the waters in which they live, and their enemies. Some other aquatic products also come within the scope of the bureau's investigation. For these studies the bureau maintains a biological laboratory in Washington, and biological stations at Wood's Hole, Mass., Beaufort, N. C., Fairport, Iowa, and Key West, Fla.

The fish culture work consists of the artificial propagation and the distribution to the waters of the United States of food fish, the rescue of stranded fish, and the introduction of new varieties from abroad. This activity engages the attention of two-thirds of the employees of the bureau, and is carried on chiefly at 37 fish hatcheries and 34 substations located in various parts of the United States. For the distribution of fish to the different sections of the country, the bureau employs five railway cars built especially for that purpose, and maintains an auxiliary "messenger service," which carries the fish to places not reached by the cars. While the bureau has no authority to protect the fisheries within the states, it has had considerable influence in this direction by refusing to maintain hatcheries in states which do not have adequate laws for the protection of fish, and an important phase of its work is the drafting of protective and regulatory legislation.

The study of fishery methods includes inquiries into the types of boats and fishing tackle used, the methods of taking fish, the extent, yield, and condition of fishing grounds, the utilization of fishery products, and the methods of packing and shipping. In connection with this work the bureau conducts a general survey of the commercial fisheries of the United States and the extent and condition of the wholesale trade. Foreign fishing methods are studied with the purpose of introducing improvements. The bureau also acts as adviser to the government on international questions affecting the fisheries. It compiles and publishes statistics of the quantity and value of fish taken, by species and by fishing grounds.

The Bureau of Fisheries is charged with the protection, under the federal laws, of the sponge fisheries on the Gulf coast of Florida, and of the fisheries, seals, sea otters, walruses, and sea lions of Alaska.

The bureau conducts sealing and fox-trapping operations on the Pribilof Islands, preparing the skins and shipping them to the United States for sale at public auction. It is also intrusted with the government, maintenance, and

, education of the natives of the Pribilof Islands. It exercises joint control with the Biological Survey of the Department of Agriculture in maintaining and

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protecting the Aleutian Island bird and animal reservation, having particular charge of the fisheries and aquatic life.

The bureau co-operates effectively with other branches of the federal government and with the several states. For example, upon request it furnishes technical advice relating to the fisheries to such agencies as the Department of Agriculture (especially in relation to the enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act), Department of State (in relation to international fishery questions), Tariff Commission, etc. It aids in stocking our national forests and parks with fish, and co-operates with the several states in the conservation and upbuilding of the fisheries and stocking the waters.

4. Organization

(a) Office of the Commissioner.—The Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, who is required by law to be a person of scientific and practical acquaintance with fish and fisheries, 1 is the administrative head of the Bureau of Fisheries. 13 He supervises and co-ordinates the scientific, statistical, and economic work of the bureau. He approves the apportionment of the bureau's appropriations to the several services, and conducts the correspondence which has to do with the work of the bureau as a whole.

He directly superintends the work of the Division of Fish Culture, and the Division of Alaska Fisheries, and, through the Deputy Commissioner, he directs the work of the other divisions of the bureau. He personally reviews the reports relating to fish culture, and to the fisheries of Alaska, and prepares much of the correspondence connected therewith. From time to time he appoints a board, composed of certain division chiefs, to conduct public hearings, usually at Seattle, but sometimes in Alaska, to consider the operation of the Alaska fishery laws and regulations. He receives and reviews changes in regulations recommended by the board and submits them to the Secretary of Commerce for approval and promulgation. He is a member of the International Halibut Commission. He reviews the scientific papers prepared by members of the staff of the Division of Fish Culture and of the Division of Alaska Fisheries, and approves them for publication as bureau reports or in scientific magazines.

(1) Division of Administration.-(la) The Chief of Offices, who acts under the immediate supervision of the Commissioner, is the administrative head of the division. He prepares, examines, and adjusts the financial statements, accounts, contracts, bonds, title papers, and other legal documents relating to the bureau's work. He is the custodian of the building occupied by the bureau in the District of Columbia, and of the bureau's property in Washington. He supervises accounting for property by the field services, receiving their records of accessions, transfers, expenditures, and condemnations of supplies and equipment. He receives reports from the masters of the vessels in the bureau's service and exercises control over their personnel and supplies. He has custody of the bureau's service and exercises control over their personnel and supplies. He has custody of the bureau's office supplies and stationery. He is charged with the care of

116 Stat. 591. 13 R. S. § 4395 (Comp. St. $ 901).

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the publications of the bureau, and with its photographic negatives and electrotype plates. He keeps mailing lists and distributes the publications of the bureau to the service and the public at large. His office receives and distributes incoming mail, dispatches outgoing mail, and maintains the bureau's correspondence files. It also handles personnel matters, keeping the records of appointments, promotions, transfers, discharges, and leaves of absence.

