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A NEW BOOK
TWO FOR ONE.
WE HAVE NOW READY A NEW BOOK OF CHOIR AND SINGING SCHOOL MUSIC,
Sacred and Secular Music for Singing Schools, Choirs, Musical Associations, and Conventions,
Dr. LOWELL MASON and WILLIAM MASON.
Dr. MASON's last similar work, published in 1854, reached the enormous sale, in its first year, of over 54,000 copies, which is, we are confident, the largest sale ever enjoyed, in its first season, by any Church Music Book by a single author. The work now in press will embrace nearly all new matter, culled with great care from numerous sources, such as, it is believed, will be of the highest interest to Choirs and Singing Schools. Its Singing School Department is more extensive and complete than in any previous work, being, indeed, a complete work in itself, and forming an extensive collection of Secular Music, the words, as well as music to which, are nearly all quite new.
RETAIL PRICE, ONE DOLLAR.
WE PUBLISH, ALSO,
THE NEW YORK MUSICAL REVIEW AND WORLD.
A FORTNIGHTLY JOURNAL OF 16 QUARTO PAGES,
Including 4 Pages of Choice Music in each number, with 12 Pages of Reading Matter, including frequent articles from the leading musicians of the country, with all the Musical News, &c., &c.
In view of the present hard times, and with the purpose of obtaining a wide circulation for Specimen Copies of Dr. MASON's new work, we are induced to make the following
Viz: To every one sending us, before 1st November, ONE DOLLAR, (the price of Subscription to the REVIEW,) we will furnish the paper for a year, and also, as soon as issued, a copy of Dr. MASON's new work above announced; thus giving two dollars' worth for one. These desiring the book sent by mail, must inclose twenty-four cents, to pay postage, in advance.
5 & 7 MERCER/ STREET, NEW YORK.
(Being the union of these two long-established and well-known Musical Journals,)
Each number containing sixteen quarto pages, including four pages of new music. THE RE-
From both hemispheres will be posted up with care and diligence. Especially we mean to keep our readers informed of every thing musical that is happening in America, and our pages will present a record of the concerts, conventions, festivals, societies, and other musical doings, all over the land. In doing this, we shall be much aided by
In our own and foreign countries, who will take care to omit nothing of interest which may occur in their different sections.
THE REVIEW AND WORLD aims to be impartial and just, yet appreciative. It aims to do justice to its readers, as well as to composers, authors, artists, and manufacturers.
Short practical essays on the various topics of interest which may arise will find place in
It will be hereafter, as it has been heretofore, the aim of THE REVIEW AND WORLD to be of practical value to its readers. Dr. LOWELL MASON, Messrs. GEO. F. ROOT, WM. B. BRADBURY, and other of the leading teachers in the country, have, from time to time, given in its columns Courses of Instruction in the various departments of music. Similar series of lessons will be given in the future.
Of a select character, mostly founded on musical history, are translated from the French or
Each number contains four pages of choice music, consisting of Songs, Duets, Trios, Quartets, Part Songs, Anthems, Sentences, Motets, Sabbath Evening Melodies, together with a small proportion of such instrumental music as it is supposed will be likely to be of interest and value to the largest number of our subscribers.
Is hardly of less interest to musical readers than the other matter. Here may be found the earliest and fullest announcements of new music, books, instruments, and other matters of which it is important that they should be advised.
Every teacher of music, every one whose business is in any way connected with music, very lover of music, is interested in extending the circulation of the REVIEW AND WORLD.
MONEY for subscriptions, in sums not exceeding five dollars, may be sent by mail, at our risk, provided it is inclosed in the presence of the post master, and he takes a memorandum of the number and description of the bills.Subscriptions may commence with any number, but none will be received for less than a year.-Be sure to write the name very plainly, and give the name of the post office, county and State.-Subscribers desiring to have their post-office address changed, must always give the name of the town to which their paper has been hitherto sent. The postage on THE REVIEW AND WORLD is thirteen cents per annum, payable quarterly in advance at the office where it is received; if within the State, the postage is one half that amount. Subscribers in Canada will remit twenty-six cents in addition to their subscriptions, as we have to pre-pay to the line, at the New York office, one cent on each number. Agents are desired to extend the circulation of THE REVIEW AND WORLD in every town.
THE MUSICAL REVIEW AND WORLD, as well as all our musical publications, may be obtained in Boston, Mass., of CROSBY, NICHOLS, LEE & Co., 117 Washington street, who are authorized to receive subscriptions for us.
