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(i) National Zoological Park. 5_ The collection of mammals, birds, and reptiles numbers about 1,400 individuals, representing some 360 species. Its visitors now average about 1,000,000 each year, including many groups of public and private school students, accompanied by their teachers.

(j) The Astrophysical Observatory 6 has produced a complete chart, made by automatic processes, which shows in detail the so-called invisible spectrum. The work of this observatory is especially directed to those portions of the energy of the sun that affect through its radiation the climate and the crops.

Through the use of specially designed pyrheliometers attached to free balloons, observations have been made of the intensity of solar radiation at various elevations up to a height of more than 80,000 feet above sea level. Special studies have been made of the solar constant and of the distribution of radiation over the sun's disk. The principal astrophysical work is carried on at the observatory in the Smithsonian Park in Washington and at Mt. Wilson and Mt. Whitney in California. On the summit of Mt. Whitney the Institution has constructed a shelter for the general use of observers. Expeditions to various parts of the world have been made for observation of eclipses of the sun and other special studies.

As the result of researches made by the observatory during the period from 1900 to 1915 it is found that the average value of heat emitted by the sun is 1,932 calories per minute per square centimeter, and that the heat emitted in a year equals that obtained by burning 400,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons of anthracite coal.?

(k) It distributes duplicates of specimens to colleges.

4. Organization

(a) Presiding officer ex officio 10_ The President of the United States. (b) Chancellor.—The Chief Justice.10 (c) The Establishment.—The President of the United States, the Vice Presi

dent of the United States, the Chief Justice of the United States, and

the heads of the federal Executive Departments. 11 (d) The Regents of the Smithsonian Institution.12

(1) The Chancellor.--the Chief Justice.
(2) The Vice President.
(3) Senators.-A. O. Stanley, Reed Smoot, and G. W. Pepper.

2 Administration and Activities of the Smithsonian Institution, by A. Howard Clark, 1917 (publication No. 2450 of the Smithsonian Institution).

5 Act April 30, 1890, c. 173, § 2 (26 Stat. 78 [Comp. St. § 10588]).
6 Act March 3, 1891, c. 542 (26 Stat. 963).
9 Act March 3, 1883 (22 Stat. 629 [Comp. St. § 10578]).
10 Act Aug. 10, 1846 (9 Stat. 103).

11 Act Aug. 10, 1846 (9 Stat. 102); Act March 20, 1871 (17 Stat. 1); Act of Feb. 27, 1877 (19 Stat. 253), amended by Act March 12, 1894 (28 Stat. 41), striking out Governor of District of Columbia, which office was abolished by Act June 20, 1874 (18 Stat. 116).

12 Act Aug. 10, 1846 (9 Stat. 103); Act Jan. 10, 1865 (13 Stat. 420); Act March 20, 1871 (17 Stat. 1); Act March 12, 1894 (28 Stat. 41).

(4) Representatives.-R. W. Moore, W. H. Newton.
(5) George Gray, Charles F. Choate, Jr., Henry White, R. S. Brookings,

I. B. Laughlin, and F. A. Delano. (e) Executive Committee. 10_George Gray, Henry White, and Frederick A.

(f) Smithsonian Institution Administration Proper.

(1) Secretary of the Institution.10
(2) Assistant Secretary.
(3) Chief Clerk.
(4) Accounting and Disbursing Agent.

(5) Editor. (g) Bureaus under Direction of Smithsonian Institution. (1) National Museum.8 (la) Administrative Assistant to the Secretary in Charge of the

(1b) Head Curators.

(1c) Editor.
(2) National Gallery of Art.-Director.

(2a) Freer Gallery of Art.-Curator.
(3) Bureau of American Ethnology.—Chief.
(4) International Exchanges.

(4a) Assistant Secretary in Charge.

