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standard of qualification for such personnel; but they shall in any case apply to all personnel whose licenses remain valid five years after the date of adoption of such standard.

PART II. THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER VII. THE ORGANIZATION

ARTICLE 43. NAME AND COMPOSITION

An organization to be named the International Civil Aviation Organization is formed by the Convention. It is made up of an Assembly, a Council, and such other bodies as may be necessary.

ARTICLE 44. OBJECTIVES

The aims and objectives of the Organization are to develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation and to foster the planning and development of international air transport so as to:

(a) Insure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world;

(b) Encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes;

(c) Encourage the development of airways, airports, and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation;

(d) Meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe, regular, efficient and economical air transport;

(e) Prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition;

(f) Insure that the rights of contracting States are fully respected and that every contracting State has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines;

(g) Avoid discrimination between contracting States;
(h) Promote safety of flight in international air navigation;

(i) Promote generally the development of all aspects of international civil aeronautics,

ARTICLE 45. PERMANENT SEAT The permanent seat of the Organization shall be at such place as shall be determined at the final meeting of the Interim Assembly of the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization set up by the Interim Agreement on International Civil Aviation signed at Chicago on December 7, 1944. The seat may be temporarily transferred elsewhere by decision of the Council.

ARTICLE 46. FIRST MEETING OF ASSEMBLY

The first meeting of the Assembly shall be summoned by the Interim Council of the above-mentioned Provisional Organization as soon as the Convention has come into force, to meet at a time and place to be decided by the Interim Council.

ARTICLE 47. LEGAL CAPACITY

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The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each contracting State such legal capacity as may be necessary for the performance of its functions. Full juridical personality shall be granted wherever compatible with the constitution and laws of the State concerned.

CHAPTER VIII. THE ASSEMBLY

ARTICLE 48. MEETINGS OF ASSEMBLY AND VOTING

(a) The Assembly shall meet annually and shall be convened by the Council at a suitable time and place. Extraordinary meetings of the Assembly may be held at any time upon the call of the Council or at the request of any ten contracting States addressed to the Secretary General.

(b) All contracting States shall have an equal right to be represented at the il meetings of the Assembly and each contracting State shall be entitled to one * vote. Delegates representing contracting. States may be assisted by technical

advisers who may participate in the meetings but shall have no vote.

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A CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION,

CHICAGO, ILL., DECEMBER 7, 1944

FEBRUARY 20, 23, MARCH 6, 9, 19, 20, 23, AND 26, 1945

Printed for the use of the Committee on Foreign Relations

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COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

TOM CONNALLY, Texas, Chairman WALTER F. GEORGE, Georgia

HIRAM JOHNSON, California ROBERT F. WAGNER, New York

ARTHUR CAPPER, Kansas ELBERT D. THOMAS, Utah

ROBERT M. LA FOLLETTE, JR., Wisconsin JAMES E. MURRAY, Montana

ARTHUR H. VANDENBERG, Michigan CLAUDE PEPPER, Florida

WALLACE H. WHITE, JR., Maine THEODORE FRANCIS GREEN, Rhode Island HENRIK SHIPSTEAD, Minnesota ALBEN W. BARKLEY, Kentucky

WARREN R. AUSTIN, Vermont JOSEPH F. GUFFEY, Pennsylvania

STYLES BRIDGES, New Hampshire
CARTER GLASS, Virginia

ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin
JAMES M. TUNNELL, Delaware
CARL A. HATCH, New Mexico
LISTER HILL, Alabama
SCOTT W. LUCAS, Illinois

ROBERT V. SHIRLEY, Clerk
MARION N. HUFF, Assistant Clerk
EMMETT M. O'GRADY, Assistant Clerk

CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION

TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 20, 1945

UNITED STATES SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS,

Washington, D. C. The committee met at 9:30 a. m., pursuant to call, in the committee room in the Capitol, Senator Walter F. George presiding.

Present: Senators George (presiding), Pepper, Green, Lucas, Guffey, Tunnell, La Follette, Vandenberg, White, Shipstead, Wiley, Bridges, and Austin.

Also present: Senators Bailey and Brewster.

Also present: Dean Acheson, Assistant Secretary of State; Stokeley W. Morgan, Chief, Aviation Division, Office of Transportation and Communications, State Department; and L. Welch Pogue, Chairman, Civil Aeronautics Board.

The committee had under consideration a proposed convention on international civil aviation.

(Executive A, 79th Cong., 1st sess.

MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, TRANSMITTING A

CERTIFIED COPY OF A CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION, CONCLUDED AT THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION CONFERENCE AT CHICAGO ON DECEMBER 7, 1944, AND SIGNED IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE BY THE RESPECTIVE PLENIPOTENTIARIES OF THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE PHILIPPINE COMMONWEALTH, AND CERTAIN OTHER COUNTRIES

THE WHITE HOUSE, March 12, 1945. To the Senate of the United States:

With a view to receiving the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification, I transmit herewith a certified copy of a convention on international civil aviation, concluded at the International Civil Aviation Conference at Chicago on December 7, 1944, and signed in the English language by the respective Plenipotentiaries of the Governments of the United States of America, the Philippine Commonwealth, and certain other countries, as explained more fully in the report by the Acting Secretary of State, which report i transmit herewith for the information of the Senate,

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT. (Enclosures: (1) Report of the Acting Secretary of State; (2) convention on international civil aviation (certified copy).

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

Washington, March 5, 1945, The PRESIDENT,

The White House: The undersigned, the Acting Secretray of State, has the honor to lay before the President, with a view to its transmission to the Senate to receive the advice and consent of that body to ratification, if his judgment approve thereof, a certified copy of a convention on international civil aviation, concluded at the International Civil Aviation Conference at Chicago on December 7, 1944, and signed as of that date, in the English language, by the respective Plenipotentiaries of the Governments of the United States of America, the Philippine Commonwealth,

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