Mr. JOHN BOWER, 1514 George street, Philadelphia, is our agent for that city.
Schumann, while at the university in Leipzig, made some serious attempts at studying jurisprudence, but, of course, without any satisfactory result. Most of his time was spent at the piano-forte or in the friendly circles of some fellow-students, who, like him, indulged in poetical visions about the world and mankind in general, and were wrapt up in Jean Paul and his muse. The influence of this writer upon the young German mind was at that time still in its full force; it can be safely said that, about forty years ago, there was not a young man living in Germany who did not view every thing in him and about him through the agency of Jean Paul's writings; Schumann made no exception to this
Wherever it goes, it increases the interest in musical matters, and benefits the cause generally. rule, as is amply proved in his letters to friends, written at that time. It
well-known pianoforte teacher, who also instructed Schumann, and under whose guidance his playing became more methodical and thorough. In Wieck's house he met, of course, his daughter Clara, then nineteen years old, who, more than any body else, should become the guiding star of his life.
Among his fellow-students there were some who, like him, were more addicted to music than to their college studies. These were: Julius Knorr, the well-known piano-forte teacher, and author of a great many works of instruction, whose death we recently noticed; Taglichsbeck, now musical director in Brandenburg, and Glock, Mayor in Ostheim. These students met once a week in Schumann's room, where they discussed music and all topics referring to it. At this time Schumann played mostly music by Schubert, for whom he felt the same enthusiasm as for Jean Paul, and whose death occurring just then (November 19, 1828), filled him with tears.
After having obtained, in the person of another fellow-student, Mr. Soergel, who, years ago, went to Texas, and has never been heard of since, a viola-player, the most varied works of chamber-music, by Beethoven, Schubert, Prince Louis Ferdinand, and others, were performed in these reunions. In the intervals between the performances, a general conversation and discussion took place, mostly on Bach's music, whose welltempered clavichord was never missing on Schuman's piano, and for whose music he felt the deepest interest. It is a matter of course that his attempts at composition were continued, but jurisprudence was sadly neglected, while philosophy found more grace in his eyes, and the writings by Fichte, Kant, and Schelling were frequently applied to.
That this course of studies was not changed or altered, when, in spring, 1829, he went to Heidelberg, can be imagined, although the distinguished author of the "Purity of Tone Art," Thibaut, was professor of jurisprudence in this lovely city. It can even be said that music took still a greater hold upon him than ever, for even in his excursions to the beautiful sights around Heidelberg, he never forgot to take with him, in his little buggy, his dumb key-board, upon which he practised, while enjoying the charming sceneries. It must be confessed, that Schumann studied music in a somewhat round-about and also expensive way; for, as soon as the college vacations took place, he went to Italy, to study the world and music, but by no means relinquishing his studentship of jurisprudence. It was after his return from Italy, that he composed the variations on the tones a, b, e, g, g, in memory of his acquaintance with a beautiful young lady, Metta Abegg, beloved by one of his friends. These variations were published in 1831 as opus 1. He also composed the Toccata in D, which underwent, however, a good many alteratious before it was published.
As might have been foreseen, the time came when Schumann had to decide himself either for the musical or the law profession. That his decision was in favor of the former, we need not say, and thus, one fine morning, he took courage to write a long letter to his mother, in which he explained the uselessness of his further attendance at law-lectures in Heidelberg, his deep-felt enthusiasm for music, and the opinions of his friends, and even of Thibaut himself, that he ought to give up jurisprudence, and apply himself exclusively to the study of music. "My whole life," he said, in this letter, "was a twenty years' struggle between poetry and prose, or, call it music and jus.!" He further entreated her to write to his former master, Wieck, in Leipzig, asking his opinion upon the step her son was going to take. The mother did so, and, as the reply of Mr. Wieck was favorable, and even hinted at a brilliant career, as a musician, of her son, Robert threw up jurisprudence forever and embraced, henceforth, musica as his whole and only profession.
When he returned to Leipzig, he took his lodgings in Wieck's house, and resumed the lessons under his former master. Unfortunately (at least for his career as a pianist), he was anxious to hasten the progress of technics, and, unknown to his teacher and friends, tried, by some mechanical means, to strengthen the third finger (German fingering) of his right hand. These strange proceedings became fatal to him; he lost, at first, the use of his finger, and, later, even that of the whole hand. But, if his prospects as a pianist were suddenly forever closed, his energy to distinguish himself as a composer was so much more roused,
and, for the first time, he commenced some theoretical studies, under Mr. Kupsch, which, however, were soon given up again.
