« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
of aerological and weather report service, the federal regulation of air navigation, and the development of aviation generally for military and civil purposes.
(i) The Committee has established an office of aeronautical intelligence, serving as the depository and distribution agency of the scientific and technical data on aeronautics collected by the Committee from governmental and private agencies here and abroad. It maintains an office in Paris to collect and exchange scientific and technical aeronautical data in France, England, Italy, Germany, Holland, and Belgium.
(j) The Committee conducts scientific research and experiment at Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, at Langley Field, Va. 3. Organization
The Committee's membership consists of a representative each of the Smithsonian Institute, the United States Weather Bureau, and the Bureau of Standards of the Department of Commerce; two officers each of the Army and the Navy; and five persons acquainted with the needs of aeronautical science or skilled in aeronautical engineering or its allied sciences. The members as such serve without compensation. The Committee is organized as follows:
(6) Assistant Secretary and Special Disbursing Agent. Its executive office is in the Navy Department Building. Communications should be addressed there for the Secretary.
1 Act March 3, 1915 (38 Stat. 930 [Comp. St. $ 3115i]). THORPE DEPT.PRAC.-47
NATIONAL HOME FOR DISABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS
The object of this establishment, on the Board of Managers of which the President of the United States, the Secretary of War, and the Chief Justice of the United States are members, is to provide for the care and relief of “honorably discharged officers, soldiers, sailors, or marines who served in the regular, volunteer, or other forces of the United States, or in the Organized Militia or National Guard when called into federal service, and who are disabled by disease or wounds and have no adequate means of support, and by reason of such disability are either temporarily or permanently incapacitated from earning a living."
The Home originally was a "National Military and Naval Asylum," created in 1865, the incorporators being Gen. U. S. Grant, Admiral Farragut, other distinguished generals, admirals, cabinet officers, the Chief Justice, and distinguished citizens. It was reorganized in 1866, under the name of "National Asylum for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers," by an act of Congress, providing that the President of the United States, the Secretary of War, the Chief Justice of the United States, and "such other persons as may from time to time be associated with them,” should constitute a board of managers. In 1873. the word “Home” was substituted in the name for the word "Asylum." 3
The organic act authorized the Board of Managers to receive gifts or donations.* Land appraised at approximately $2,000,000 has been so received. It was also provided that stoppages or fines adjudged by courts-martial or military commissions, forfeitures on account of desertion, and unclaimed moneys due deceased officers and soldiers should be appropriated for the support of the Home, but that provision was changed in 1875, when Congress assumed the financing by annual appropriations.5
Under the provision that pension money payable to pensioners, members of the Home, should be paid to the treasurers of the Home to be disbursed for the benefit of the pensioners, approximately $100,000,000 has been disbursed.
Under the provision for federal aid to states maintaining homes for disabled veterans," many millions have also been disbursed.
1 Act March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 509). 2 Act March 21, 1866 (14 Stat. 10). 3 Act Jan. 23, 1873 (17 Stat. 417). 4 R. S. § 4831 (Comp. St. $ 9256). 5 Act March 3, 1875 (18 Stat. 359). 6 Act Feb. 26, 1881 (21 Stat. 350), and Act Aug. 7, 1882 (22 Stat. 322 (Comp. St. 8 9266]). 7 Act Aug. 27, 1888 (25 Stat. 450 [Comp. St. $ 9288]).
The General Treasurer is required to give bond in not less than $100,000.8 All departments of the Home are inspected annually by an officer of the Inspector General's Department of the Army.8
During the World War a part of the establishment was transferred temporarily to the management of the Army Medical Department for the use of the National Army.
(a) Under various acts of Congress branches of the Home have been established as follows:
(1) Eastern, at Togus, Me., opened in 1866; average membership, nearly 2,000.
(2) Central, originally located at Columbus, Ohio, but removed to Dayton the same year, was opened in 1867; average membership, about 2,000, before the World War. Since the war has a tuberculosis plant.
(3) Northwestern, at Milwaukee, Wis., opened in 1867; average membership, about 1,700 before the World War. Now has a large tuberculosis plant.
(4) Southern, at Hampton, Va., opened in 1867; average membership, before the World War, about 2,000. Since then has established a large neuropsychiatric section.
(5) Western, at Leavenworth, Kan., opened in 1885; average membership, about 2,000.
(6) Pacific, near Santa Monica, Cal., opened in 1888; average membership, before the World War, about 2,000. Since then has added a large tuberculosis plant.
(7) "The Marion," near Marion, Ind., opened in 1890; average membership, before the World War, about 2,000. Since then it has been changed to a neuropsychiatric sanitarium.
(8) “The Danville,” near Danville, Ill., opened in 1898; average membership, about 2,000.
(9) "The Mountain," near Johnson City, Tenn., opened in 1903; average membership, about 2,000, before the World War. Since then has been converted to a tuberculosis sanitarium.
(10) The Battle Mountain Sanitarium, at Hot Springs, S. D., was opened in 1907; average membership, about 2,000.