(4) Chief Clerk. (5) National Zoological Park.5_Superintendent. (6) Astrophysical Observatory. 6_Director. (7) Regional Bureau for the United States International Catalogue of

Scientific Literature.-Assistant in Charge. 5. Publications

(a) Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution to Congress.13

(b) Smithsonian Contribution to Knowledge, in quarto, begun in 1850.
(c) Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, in octavo.
(d) Harriman Alaska Series.
(e) Annual Report of the United States National Museum.14
(f) Bureau of American Ethnology.
(g) Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
(h) Proceedings of the United States National Museum.

(i) Bulletin of the United States National Museum, including contribution from the United States National Herbarium.

8 Act April 30, 1890, c. 173, § 2 (26 Stat. 78 [Comp. St. $ 10588]). 6 Act March 3, 1891, c. 542 (26 Stat. 963). 8 Act March 3, 1879, c. 182 (20 Stat. 397). 10 Act Aug. 10, 1846 (9 Stat. 103). 13 Act Oct. 2, 1888 (25 Stat. 529). 14 Act July 7, 1884, c. 332 (23 Stat. 214).

(j) Annuals of the Astrophysical Observatory. (k) Annual Report of American Historical Association, (1) Classified List of Smithsonian Publications Available for Distribution, 1924.

(m) Annual Report of National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. (n) Special publications.




The commission advises upon the location of statutes, fountains, and monuments in the public places of the District of Columbia; upon the selection of models for such structures erected under federal authority, as well as in the selection of artists for their execution ; upon the plans and designs for public structures and parks in the District of Columbia. It also advises upon all questions of art with which the federal government is concerned, as in regard to medals, insignia, and coins, and upon general questions of art whenever requested so to do by the President or any congressional committee. 2. History

The Commission of Fine Arts was created in 1910,1 by an act of Congress imposing the duty to advise upon the location of statutes, fountains, and monuinents and upon the selection of models and artists, but exempting the building of the Library of Congress and the Capitol building from the provisions of the act. The officer charged by law with the duty of determining the location and selection of models and artists is also charged with the duty of seeking the commission's advice.

The President, by executive order of October 25, 1910, directed that "plans for no public building to be erected in the District of Columbia for the general government shall be hereafter finally approved by the officer duly authorized until after such officer shall have submitted the plans to the Commission of Fine Arts

for its comment and advice.” On February 2, 1912, the President directed the commission to advise the officer in charge of public buildings and grounds in regard to the improvement of any of the grounds in Washington under his charge whenever such officer asks such advice. Advice is now uniformly sought.

On November 28, 1913, the President issued the following executive order; "It is hereby ordered that whenever new structures are to be erected in the District of Columbia under the direction of the federal government which affect in any important way the appearance of the city, or whenever questions involving matters of art and with which the federal government is concerned are to be determined, final action shall not be taken until such plans and questions have been submitted to the Commission of Fine Arts designated under the Act of Congress of May 17, 1910, for comment and advice.”

On July 28, 1921, the President issued the following executive order: “It is hereby ordered that essential matters relating to the design of medals, insignia, and coins produced by the executive departments, also the design of statutes, fountains, and monuments, and all important plans for parks and all public buildings, constructed by the executive departments or the District of Columbia, which in any



1 Act May 17, 1910 (36 Stat. 371 (Comp. St. 88 3367, 3368]).

essential way affect the appearance of the city of Washington, or the District of Columbia, shall be submitted to the Commission of Fine Arts for advice as to the merits of such designs before the executive officer having charge of the same shall approve thereof."

In order that the development of the District of Columbia may proceed harmoniously both under federal and district jurisdictions, the President has requested the Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia to consult the Commission of Fine Arts on matters of art falling under their jurisdiction and control.

3. Organization

The organization of the commission, which, by the organic act, was to be composed of "seven well-qualified judges in the fine arts," appointed by the Pr ent for a period of four years, is as follows:

(1) Chairman.
(2) Vice Chairman.
(3) Five other members.

(4) Secretary and Executive Officer, whose office is in the Interior Department Building.


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