In 1831, he composed a work, which was later published as opus 2, consisting in twelve pieces of different lengths some of which were already written in Heidelberg, and which he called "Papillons." In the finale of this work he made use of the melodies, known in Germany under the name of "Grandfather's Dance," to which he has often returned in his later works. He further wrote the first part of a sonata in G minor, which was later published as opus 8, under the general title of Allegro. Schumann wrote, with regard to this latter composition, to his friend Henrietta Voigt, that its author was better than his work, and worse than the lady to whom it was dedicated.
More and more forced to admit, that, without a thorough knowledge of harmony and counterpoint, every attempt at composition, even by the most talented men, must be a failure, Schumann, at last, addressed himself to the well-known artist Heinrich Dorn, at that time conductor of the orchestra of the Leipzig Theater, and now in the same capacity in Berlin, begging him to instruct him in that science, of which, in fact, he knew then as good as nothing. Dorn acquiesced in his desire, and Schumann became a patient and industrious pupil, who, in a short time, made rapid progress.
It was at this time Chopin produced such deep sensation with his fantasia on “Don Giovanni" Schumann met, in this work, with some of his own aspirations, and, deeply attracted by its originality and beauty, he wrote an article on the subject, in which, for the first time, he evinced his critical as well as his literary powers. This article was published in the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, the same which, two years later, had to compete with his own musical journal, and, at last, to succumb to it.
Very much strengthened and improved by the instruction he received from Dorn, he wrote, in 1832, several compositions, some of which have been published. These are the transcription of six caprices for the violin, by Paganini, and Intermezzi por il Piano-forte. The caprices give proof of the artistic conceptions of Schumann, and are of great importance to the pianist.
(To be continued.)
The Musical Review & Musical World.
NEW YORK, OCTOBER 26, 1861.
IN remitting for the MUSICAL REVIEW and a copy of " ASAPH," as in accordance with our "Liberal Offer," our Canadian friends will remember that it is necessary for them to add twenty-six cents, for the postage on the MUSICAL REVIEW for one year, which we must pre-pay. From those in Canada, therefore, who desire "Asaph" sent by mail and the MUSICAL REVIEW, a remittance of $1 50 is necessary; fifty cents of which we have to pay out in postage.
MUSIC IN NEW YORK.
ACADEMY OF MUSIC-"UN BALLO IN MASCHERA."-Thus, once more, we beheld the charining spectacle of an Opera performance. We use intentionally the word spectacle; for who would deny that there is much more to see than to hear at our Academy? Thus, once more, we enjoyed the sight of that vast and fashionable crowd, which used to congregate at the Academy in happier tines than ours, eager to see and to be seen, and which had no small share in the comedie humaine, as represented by New York society. Who would have thought, when seeing this display of beauty, luxury, and brilliancy-the costly dresses, the diamonds of the ladies, the latest fashions in their most gorgeous styles, the smiling faces, the merry, although subdued, laugh of the girls when
something "very funny" was whispered to them by their young and "elegant" attendants, the satisfaction which beamed in the faces of the mothers, and the perfect unconcern with which the fathers listened to the "inspiring music" of Signor Verdi-who would have thought that a fierce war is raging in the land, upon the result of which hangs the fate of this great and glorious nation. We tried in vain to notice a difference in the physiognomies of the audience, they were mostly the same people of last season, even the familiar and always smiling face of the flower-girl was not missing; and, in spite of the "hard times," the one, two, and three dollar bouquets found the usual number of admirers and purchasers. What we missed, were a few members of that vast body of men and also women, commonly called dead-heads, who used to anticipate the criticisms which the next day appeared in the journals. Perhaps they are "on duty" in Washington, just as the wearers of uniforms present on this occasion were evidently "off duty."
The same familiarity of faces and manners we met on the stage. There was the good old chorus again, doing what age and habit can do. There was our friend Brignoli, as jolly and indifferent as ever, phrasing as badly as ever, and feeling as much satisfied with himself as ever. Again, there was Miss Hinckley, the charming page of last year, of whom it can be justly said, she has learned nothing and forgotten nothing. Only Miss Kellogg was different from what she used to be; and, alas! for human inconsistency, we often, during the evening, wished her to be as she appeared at her debut last year. No doubt, she sang better, she evinced more control over her powers, more of the artist, but also, she strained her voice two or three times quite unnecessarily, and acted, by far, too much. We are afraid this gifted young lady is, in some things, badly advised, most probably by people of so-called stageexperience, who think the public can be captivated by tricks and artificial devices. Let her rely upon her own self, upon her own genius, with which she is undoubtedly gifted, and she will not disappoint the expectations entertained by her friends and admirers. That this can also be said of the new baritone, Signor Mancusi, is rather doubtful; for nature gave him, evidently, very little, his voice being neither baritone nor bass, and, we are sorry to say, art added less to it. The man, while singing, makes upon us the impression as if he could not clear his throat of the last meal he took, and, as satisfactory as this, on some occasions, may be to himself, it is by no means pleasant to those who have to witness this somewhat novel process of digestion.
