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tions of employment for approximately four million women. The proponents of the amendment have argued that special labor laws for women curtail their opportunities, 'but the opponents have maintained that actual information concerning women in industry disproves such a theory and that in the interest of the race special legislation to control standards of women's employment is essential because they always have been in a weaker position economically than have men. 5. Decision as to Night Employment

A decision ? of importance to women in industry was that upholding the
constitutionality of the New York law,8 prohibiting the employment of females
over the age of 16 in connection with any restaurant for more than 6 days or
54 hours of any one week, or more than 9 hours in any one day, or before 6
in the morning or after 10 o'clock in the evening of any day.
6. Organization
The bureau's organization consists of:
(a) The Office of the Director:

(1) The Director.
(2) The Assistant Director.
(3) Chief Clerk.
(4) Secretary to the Director.

(5) Clerical Force.
(b) Division of Investigations.—Conducts all original investigations, the

greater part of the work being done in the field. The personnel con

sists of an Industrial Assistant, Special Agents, and Clerks.
(c) Division of Research.-Searches out existing data relating to various

investigations. Personnel-Research Assistant, Industrial Research

Clerks, and a Law Clerk.
(d) Division of Statistics.—Compiles data from field agents’ schedules, etc.

Personnel Statistician, Statistical Clerks, and operations.
(e) Division of Reports and Exhibits.—Prepares and edits bulletins and

other bureau publications. Personnel-Editor in charge, three as

sistant editors, and clerks. 7. Publications

These bulletins and reports will be sent free of charge upon request:
No. 1. Proposed Employment of Women During the War in the Industries of

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 16 pp. 1918.
No. 2. Labor Laws for Women in Industries in Indiana. 29 pp. 1918.
No. 3. Standards for the Employment of Women in Industry. 7 pp. 1919.
No. 4. Wages of Candy Makers in Philadelphia in 1919. 46 pp. 1919.
No. 5. The Eight-Hour Day in Federal and State Legislation. 19 pp. 1919.
No. 6. The Employment of Women in Hazardous Industries in the United

States. 8 pp. 1919.
No. 7. Night Work Laws in the United States. 4 pp. 1919.


7 Radice v. People of State of New York, 264 U. S. 292, 44 S. Ct. 325, 68 L. Ed. 690. 8 Laws N. Y. 1917, c. 535, $ 3.

No. 8. Women in the Government Service. 37 pp. 1920.
No. 9. Home Work in Bridgeport, Conn. 35 pp. 1920.
No. 10. Hours and Conditions of Work for Women in Industry in Virginia.

32 pp. 1920.
No. 11. Women Street Car Conductors and Ticket Agents. 90 pp. 1920.
No. 12. The New Position of Women in American Industry. 158 pp. 1920.
No. 13. Industrial Opportunities and Training for Women and Girls. 48 pp.

1920. No. 14. A Physiological Basis for the Shorter Working Day for Women. 20

pp. 1921.

No. 15. Some Effects of Legislation Limiting Hours of Work for Women.

26 pp. 1921. No. 16. State Laws Affecting Working Women. 51 pp. 1921. Superseded by

Bul. No. 40 Supplement to Bulletin 16.10 pp. 1923. No. 17. Women's Wages in Kansas. 104 pp. 1921. No. 18. Health Problems of Women in Industry. (Reprint of paper published