(b) At each branch,' quarters similar to army barracks are provided, with certain modifications to meet conditions of advanced age, etc. There is also an ample hospital, equal in efficiency and equipment to the first-class hospital anywhere. There are also special plants for tuberculosis and neuropsychiatric sanitariums, as indicated under (a) supra. With complete church facilities, for Protestant and Catholic persuasions, library, theater, amusement hall, band, laundry and cleaning plant, and "post" stores, every need of the veteran is solicitously provided for.
8 Act Aug. 18, 1894 (28 Stat. 412 [Comp. St. $ 9247]). 9 Act Nov. 7, 1918 (40 Stat. 1042 [Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1919, 88 9291a-9291c]).
(c) The benefits of the Home are available to classes as stated under “Mission," supra; such benefits having been extended by various acts of Congress 10
(d) The government of the Home is under Laws and Regulations, as established or revised from time to time. While inmates are subject to the Articles of War in the same manner as soldiers of the Army, 11 the regulations thereunder are adapted to the conditions of a "Home," rather than to the severity of active military life. 4. Organization
(a) The Board of Managers, consisting of the President, the Secretary of War, and the Chief Justice, ex officio, and seven members, has been changed many times by Congress,12 The members are elected by joint resolution of the
(6) Inspector General.
10 Resolution No. 45 of Feb. 28, 1871 (16 Stat. 599 (Comp. St. $ 9260]); Act Jan. 23, 1873 (17 Stat. 417); Act May 26, 1900 (31 Stat. 217); Act Jan. 28, 1901 (31 Stat. 745); Act May 27, 1908 (35 Stat. 372); Act March 4, 1909 (35 Stat. 1012); Act March 3, 1915 (38 Stat. 850).
11 R. S. § 4824 (Comp. St. $ 9230). 12 R. S. § 4827 (Comp. St. $ 9241).
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 1. Mission
The mission of the Federal Trade Commission in general is to prevent unfair methods of competition in commerce and to collect and publish facts as to economic phases of domestic industry and foreign trade, as will appear more fully under "Activities," post. 2. History
The Federal Trade Commission is a logical evolution of the principle of federal control, to which the government committed itself in establishing the Interstate Commerce Commission in reference to public utility corporations. The first step in that direction was the enactment of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890,1 denouncing as criminal "every contract, combination in the form of trust, or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states."
In 1898 the Industrial Commission had been created, and its investigation, , lasting until 1902, into “questions pertaining to immigration, to labor, to agriculture, to manufacturing and to business," included the “trust problem." Greater publicity in the operation of corporations was recommended. In 1903 the Bureau of Corporations was established, to give effect to the Industrial Commission's recommendations.
The bureau's creation recognized the principle of regulation, instead of prohibition. Its investigations of such large industries as the Standard Oil Company, the Tobacco Industry, and the International Harvester Company aided the Attorney General in prosecuting under the Sherman Act.
As the Sherman Act did not define the terms used in the statute, to indicate precisely what conduct was condemned, and since all contracts in restraint of trade are not reprehensible or inimical to the public good, the Supreme Court in a measure supplied such deficiencies in the decision in the Standard Oil Case, announcing that the common-law rule of reason should guide the judiciary in determining whether or not a particular contract or combination was in restraint
1 Act July 2, 1890 (26 Stat. 209 [Comp. St. § 8820 et seq.]). 2 Act Feb. 14, 1903, § 6, (32 Stat. 827).
3 Standard Oil Co. v. U. S., 221 U. S. 1, 31 S. Ct. 502, 55 L. Ed. 619, 34 L. R. A. (N. S.) 834, Ann. Cas. 1912D, 734. See, also, American Tobacco Co. v. U. S., 221 U. S. 106, 31 S. Ct. 632, 55 L. Ed. 663; U. S., v. Trans-Missouri Freight Association, 166 U. S. 290, 17 S. Ct. 540, 41 L. Ed. 1007; U. S. v. Joint Traffic Association, 171 U. S. 505, 19 S. Ct. 25, 43 L. Ed. 259; Addyston Pipe & Steel Co. v. U. S., 175 U. S. 211, 20 S. Ct. 96, 44 L. Ed. 136; Nash v. U. S., 229 U. S. 373, 33 S. Ct. 780, 57 L. Ed. 1232; Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Co. v. U. S., 226 U. S. 20, 33 S. Ct. 9, 57 L. Ed. 107; Northern Securities Co. v. U. S., 193 U. S. 197, 24 S. Ct. 436, 48 L. Ed. 679; U. S. v. Reading Co., 226 U. S. 324, 33 S. Ct. 90, 57 L. Ed. 243; Cincinnati Packet Co. v. Bay, 200 U. S. 179, 26 S. Ct. 208, 50 L. Ed. 428; U. S. v. Winslow, 227 U. S. 202, 33 S. Ct. 253, 57 L. Ed. 481; Taft, The Anti-Trust Act and the Supreme Court.