The following official account of the inventory which was found at Mozart's death is of such deep interest not only to the historian but to every intelligent observer, may he be musician or not, and is at the same time so suggestive of reflections upon that artist, the time when, and the circumstances under which he lived, that we cannot refrain fron reproducing it in full.
Cash money with which the funeral and other expenses were paid....$30 00
3 silver spoons.....
About thirteen dollars for books and music! And what books and what music were found in the library of the celebrated master! However, as unsatisfactory as the list of books may appear, it is by far not as insignificant as that of the musical works he left. The whole list does not comprise more than 32 pieces, some by Michael Haydn, a few by Gluck, and less by Mozart himself. How different from our modern authors, in whose libraries the best bound volumes contain mostly their own works. But it is true, they have to take care of them, while in Mozart's case, this task is left to the whole world.
ADDRESS ON MUSIC.
DELIVERED AT DURHAM, CONN.,
BY PROF. W. C. FOWLER.
YOUR attention is respectfully requested to some remarks upon the cultivation of Music, as the means of mental and moral improvement, and of individual and social happiness.
That Great Being who formed the tongue, "the wonder of our frame," to declare his praise, and the ear to perceive vocal and articulate sounds, likewise formed the heart to be impressed by the sounds conveyed into the listening ear. In the mysterious correspondence between the sensibilities of our bodies and those of our minds, he has so formed our frame that when the heart feels any strong affections, the tones of the voice express them. These tones being received into the ear of another awaken in his heart the same affections. At the hour of midnight let the shriek of agony strike upon the startled ear, and some portion of the agony of the sufferer is by that shriek conveyed into the heart of the listener. Or let the notes of some gay serenaders awaken us from our slumbers, and we catch from the music a portion of their joyousness.
Music is the combination of sounds which are agreeable to the ear. When the sounds are successive, it is called melody; when the sounds are co-existing, it is called harmony. Even when the tones are separate from words, they can call forth appropriate affections of the heart of the listener; as when along the lines of battle the stirring notes of the clarion arouse to martial deeds; or as in revelry by night when the viol animates the dance; or as when the mellow notes of the flute diffuse through the soul a bewitching melancholy; or as when in some solemn temple the breathing organ sends forth the full power of harmony, raising the soul in rapturous adoration to the author of our being. Such is the power of instrumental music, that "displays something like persua
sive eloquence without ideas, and holds a kind of conversation without words."
A fine instrumental symphony well performed is like an oration delivered with propriety in an unknown tongue. We are alarmed or melted or soothed; but it is very imperfectly, because we hardly know why. "The singer by taking up the same air, and applying words to it, translates the oration into our own language, so that all uncertainty vanishes, the fancy is filled with determinate ideas, and the heart with determinate emotions." After we have once heard the words, they are afterwards easily associated with the air; so that when the latter is played on instruments, we can easily supply the former from our recollections.
Thus adapted to express those sentiments which are related to our emotional nature, music when "married to immortal verse "must have a permanent as well as a powerful effect on individuals and communities. Accordingly the nations who have sought for the highest civilization, have bestowed the greatest attention upon the cultivation of music. It made a part of the education of the Greeks in their search after wisdom. From the observation of their wise men they learned that its tendency is to harmonize the mind, soften the temper, and dispose it to all the duties of public and private life. Tribes among them like the Arcadians who cultivated music became refined and gentle, while those like the Boeotians who neglected music were coarse, and stupid, and gross. In the Elysium of the Grecian mythology, the muses are represented as surrounding the throne of Jupiter warbling hymns to the listening immortal. The lyre of Apollo was said to sway by its magic chords not only gods and men, but even the fiercest of the brute creation, the lion and the eagle.
"Perched on the sceptered hand of Jove,
Thy magic lulls the feathered king, Quenched in dark clouds of slumber lie
The terror of his beak, the lightning of his eye."
