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(9) Inspection Section.
(10) Fuel Conservation Section.
(11) Local Manager's Section.

(12) Clerical Section. D. Vice President in Charge of Finance.-Handles all financial matters of

the corporation supervising activities of Treasurer's and General Comptroller's Departments. Also supervises the activities of the Marine Insurance Department and the Construction De

partment. (a) Treasurer's Department. This department handles the collec.

tion and disbursement of all funds of the United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation and the United States

Lines and is in charge of all securities. (b) General Comptroller's Department. This department is responsi

ble for the installation, supervision, and maintenance of the accounting records essential to a proper reflection of the assets and liabilities, and earnings and expenses of the United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation; the certification and approval of all receipts and disbursements; the preparation of

current financial reports and statements. (c) Marine Insurance Department. This department supervises and

administers the marine insurance fund which is maintained by the Fleet Corporation; all steamers in operation, as well as all

freight moneys at risk, being entered in this fund. (d) Construction Department.-Investigating and furnishing data per

taining to settlement of claims, lawsuits, etc., arising out of the

construction program of the Fleet Corporation. E. Vice President in Charge of the Traffic Department.—Exercises admin

istrative and supervisory functions over all traffic matters of the Fleet Corporation; follows closely the cargo movement, the frequency of sailings, and the establishment of rates for the carriage of freight passengers; determines amount of tonnage to be employed in the various services from time to time as required by changing conditions; negotiates, consummates, and/or approves period contracts or contracts for special shipments; prepares sailing schedules; checks manifests; adjusts cargo claims; prescribes uniform bills of lading and bill of lading clauses; conducts general solicitation of cargo and passengers;

makes general study of trade conditions. (a) The department functions through the following divisions : (1) European and Mediterranean Trades Division, covering all

European ports, including the United Kingdom and all

Mediterranean and Black Sea ports. (2) South American and West Indies Trades Division. (3) Far East and Long Voyage Trades Division, covering all ports of China, Japan, Philippine Islands, Dutch East Indies, Straits Settlements, Australia, India, and West,

South, and East African ports. (4) Passenger and Mails Division, dealing with the corporation's

passenger services, including booking of passengers; maintaining contact with the Post Office Department in the interest of procurement of mails for the corporation's

vessels. (5) Claims Division, for the handling and settlement of traffic

claims not covered by P. and I. insurance.
(6) District offices at Boston, New York, Baltimore, Savannah,

New Orleans, San Francisco, Seattle, London, Rotterdam,
Hamburg, Marseilles, Genoa, Manila, Rio de Janeiro, and

Buenos Aires.
(7) Inland Offices Division, charged with the promotion of con-

tact with shippers in the interest of American flag services. Offices maintained at Washington, New York, Chicago, Cincinnati, Detroit, Kansas City, Memphis, Minne

apolis, St. Louis. (b) Advertising Department.-Charged with supervision of all adver

tising of the Fleet Corporation services. Offices maintained at

New York and London. (c) Chartering Department.-Charters tankers available for commer

cial business after the requirements of the Fuel Department have been met, and negotiates bulk cargoes moving in general cargo

steamers under charter parties. Offices located at New York. F. Department of Ship Sales.—Manager.—Has cognizance of negotiations for the sale of all vessel property under the jurisdiction of the Shipping Board, and is charged with responsibility for the custody and preservation of laid up vessels. The Department consists of the Department of Ship Sales proper, attending to matters relating to the sale of vessels, and a unit within the Department known as Laid-Up Fleet Division, having supervisory charge over the maintenance of the Laid-Up Fleets in accordance with rules and regulations established by the Department of Ship Sales. The Laid-Up Fleet Division has district administrative headquarters at New York, Philadelphia, Norfolk, New Orleans, and San Francisco. L'nder the supervision of such district headquarters are the actual fleet organizations, aboard the Laid-Up Fleets, executing the duties allotted them.

Sales are governed by sections 5, 6, and 7 of the Merchant Marine Act.? Annual Omnibus Advertisement is usually published in the spring of each year, soliciting bids for the purchase of any vessels in the Board's Fleet. 4. Rules of Practice

· See under Shipping Board, chapter 67, section 5.

2 Act June 5, 1920 (41 Stat. 988 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, 88 814614 aaa-8146740]). See Eighth Annual Report of United States Shipping Board, p. 91.

CHAPTER 69

NATIONAL SCREW THREAD COMMISSION 1. Mission

To ascertain and establish standards for screw threads, to be submitted to the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of Commerce for their acceptance and approval."