in the Nation's Health, May, 1921.) 11 pp. 1921. No. 19. Iowa Women in Industry. 73 pp. 1922. No. 21. Women in Rhode Island Industries. 73 pp. 1922. No. 22. Women in Georgia Industries. 89 pp. 1922. No. 23. The Family Status of Bread-Winning Women. 43 pp. 1922. No. 24. Women in Maryland Industries. 96 pp. 1922. No. 25. Women in the Candy Industry in Chicago and St. Louis. 72 pp. 1923. No. 26. Women in Arkansas Industries. 86 pp. 1923. No. 27. The Occupational Progress of Women. 37 pp. 1922. No. 28. Women's Contributions in the Field of Invention. 51 pp. 1923. No. 29. Women in Kentucky Industries. 114 pp. 1923. No. 30. The Share of Wage-Earning Women in Family Support. 170 pp. 1923. No. 31. What Industry Means to Women Workers. 10 pp. 1923: No. 32. Women in South Carolina Industries, 128 pp. 1923. No. 33. Proceedings of the Women's Industrial Conference. 190 pp. 1923. No. 34. Women in Alabama Industries. 86 pp. 1924. No. 35. Women in Missouri Industries. 127 pp. 1924. No. 36. Radio Talks on Women in Industry. 34 pp. 1924. No. 37. Women in New Jersey Industries. 99 pp. 1924. No. 38. Married Women in Industry. 8 pp. 1924. No. 39. Domestic Workers and Their Employment Relations. 87 pp. 1924. No. 40. State Laws Affecting Working Women. 55 pp. 1924. No. 41. The Family Status of Bread-Winning Women in Four Selected Cities. No. 42. List of References on Minimum Wage for Women in the United States

and Canada. (In press.)
No. 43. Standard and Scheduled Hours of Work for Women in Industry,
No. 44. Women in Ohio Industries. 136 pp. 1924.

Third Annual Report of the Director. 1921.
Fourth Annual Report of the Director. 1922.
Fifth Annual Report of the Director. 1923.
Sixth Annual Report of the Director. 1924.




1. Mission

The purpose of the United States Employment Service is to foster, promote, and develop the welfare of the wage-earners of the United States, by so conserving and distributing their industrial activities as to improve their working conditions and advance their opportunities for profitable employment, in harmony with the general good, with the necessities of war, with the just interests of employers, and with the development in practice of the recognized principle of a common responsibility for production and a common interest in distribution.

2. History

The service had its inception, in connection with immigration, when a Division of Information was created to bring about a distribution of immigrants, through supplying information to workers about working and corresponding living conditions in different parts of the country.”

When, after the passage of the Seaman's Act of March 4, 1915,3 complaint was made of inability to recruit sufficient certified seamen, the matter was submitted to the distribution branch of the Division of Information, which found adequate numbers of qualified men.*

The placement of women and girls was accomplished through the co-operation of employers in developing a clearing house plan for information and contact with women's organizations. A young men's and boys' division was also created. Valuable service has been rendered in such emergencies as the Salem Fire, in 1914, which threw large numbers of factory hands out of employment at a time when they also lost their homes, which necessitated their relocation, as to Mexican refugees, and for war veterans.

The World War, with ever-increasing demand for workers and no immigration, placed a heavy test upon this service.

The Employment Service was made a separate unit in the Department of Labor on January 3, 1918.

1 Act Jan. 5, 1923 (42 Stat. 1110, 1129).

2 Immigration Act Feb. 20, 1907 (34 Stat. 898, 909), which was repealed by Act Feb. 5, 1917 (39 Stat. 895 (Comp. St. 1918, Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1919, $ 960]), which continued the Information Division. See Department of Commerce and Labor, Annual Report, 1908, p. 25.

3 38 Stat. 1164, 1170.
4 Department of Labor, Annual Report, 1916, p. 63.
5 Department of Labor, Annual Report, 1916, p. 322.
6 Institute for Government Research, Service Monograph, 28, pp. 9–33.


3. Activities; General Labor

The Employment Service has co-operative arrangements with most of the states, which maintain over 200 placement offices. Usually the state officer in charge of employment work is appointed federal director of the United States Employment Service for that state. The government makes a small allotment of funds to each state, which principally goes to the payment of salaries.

Free postage privileges are granted for employment business.