But leaving fable and coming to the records of history, what was it among the Athenians which fired their love of liberty? The song of Harmodius. Why did not the flame of liberty blaze upon Roman soil after the death of Julius Cæsar? It was the want of some ballad like the Athenian, which Bishop Lowth says would have been more effectual than the Philippics of Cicero. What was it that saved the Spartans from defeat or a vassalage? The patriotic songs of Tyræus. What was it that for a long time prevented Edward, the ambitious English king, from subjugating Wales? The songs of the Welsh bards who animated their country to resistance, until the ruthless king by their slaughter hushed the voice of song. What was it that awakened the frenzy of revolution in France? The Marseilles Hymn. And from the army of the first Napoleon, what was it that caused the Swiss soldiers to desert by regiments? The simple but soul-subduing song of Rans de Vaches. So great was the influence of this national air that Napoleon was obliged to prohibit it, lest it should produce home-sickness and an uncontrollable desire to revisit their native mountains where they had so often heard it. What kindles up the flame of patriotism in a Briton's heart? God save the King; or, Ye Mariners of England. And what shall restore to life the dying patriotisin of the thirty-three States of our National Union? Will "Hail Columbia" do it, or "Yankee Doodle," or the "Star-Spangled Banner?" Or does the resuscitation demand a more powerful charm without finding it? Will the States ever again keep step to the "Music of the Union," which once was grand, harmonious, far-sounding like the music of the spheres?
Without looking any further abroad, every one can easily believe from his own experience, that there is not an emotion of which the human heart is susceptible that cannot be lured by it from its lurking place. The tear glittering in the eye, the sigh heaving the bosom, the joy illuminating the face, and quickening the step, the smile of complacency, the flush of indignation come at its bidding.
As it is thus the province of music to move the affections, so when associated with the truths of religion it is its province to move the affections in holy obedience towards the objects disclosed by those truths. Music, like all the fine arts, is ennobled and elevated by its association with religion. As poetry, painting, sculpture, and architecture show
What is thus dictated by the universal sentiment of human nature is sanctioned by the God of Israel, for no sooner had that nation escaped from the house of bondage to a great encainpment on the Red Sea, than they raised their voices in hymns of praise to that gracious Being who had guided them by the pillar of cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night. Music ever after made a part of their worship, though it was not until the reign of David that it received its highest cultivation. That monarch, endowed with peculiar talents for music, consecrated the harp, which was associated with all the bright scenes of his youth, and with his hours of relaxation after he had ascended the throne, to the God of Israel, giving with it a melody to the hymns which he had com posed for the services of the sanctuary.
When he brought up the ark from the house of Obededom, he appointed choristers to instruct their choirs and unite with the Levites who played on psalters, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, in praising God, Sometime after this event he made a new arrangement of his musicians by dividing them into twenty-four classes, who were instructed in the songs of the Lord, by ASAPI, HEMON, and JEDUTHON. Towards the close of his reign he made a great addition to this band of musicians, by appointing 4,000 Levites. They all stood near the tabernacle and praised the Lord, morning and evening, under the direction of the choristers. "Then rose the choral hymn of praise,
And trump and timbrel answered keen,
Under the new dispensation, there is no less importance attached to music as a part of divine worship, as is evident from the example of our Saviour at His last interview with His disciples, when they sang & hymn from the direct exhortation of the apostle, "be not drunk with wine, but be ye filled with the Spirit speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns, and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your hearts to the Lord," as if, independently of the duty of praising God, music furnished a better means of exhilaration than the wine cup. We have historical evidence from the letter of Pliny to the Emperor Trajan, that the early Christians were accustomed, in their meetings, to sing hymns to Christ as a God, and their music attracted many of the heathens into their assemblies, and this proved the reason of their con version to Christianity; just as in our own times, many attend church to hear good music, and find there the truth in its sanctifying power, thus finding God though they sought him not. Into the soul touched and softened by music the Spirit enters to dwell there.
Men's minds were made discordant by the fall; their speech, which had been one, was confounded on the plain of Shinar, and made diverse;
"All was not lost, for love one tie had twined,
And weary wanderer to his father's throne:
The love of music and the power of producing it are well nigh universal. I know there are those who do not feel any interest in music, and who could hardly tell Yankee Doodle from Old Hundred. But of such Shakspeare speaks with some severity, when he says:
"The man that has not music in himself,
In concluding these remarks, allow me to urge upon the young! cultivation of music, either instrumental or vocal or both.
Learning how to sing improves the voice. Why is it that one man's voice is smooth, melodious, and strong, and another's harsh, dissonant, or it may be feeble? It may indeed be partly owing to a difference in