(1b). The Accounts Section audits and passes for payment all bills, vouchers, and accounts submitted against the Bureau of Fisheries, including the accounts of the special disbursing agents attached to the Fisheries and Fur Seal Services in Alaska. It audits, records, and accounts for transportation requests. It prepares the pay rolls of the Washington office and keeps accounts of the bureau's appropriations, classifying all vouchers and pay rolls chargeable against such appropriations for payment by the Disbursing Officer of the Department.

(1c) The Office of the Architect and Engineer prepares the specifications for projected fish-cultural stations and biological stations, and examines and surveys the sites. It designs and prepares plans for laboratories, hatcheries, ponds, pumping stations, reservoirs, pipe lines, and dwellings and other buildings at fish stations. It supervises new construction. It prepares plans for fish-cultural apparatus, heating equipment, refrigerating plants and aquaria, and charts and diagrams to illustrate the various publications of the bureau.

(10) The Library consists of a collection of some 60,000 scientific and technical books, pamphlets, and periodicals. The Librarian catalogues new books and periodicals, prepares special bibliographies for research work, and arranges the various publications and periodicals for binding. Files of the various charts and maps used by the bureau are kept in the library.

(le) The Messenger and Janitory Force performs messenger service and makes minor repairs.

(19) Vessel Service.—The bureau controls and operates four coastal steamers, one steamer on the Great Lakes, and fifty-seven motor launches and boats, some of the latter sufficiently large for coastwise work in protected waters. These vessels are assigned to various activities or working units of the bureau as occasion demands. Their accounts are handled by the Assistant in Charge of Office, who arranges also for their upkeep and repair. An auxiliary schooner is used as a supply vessel for the Pribilof Islands. Ten motor vessels are used for patrol or other purposes in Alaska, and the remainder of them are utilized at different biological or fish-cultural stations as may be needed. Six of the vessels employed in Alaska carry permanent crews aggregating twenty-seven men, paid from a lump sum appropriation. The other boats are provided with temporary crews as occasion requires.

(2) Division of Fish Culture.— The Division of Fish Culture plans and directs the work of the fish hatcheries and the fish distribution service in the propagation and distribution of food fish in the waters of the United States and Alaska. It makes inspections of the field stations and receives from the station superintendents the reports of their work. It studies fish-cultural methods with a view to their improvement. It assembles information, compiles statistics and prepares for publication reports and papers on fish-cultural activities in this country and abroad. It circulates its publications and maintains files of scientific reports and documents. In the supervision of the fish hatcheries in Alaska and on the Pacific Coast, it acts through the Seattle office, which is a joint agency of the Divisions of Fish Culture and of Alaska Fisheries.

(2a) The Central Station and Aquaria comprises a display of live fish and a laboratory situated in the bureau's building in Washington, D. C. Here fish are propagated for experimental, demonstration, and exhibition purposes, and distributed to various points in the East. The personnel of the Central Station conducts fish-cultural operations on the Potomac River, using the Bryan's Point hatchery as a propagation and distribution station from February to June. It prepares and supplies to the field service equipment and devices for use in hatcheries and on fish-distributing cars.

(2b) Fish Hatcheries are located in 32 states and territories. Each hatchery is under the supervision of a superintendent who personally directs the administrative and practical work of his stations, including the recruiting and employment of temporary help in season. Two field superintendents, one stationed at Washington, D. C., and the other with headquarters in the Seattle office, from time to time visit the hatcheries and inspect their equipment, records, and operations; they also initiate work of an important or special nature at certain points. The hatcheries propagate food and game fish and liberate the young in neighboring waters or ship them to private individuals and organizations for stocking waters in various parts of the country. They also supply fish eggs to state hatcheries and foreign governments, and make transfers of eggs to other government stations. Sources of eggs handled at the hatcheries are: (1) Brood fish held in the station ponds; (2) wild fish obtained by placing racks across streams, by seining and by other means; (3) fish caught by the commercial fishermen and on their way to market; and (4) private hatcheries, from which certain kinds of eggs are purchased when the bureau's stations are unable to produce enough to meet the demand. The individual stations perform such construction and repair work as is essential for the maintenance of buildings, equipment, apparatus, and water supply systems. The superintendents make monthly reports to Washington showing the progress of the work, and submit a detailed annual report describing the activities of their respective stations.

(2c) The Fish Distribution Service is under the direction of a superintendent, who arranges for the transportation of live fish, and their distribution to the lakes and streams of the United States. For this purpose the service maintains and operates five railway cars specially equipped with tanks, air and water pumps, and other facilities for the transportation of live fish. Each car is also fitted with living accommodations for five men, a cook's galley, an office and a dining room. Employees of this service are also used to accompany smaller shipments of live fish in baggage and express cars.

(3) Division of Alaska Fisheries. This division supervises the Alaska Fisheries and the Alaska Fur Seal Services. It directs the various field forces operating in Alaska and in the adjacent waters, in the enforcement of the laws and regulations governing the fisheries, and in the management of the fur seal and fox herds of the Pribilof Islands. It assists in the drafting of these regu

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