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In addition to this, we beg our readers to observe, that here again a private and uncontrouled correspondence with Europe is the real object of Buonaparte's intrigues and calumnies.
Why, he asks, ' subject so innocent a correspondence as an order to his bookseller to the inspection of the governor?' Why, we reply, complain of the governor's seeing a correspondence which must be of so innocent and indifferent a nature? Of all communications which can possibly be imagined, an order to a bookseller must of necessity be the least confidential; but if an unrestricted and unnecessary permission were to be granted, how long does any one believe that it would be confined to an order for books?
In the same spirit Buonaparte offers to bear the expenses of his own establishment, provided he is allowed an unrestricted correspondence with his banker; and he complains grievously that not only is he deprived of a free communication with persons dear to his heart, (dear to his heart!) but even bis letters to his bankers must be read. Upon this Lord Bathurst observes—
'I do not deny that in a corưespondence between friends the necessity. of sending letters open is a most severe restriction, because it is impos. sible to consign to paper the warm effusions of the heart, under the consciousness that it will be subject to the cold eye of an inspector. But this surely does not apply to a correspondence with a Banker. Who has ever heard of an affectionate draft on a banking-house, or a tender order for the sale of stock?'
But there is one yet more important observation to be made on this point; namely, that Buonaparte is willing to pay twenty thousand pounds a year, (such is the expense he offers to defray,) for permission to correspond secretly with his banker. There cannot be, we think, a more decisive proof of his anxiety to carry this point, and of the absolute necessity of resisting in every shape in which this imperial Proteus may propose it.
Our readers will not be surprized to find that even the attentions which are shewn to this man are warped by the falsebood and malignity with which he surrounds himself, into grounds of complaint and calumny. A remarkable instance of this species of ingratitude we shall give in Lord Bathurst's words:
• It is stated that Sir H. Lowe permitted letters written by General Buonaparte or his followers to be read by subaltern officers on the island.' This was not true-Sir Hudson Lowe had exercised the trust reposed in him with the utmost delicacy: and when any letters were transmitted through his hands had never permitted any individual, however confidential, to see them, whether they were addressed to individuals at home or at St. Helena. . It is difficult to know on what such general charges are founded, but the following occurrence is the only one which I can conceive to have any reference to it: when Napoleon and his suite were first sent out to St. Helena, from the haste in which the ships sailed, they were left in want of many necessaries, such as linen and other articles of that kind. It was judged that great inconvenience might be felt if they were obliged to wait till they could send to this country for them, and accordingly a considerable quantity. of such articles were sent out in anticipation of their wants. It so happened, that about the time when these articles arrived, Las Cases wrote a letter to Europe, which of course came under the inspection of Sir Hudson Lowe, who found that it contained an order for some of those very articles which had been sent out. Sir Hudson Lowe then wrote to Las Cases to inform him that he had those articles which he had ordered, and which were much at his service, and observed, that it would not perhaps be necessary to send the letter, or that he might now omit that order. Las Cases returned an answer full of reproaches to Sir Hudson Lowe, for his presumption in reading a letter directed to a lady, and for offering him articles out of a common stock, when he knew that he had been solely supported by the Emperor. Thus was Sir Hudson Lowe treated for his endeavours to accommodate these intractable people, and such was the only foundation for this part of the charge.'
The temporary residence in Mr. Balcombe's cottage is complained of as being ni propre ni commode,' neither clean nor convenient; but it is omitted that this was a residence chosen by Buonaparte himself, and that he insisted on living there in preference to the best house in Janies Town, which Sir G. Cockburn had prepared for him.
