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without such examination the commission cannot protect itself against erroneous or fraudulent claims.

In a few cases also the question has arisen whether compensation shall be paid in case an injured employee declines to submit to a surgical operation which gives promise of terminating or greatly relieving the disability which otherwise might be permanent or of long duration. In these cases the commission has held that if the operation was without serious danger in the opinion of experienced surgeons, and gave promise of terminating or greatly reducing the disability, a refusal to accept surgical treatment was sufficient ground for suspending or terminating compensation. The disabled employee is permitted to withdraw his refusal and accept the operation within a reasonable time and thereby revive his right to compensation. Refusal of operation is not considered ground for suspension of compensation if the operation is attended with serious danger or is of doubtful benefit.

15. Organization

See Chart 41.

EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION COMMISSION

COMMISSIONERS

Secretary

Records Appropriations Purchasing

Personnel Publications

Publicity Office Management

Assembly Division

Chief
1. Reports of Claims
2. Receiving
3. Indexing
4. Filing
5. Following-up

Medical Division

Medical Director 1. Examinations 2. Medical Advice 3. Relations with, and Designating Phy.

sicians and Hospitals 4. Examining and Passing on Medical and

Hospital Bills

Claims Division
Chief Claim Examiner
1. Examining
2. Special Inquiries
3. Field Investigations
4. Allowing and Awards
5. Adjusting

Legal Division

Attorney
1. Legal Questions
2. Third Party Cases

Statistical Division

Chief
Statistician

Disbursing Division

Chief of Accounts 1. Payment of Awards 2. Recording Payments 3. Custody and Disbursing Funds 4. Assists in Making Estimates for Ap

propriations

Organization Chart 41

16. Publications

(a) Annual Report of the United States Employees' Compensation Commission, 91 p. 15.

(b) Hospitals and Physicians, United States Employees' Compensation Commission, 108 p. 15.

Both publications available from Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

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PANAMA CANAL 1. Mission

The Panama Canal is an independent organization. By direction of the President it is subject to the personal supervison of the Secretary of War, but it is not a part of the War Department. The function of the Panama Canal organization is to look after the care, management, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and government of the Panama Canal and the Canal Zone. 2. History

The Spooner Act of 1902 1 authorized the President to proceed with the construction of an Isthmian canal. A treaty was subsequently signed with the Republic of Panama on November 18, 1903,” under the terms of which the United States was granted in perpetuity the use, occupation, and control of a zone of land "for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and protection" of an Isthmian canal. The Panama Canal is maintained and operated at the present time under the provision of the Panama Canal Act, which is the present fundamental act. 3. Activities

The principal duty of the Panama Canal is to pass vessels safely through the canal from ocean to ocean. The Canal also furnishes supplies, facilities and services, when required, to shipping, the Army, the Navy, and the Republic of Panama, operating for this purpose and for its own needs and those of the Panama Railroad Company, machine shops, dry docks, coaling plants, fuel oil plants, salvage boats, storehouses, etc. The Canal also maintains hospitals, schools, and police, fire, customs, postal, sanitary, and quarantine services. 4. Organization

The Governor is the head of the Panama Canal on the Isthmus. The organization of the principal branches of the Panama Canal is: (1) Executive Department.

(a) Police and Fire Division.
(b) Division of Civil Affairs.
(c) Division of Schools.
(d) Bureau of Clubs and Playgrounds.

(e) Office of District Attorney.
(2) Department of Operation and Maintenance.

(a) Electrical Division.
(b) Lock Operation.

1 Act June 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 481).
2 33 Stat. 2234.
3 Act Aug. 24, 1912 (37 Stat. 560, 569).
4 Act Aug. 24, 1912, 8 7 (37 Stat. p. 564).

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(c) Division of Municipal Engineering.
(d) Dredging Division.
(e) Marine Division.

(f) Mechanical Division.
(3) Supply Department.
(4) Accounting Department.
(5) Health Department.
(6) Courts.

(7) The Washington Office is the United States headquarters for the Panama Canal, and handles in the United States all purchasing, administrative, and appointment matters (not military) relating to the Canal. It reports to the Governor of the Panama Canal on the Isthmus and to the Secretary of War in Washington.

The titles of the different departments and divisions will indicate the nature of their functions.

5. Publications

(a) Price List of Panama Canal publications may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.

(b) A pamphlet of general information may be obtained free from the office stated in the following paragraph: 6. Address Inquiries

Inquiries should be addressed to the Chief of Office, The Panama Canal, Washington, D. C.

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CHAPTER 63

BOARD OF ROAD COMMISSIONERS FOR ALASKA

1. Mission

The board is charged by law with the construction, repair, and maintenance of roads, tramways, ferries, bridges, and trails in the territory of Alaska, under the direction of the Secretary of War and Chief of Engineers."

2. History

The Board was created by the Act of January 27, 1905.1 It has thus had twenty years of experience with conditions in Alaska. It has practically grown up with the country, has developed a philosophy of road and trail development, has accumulated an organization and plant, and has developed methods of work adapted to the peculiar conditions in Alaska, which have no parrallel in the states. A knowledge of working and transportation conditions in the Interior of the territory cannot be acquired without an all year round experience therein extending over several years.

Under its basic act, the Alaska Road Commission has full authority "of its own motion” to locate, lay out, construct, and maintain such projects as appear in its judgment to be desirable. It can adjust its operations to changing conditions from time to time with a full knowledge of actual conditions on the ground. In fact, it is the only federal bureau permanently resident in Alaska with full authority to handle its business without reference to Washington. It does, in fact, revise its operations twice each year in the interest of effective management.

The total mileage of roads and trails constructed by the board during its first sixteen years of existence (1905–1920) aggregates 4,890 miles, consisting of 1,031 miles of wagon road, 636 miles of sled road, and 3,223 miles of trail.

In addition, some 712 miles of temporary trail have been flagged as required. Not all of this mileage has been maintained year by year; some has been in disuse or practically impassable for many years and a small mileage has been superseded by other routes or methods of transportation as will appear more in detail below. Since assuming charge at the beginning of the 1920 working season, the present board has been engaged in overhauling the entire road and trail situation, rehabilitating or abandoning the projects which have fallen into disrepair or disuse, and drawing up a progressive and comprehensive plan of operations covering a period of years.

The provisions of the Federal Aid Road Acts do not apply to the territory of Alaska. They can be so applied only by an act of Congress.

The history of the commission naturally divides in three phases or periods: (1) Pioneering from 1905 to 1917, during which the Richardson Road, from Valdez to Chitina to Fairbanks, was located and improved for nearly the entire distance to wagon road standard. It laid the foundation for future work. (2)

1 Act Jan. 27, 1905 (33 Stat. 616).

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