The service is active in industrial employment information work, which has to do with feeling the pulse of the labor market, for which purpose the country is divided into geographical districts, and special agents are appointed in the largest industrial centers, and submit the same to Washington, where the data are analyzed to learn the "trend" in employment. 4. Activities; Agricultural Labor

This is the only direct employment work carried on by the service personnel. By analyzing farm and crop conditions and the probable sources of labor supply, estimates are made of the relation of supply and demand in labor and the means of bringing the two together. Posters are distributed and correspondence attended to in the way of recruiting, directing, and distributing regular farm hands and seasonal labor for wheat harvest, cotton picking, apple picking, corn husking, and work in the sugar beet fields and factories. 5. Activities; Juvenile Work

The juvenile work is directed in behalf of the juniors between the legal working age and 21 years. Its mission is to aid the schools in assisting pupils to pursue a definite occupational responsibility, in which they may become efficient, productive, and constructive workers; to secure them in employment best adapted to their abilities; and to afford the type of employment supervision that will encourage efficiency, full development of abilities, adaptability, and stability. 6. Organization

1. The Director General is the executive head, appointed by, and responsible to, the Secretary of Labor. He is assisted by an Assistant Director General. The office proper of the Director General has direct supervision of the work of co-operation with, and financial aid to, state and municipal employment agencies throughout the United States.

The organization is otherwise presented in the following table. Information about general policies and national administration should be directed to the Director General, United States Employment Service, 1800 D. Street N. W., Washington, D. C.

Information relating to employment conditions in any one of the several states should be addressed to Federal Director in such state, as indicated in the following table:

1. General Administration, Washington Office.
A. Administrative Functions.
(1) Office Proper of Director General,
(a) Director General.

for standardization of the seating law passed the House but was defeated in the Senate.

"In Minnesota an unsuccessful attempt was made to secure a law requiring the appointment of a woman on the Industrial Commission.

"In Vermont an attempt was made to repeal the laws requiring the appointment of a woman factory inspector. This attempt was not successful.

“Minimum wage laws have been the subject of discussion in 11 states—Arizona, Massachusetts, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, and Texas. In South Dakota a minimum wage law was passed, and in Arizona the minimum amount was raised from $10 to $16 a week.

"In Massachusetts effort was made to secure the repeal of the minimum wage law. This effort was not achieved, and attempts to amend the law to make it mandatory were also unsuccessful.”

The minimum wage law for women and children in the District of Columbia 5 was declared unconstitutional. Efforts to pass a minimum wage law in New York and New Jersey, and to repeal such law in Massachusetts, have been unsuccessful.

The constitutionality of the California law was questioned, the case being brought by a woman who sought employment as an apprentice in a candy factory at a rate below that permitted legally, and who alleged that the law was discriminatory because there was no minimum wage law for men. On September 22, however, a superior court of the state handed down a decision, ruling the law valid. It was stated that the case would be carried to the highest court. In another instance the Attorney General sustained the California Industrial Welfare Commission in refusing to allow the money due the women cannery workers to be put in escrow, pending the final decision as to the validity of the California wage law. The minimum wage law in the state has been strictly enforced.

In Massachusetts a test case on the constitutionality of the minimum wage law was based on the refusal of the Boston Transcript to publish the Massachusetts Minimum Wage Commission's advertisement of a firm failing to comply with one of the minimum wage decrees. In the municipal court of the city of Boston and in the superior court the case was decided against the newspaper. An appeal was then made to the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, which handed down the decision that newspapers cannot be compelled to publish the names of employers failing to comply with the rulings of the minimum wage commission. However, the only limitation that the decision imposes is in connection with the newspaper publication, and it is now optional rather than mandatory for newspapers to carry such publications. Although some newspapers may decline to print advertisements of noncompliance, it is interesting to note that during the period that the case was before the court, such advertisements were published by the commission in 50 newspapers throughout the state. The Assistant Commissioner of the Department of Labor and Indus

5 Act Sept. 19, 1918 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1919, $$ 34214a-342112 w).

6 Children's Hospital of the District of Columbia v. Adkins, 52 App. D. C. 109, 284 F. 613; Adkins v. Children's Hospital of District of Columbia, 261 U. S. 525, 43 S. Ct. 394, 67 L. Ed. 785, 24 A. L. R. 1238.

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