The permanent residence appointed for him at Longwood is next abused. It is too hot, and too cold, and too dry, and too damp; it is too wild and open by vature, and too much narrowed and restricted by the governor's precautions. But why is it so cautiously concealed that the choice of this situation was made with the most delicate regard to Buonaparte's wishes, and that he himself at first concurred in the selection? The great plain (of whose wildness, aridity, and want of shelter he now complains) was its principal recommendation, because it was the only part of the island in which exercise on horseback or in a carriage (which Buonaparte represented as necessary to his health) could be conveniently had, and Sir G. Cockburn, on a representation from Buonaparte to this effect, not only fixed him at Longwood, but provided him with horses and a carriage to take the air. If he had been placed in one of the shady dingles of the island, we should have heard violent complaints, that by cutting him off from his favourite and necessary exercise, we were endeavouring to shorten his life.
Nay, indeed, he does say, that for the not permitting him to range over the whole island, there can be but one motive, namely, * to prevent his enjoying that exercise, the privation of which must, in the opinion of medical men, shorten the life of the Emperor.'
Here again the truth breaks out through the misrepresentation, and it is evident, that nothing will satisfy him but the uncontrouled liberty of ranging the whole island, and the consequent facilities of intrigue, and perhaps of escape.
He complains of the climate of Longwood in terms so inconsistent that he refutes himself-our readers will have already seen by the extract from Governor Beatson's work,* that it is the most favourable temperature of the whole island, and it appears from the Meteorological Journals, which were accurately kept in the years 1812 and 1813, and which are quoted by Major Barnes, that the medium heat at James-town was 74, and that at Longwood only 66, (p. 123,) which is nearer the mean temperature of Marseilles than any other place we have been able to find in atmospherical tables now before us. And Major Barnes further states, that Longwood is undoubtedly one of the most healthy parts of St. Helena, (p. 35,) a climate which is unquestionably one of the most temperate and salubrious in the universe.-(p. 121.)
We shall conclude upon this point, by quoting the account of the choosing of Buonaparte's residence by Major Barnes.
'On the fifteenth day of October, 1815, arrived in James's Bay, Hiş Majesty's ship Northumberland, bearing the flag of Rear Admiral Sir George Cockburn, K. C. B. having on board General Napoleon Buonaparte and his suite, consisting of Marshal and Countess Bertrand and three children, General and Countess Montholon and child, General Gourgaud, Count las Cases and his son, and eight servants.
The Icarus brig of war, which arrived a few days before, announced his approach, and one of the best houses in the town was prepared to receive him; on the evening of the seventeenth, after sunset, he landed, and was conducted to his quarters, and the next morning early, accompanied by the admiral and General Bertrand, rode into the country to see the place destined for his future residence.
• Long Wood House, the official country-seat of the lieutenant-governor, was selected for this purpose, being in every respect the most eligible situation on the island : Buonaparte, it was said, did not seem to think so, but this happening to be a minor consideration, had no effect on the determination of government. On their return Sir George took Napoleon to the Briars, the residence of William Balcombe, Esq. a small but pleasant estate about a mile and a half from town; with this place he was much pleased, and particularly requested he might be permitted to remain at it until Long Wood was ready for his accommodation ; his wish was complied with, and apartments were immediately prepared for himself, Las Cases, senior and junior, and a few attendants, which they occupied nearly eight weeks.
During this period the most indefatigable exertions were made by Sir George Cockburn, to improve and enlarge the premises at Long
* ART. VII, No. xxvii,
Wood; and it is almost incredible with what rapidity a spacious and comfortable house was erected; residences were also as quickly provided for the persons of his establishment, and at the expiration of two months the whole party were removed to their respective abodes.
“The boundary which limits Buonaparte's excursions is a circle round Long Wood, twelve miles in circumference: nearly the whole is level ground, well adapted for exercise on foot, in a carriage, or on horseback'-p. 174–7.
In return for all this supererogative kindness, Sir G. Cockburn and Sir Hudson Lowe are told that their conduct has been guided by a rancorous design against the life of the person whom they were labouring to oblige!
Buonaparte next finds that the house at Longwood is only a barn, unfit to be inhabited; but he adds, every new building would prolong the inconvenience of the presence of workmen.-(p.59.)