2. History

"The initial accomplishment in the standardization of screw threads in the United States was the report, under date of December 15, 1864, of the special committee appointed by the Franklin Institute on April 21, 1861, for the investigation of a proper system of screw threads, bolt heads, and nuts, to be recommended by the institute for adoption and general use by American engineers.

"In its report this committee recommended a thread system designed by William Sellers. This thread system specified a single series of pitches for certain diameters from one-fourth inch to six inches, inclusive. The threads had an included angle of 60 degrees and a flat at the crest and root equal to oneeighth of the pitch. This system came into general use and was known as the Franklin Institute thread, the Sellers thread, and commonly as the United States thread.

"The accomplishments realized in the adoption of the Franklin Institute, or United States standard thread, in 1864, were brought about largely by the great need of standard threads by American railroads for the development of their lines and equipment. In May, 1868, this thread was adopted by the United States Navy.

“In recent years numerous organizations have carried forward the standardization of screw threads. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, che Society of Automotive Engineers, the Bureau of Standards, and prominent manufacturers of specialized threaded products have been the chief influences in standardization of screw threads in this country. In England the standardization of screw threads began with the efforts of Sir Joseph Whitworth in ascertaining shop practice in the manufacture of screw threads, resulting in the standardization and adoption of the Whitworth thread system, which found extensive use in England. This work has been carried forward by the British Engineering Standards Association, an organization formed in 1901.

"While the United States standard thread system fulfilled a great need in the period of the development of our great railway systems, it did not fully meet the requirements of modern manufacture, because of the need for additional standard sizes and pitches developed in other industries, and especially because of the need for definitely specified limiting sizes of threaded parts. To fulfill the first of these needs, a thread system having finer pitches than the United

1 Act July 18, 1918 (40 Stat. 912).

States standard system was recommended by the Society of Automotive Engineers, and a machine screw thread series, which provided smaller sizes of screws than the United States standard threads, was recommended by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The progress of machine design and manufacture has established an extensive use of these fine thread series.

"With the great extension of quantity production in this and other countries, particularly during the World War, the need for national standard limiting dimensions was emphasized, as one of the prerequisites of quantity production is standardization of form and dimensions of parts, in order that interchangeability may be established. This is especially important in the matter of screw thread parts, since there are two mating parts that must fit, and these parts in many cases are made in different places. Standardization of screw threads is important to both the manufacturer and the user of a machine, as the user should be able to buy locally a screw or nut for replacement in case of breakage or wear." 2

Through the efforts of several of the engineering societies, the Bureau of Standards, and prominent manufacturers of screw thread products, Congress authorized the creation of the National Screw Thread Commission in 1918.1

Prior to the expiration of the original term of six months, to which the commission was limited by the organic act, it became apparent that it could not fully accomplish the purposes for which it was created, and Congress extended its life, as it has by later acts," so that it is assured of continuance until March 21, 1927.

The first meeting of the commission was held September 12, 1918.

In July, 1919, the commission represented by several of its members conferred with British and French engineers and manufacturers of screw thread products, for the purpose of discussing the tentative report prepared by the commission with reference to its suitability to serve as a basis for international standardization of screw threads.

3. Activities

The commission has, from time to time, resolved itself into the following subcommittees, with authority to call to their aid one or more experts for counsel, which subcommittees were responsible for compiling and auditing data pertaining to the subject of each committee, and for compiling reports for presentation to the commission as a whole, for the action of the commission:

(a) Pitches, systems, and forms of thread.
(b) Classification and tolerances.
(c) Terminology.
(d) Gages and methods of test.
(e) Order of business.
(f) Research.

1 Act July 18, 1918 (40 Stat. 912). 2 Report of the National Screw Thread Commission (Revised 1924) pp. 4, 5. 3 Act March 3, 1919 (40 Stat. 1291 [Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1919, 88 8907uu-8907x]).

4 Joint Resolutions of March 23, 1920 (41 Stat. 536), and March 21, 1922 (42 Stat. 469 [Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, § 8907y]).

(g) Taps, dies, tap drills, and wire gages.
(h) Bolt heads, nuts, and wrenches.
(i) Bar sizes.
(j) Instrument threads and brass tubing.
(k) Acme and special threads.
(1) Rearrangement of progress report.

(m) Revision of progress report. 4. Organization (a) Section 1 of the original act provided for nine commissioners, one to

: ? be the Director of the Bureau of Standards, who was to act as Chairman of the Commission, two commissioned officers from the Army, two from the Navy, and four to be appointed by the Secretary of Commerce from nominees of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Automotive Engineers.

(b) Secretary.

(c) Address: National Screw Thread Commission, Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C.

2 Report of the National Screw Thread Commission (Revised 1924) pp. 4, 5.

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