We reply, that if his wayward Majesty will neither be content. with the accommodation which satisfied the Lieutenant-Governor of the island, nor yet permit alterations to be made, we have no pity for bim; but it appears that here again there are concealment and misrepresentation. The house, it is well known, though not regularly built, was agreeable and commodious even when inhabited by the Lieutenant-Governor ; when it was hired for Buonaparte, all the means which the island or the squadron afforded, were employed, as we have seen, by Sir G. Cockburn in enlarging and rendering it, as far as could be, satisfactory to Buonaparte, and Lord Bathurst distinctly stated that, at first, he was satisfied: but when he found that Longwood, in addition to its being the best countryhouse on the island, (except the Governor's,) and to its having a space for walking, riding, or driving, had the further advantages of of being easily watched, and of being difficult of access from the coast, he suddenly altered his favourable opinion of the place. The Governor's house then became the great object of his desire, not merely because he might be there less securely guarded, but because it was the Governor's; the same imperious spirit which induced him to attempt to usurp Sir George Cockburn's cabin in the Northumberland, makes him long for the Plantation House; because it is the residence of the first man in the island ; and though he complains of the heat of Longwood, and that Plantation House is of a higher mean temperature by four or five degrees, he makes serious complaints that from residing at this house he was expressly restricted.
Upon all this, we have a very different complaint to allegewe think that too much attention has been paid to Buonaparte's whims in several particulars. His opinion should not have been asked as to his residence; no expense should have been incurred in enlarging 114
and beautifying a house which had been considered as sufficient for a British officer; and above all, he should not have had an offer, which it seems Sir Hudson Lowe made, to erect a house for him in any other part of the island which he should prefer. Anxious that the whole of this case should be fully understood, we shall, at the risk of being prolix, quote Lord Bathurst's account of these transactions.
• It was now said, that the residence pitched upon for General Buonaparte was unpleasant and unwholesome. I can only say, that this was not the general account of that place. It had formerly been the House of the Lieutenant-Governor, and it was not usual for Lieutenant-Governors to choose the most unpleasant and unwholesome spots. Neither had this been the former opinion of General Buonaparte himself. When the General had first been sent there, it was left to the discretion of Sir G. Cockburn to fix on a residence for him, with only one exception, namely, the house of the Governor. That choice was to be directed by a view to the safe custody, and as far as was con, sistent with that, by the consideration due to his comfort. Soon after his landing, General Buonaparte rode out with Sir George Cockburn, till he reached Longwood, with which, at first sight, he was so much captivated, that he wished to remain there, and not to go back to the town. He was told that it would be impossible so soon to remove the Lieutenant-Governor's family. He then wished a tent to be erected; which it was also represented would much incommode the LieutenantGovernor, but he was assured that the occupants should be removed as soon as possible. As they returned they came to a house prettily situated, which belonged to Mr. Balcombe, near which a detached room had been built. General Buonaparte expressed a wish to occupy that room, and after Sir G. Cockburn had in vain endeavoured to dissuade him from it, he took up his abode there for the time. It was but two days after, however, that his attendants complained of this harsh usage; as they termed it, in placing the Emperor in a single room. This was the manner in which the compliance of Sir G. Cockburn was received. So
many alterations were made at Longwood, that General Buonaparte remained in that room two months. Constant improvements or alterations suggested by himself or his suite delayed his removal; for the fact was, that he was unwilling to remove from Mr. Balcombe's
, on account of the facility of communication with the town. During his residence there, he was circumscribed to a small garden, beyond which he never moved without a guard; he did not, however, at that time, make any complaint; but he now, for the first time, complained of restrictions on his liberty, when he was allowed to range within a circuit of eight miles, if he pleased, unattended. When the prisoners were first sent to St. Helena, orders were given to send out a frame for the purpose of constructing a house for General Buonaparte. When the mate. rials arrived, Sir H. Lowe wrote to the General, whether he would like to have a new house erected, or additions made to the old one. He ree ceived no answer; in two or three weeks he went to the General to en: