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post for, 265; pots for, 265 : propagation
by, 276, 287 ; leaves on, 277 ; soil and pots
for, 278; principles applied to, 278; water-

ing, 288; in rooms, 327
Cryptomeria japonica, soil for, 123: culture,

340
Cyclamen seed, 284
Cyclamens, 302: in borders, 192: persicum,

228 : planting, 358
Cypripediums, list of, 310: Lowii, 310
Cyrtopodium culture, 267
Cytisus, culture, 166 : racemosus, 259
Dahlias, sportive, 23 ; lists of, 28; storing

roots, 29, 32, 112; wintering, 54; tubers
ripening, 57 ; late in autumn, 74; list of
fancy, 112; cutting down, 151 ; cuttings,
336 : hybridizing, 228; propagating, 254,

280
Dairying, 240
Date-stones, 260
Datura culture, 36, 359
Death watch, 305
December calendars, 124
Delphinum, two species of, 175
Dendrobium, shoots planting, 160; speciosum,

324
Dermestes tomentosus, 229
Dial of flowers, 161
Digging per day, 204
Diosma culture, 167
Disbudding, 319
Ditula angustiorana, 81
Diurnea novembris, 57
Dogs, indicative of weather, 105
Dolichos lignosus, shifting, 104
Dorcus parallelipipedus, 105
Drainage of fruit-tree borders, 82; of gardens,

113
Draining, 299
Drains, indicative of weather, 105
Drills, new modes of making, 178
Ducks, 294, 351; feeding, 51; indicative of

weather, 105; slug destroyers, 122; pro-

portion to drakes, 122
Dung, management of fresh, 55; promoting

decay of, 358
Dwarfing, its effect, 3
EARLY crops, 238
Earwigs, catching, 36
East wina, its effects, 125
Eccremocarpus longiflorus, 327
Eddies of air, indicating weather, 137
Egg-plant, 259
Eggs shell-less, 328
Elater segetis and striatus, 93
Elder tree, its uses, 34
Endive, sheltering, 33, 46; blanching, 81
Epacris culture, 167, 309; cuttings, 328
Epidendrum rhizophorum, 200
Epimedium pinnatum, 35
Epiphany, 181
Epiphyllum truncatum, 186
Eranthemum pulchellum, 198
Erica, elegantissima, 156
Eucomis undulata, 12
Euphorbia Jacquiniæflora, 187
Evening primroses, 262, 344
Evergreens, treatment of large, 41 ; pruning,

165
FALLOWING, 170
Feathers for the poor, 174
February calendar, 248
Fernery in shaded garden, 160
Ferns in a bottle, 123: manure for, 123
Fieldfares early arriving, 137
Fig-tree over-luxuriant, 23: borders for, 36 :

forcing, 263 : in pots, 263
Fires brightly burning, 137
Firs, cutting tops off, 228
Fish gambling, 137
Flax, 354
Fleur de luce, 359
Flora's clock, 161
Florists' flowers, 188, 200, 225
Flower-bed, arranging, 82: supporter (Hamil-

ton's), 91 : succession of, 123: trenching,
222 : digging, 232: arranging, 303: geo-

metrical, 332
Flower-pots, their size and drainage, 138 :

their form and substance, 150
Flowers, naming seedling, 179 : soil for, 334 :

for bed, 358
Fluxweed, 242
Forcing early, 72: failure in, 272
Forcing-house forming, 204
Forest pruning, 192
Forest-tree sowing, 82
Forsythia viridissima, 328
Fowls' dung, its use, 24
Fowls, lime necessary for, 172: Cochin-China

breed, 172, 299, 301; diseases of, 173, 179 :

Guinea, 173: (game) 293 : eggs for hatch-

ing, 294
Franciscea hydrangeeformis, 359
French marigold cuttings, 254
Frame for plant protecting, 179
Frost, its penetrating power, 15
Frosted plants, 142
Fruit garden, stocking, 247
Fruit gathering, 15: storing, 16
Fruit-trees, failing, 55: for Australia, 124 : soil

for, 152: removing old, 178 : arrangement
of, 183: cleaning, 307 ; newly-planted, 307 :

for S.E. wall, 316
Fuchsias, wintering, 5, 12, 24, 35, 68, 123 :

seed and cuttings, 67, 135 : seed sowing, 35:
cut down too early, 104: raised from
leaves, 136: for bedding, 159: light-co-
loured, 122, 246 : in beds, 254: gracilis and
carolina, 254: culture, 167: generally, 255 :
soil, manure, propagating, 256 : Lists of,

272 : bear shade, 284: pruning, 284
Fuchsia corymbiflora, 327, 340: wintering, 55:

grafting, 328
Fuchsia fulgens, 296, 358
Fumigating, 54
Fungi, edible, 247
Furze sowing, 328
GALLUS PENDACTULUS, 50
Garden plan, 68
Gardeners' Magazine of Botany, 207, 261
Gas, heating by, 191
Geese, 239, 294, 351; feeding, 51
Gentiana, sowing Swiss, 103
Geometra cervinaria and clavaria, 37
Geraniums, wintering (scarlet), 4, 23, 24, 55,

68, 77; cuttings crowded, 23; cuttings win-
tering, 24, 36, 68 ; scarlet, in beds, 35; list
of scented-leaved, 68; moving in-doors, 76 ;
scarlet, list of, 85, 96; pruning, 92, cut
down, 104 ; bores for, 104; late blooming,
127 ; golden chain, 148; stored, 315; left
in beds, 327 ; yellow, 328, 330 ; white, 344;

scarlet, 359
Germination, influence of water on, 58; of

seed, 161
Gesnera, Douglasii and Zebrina, culture, 104,

289; elongata, 290
Gesnerias, wintering, 12
Ghost moth, 181
Gladioli, planting, 7; late flowering, 55; win-

ter treatment, 82; in pots, 92; sowing,

125; in wrong soil, 272
Gladiolus insignis, culture, 180; gandavensis,

328
Glass, rough for greenhouse, 36, 136
Globe amaranthe, 346
Gloxinias, wintering, 12.
Glycine sinensis, 184; diseased, 68
Goat-keeping, 314
Goat moth, 137
Goldfussia anisophylla, 198
Gompholobium culture, 166
Gooseberries, good kinds, 227 ; pruning, 247;

cuttings, 303 ; planting, 35; bushes, pro-
tecting, 159; trees, purchasing, 121 ; cater-

pillar, to destroy, 357
Grafting, 307
Grape (royal muscadine), 284
Grass, sowing, 107; for hay, 114; under

trees, 24 ; sowing, 148, 292; garden, 159 ;

seed for lawn, 160 ; breaking-up, 292
Green crops, 349
Green-fly, to banish, 215
Greenhouse, plants returning to, 8; erecting,

23; heating, 23, 82, 123, 100, 216, 247, 340,
355 ; formed from peach-house, 35; creep,
ers, 68; and cow-house combined, 91; and
stove combined, 94; room adjoining, 104 ;
plants, seed sowing, 136; leaky, 159, 192;
against dwelling, 179; covering, 222; over
kitchen, 192; heated by kitchen, 203; plan
for, 204; management, 265; facing north,
316; plants, planting out large, 358; plants

for cold, 358
Groundsel, 296
Gryllotalpa vulgaris, 205
Guano, 259
Guernsey lilies, soil for, 12; offset, 92 ; cul-

ture, 204
HAMBURGI Fowls, 238
Ham, to cure, 174
Half-hardy plants, propagating, 253
Hatching, 350, 353
Hawthornden apple, 67
Hawthorn berry, sowing, 82
Headaches, 205
Heating by gas, 104
Heating greenhouse, &c., 247, 266
Heaths, potting, 35; culture, 167
Hedging, 171
Hellebores, 175

Heliotrope, wintering, 08; in autumn, 74 ;

cuttings, 216
Hemerocallis japonica, 284
Hens miscarrying, 283
Hepialus humuli, 181
Herb, Robert, 295
Hepatica (double blue), 328
Herbaceous plant culture, 167
Hive, Taylor's amateur, 204
Hoar frost, 158
Hollyhock, cuttings, 67 ; list of, 213
Honeysuckle, pruning, 136; budding, 347
Hops, 283 ; propagating, 68
Horn-shavings, 123
Horse-chesnut, to destroy its bitterness, 24
Horse-radish, planting, 33, 112 ; culture, 236,

242
Horses starting, 249
Hot water pipes, 272; joints of, 272
Hotbeds, making small, 146; preparing dung,

163 ; building and earthing, 164; of leaves,

103 ; for cuttings, 247
Hot water apparatus, 313
Hora carnosa flagging, 272; unhealthy, 284
Huntleya violacea, 199; meleagris, 199
Hyacinths, in pots, 67 ; small bulbs of, 68 ;

mouldy, 91; planting, 17; in moss, 228;
offsets, 259, 272, 263, 315 ; rotting, 260 ;
retarding, 316
Hydrangea, 203 ; forcing, 247 ; pruning, 247,

328
Hylotoma rosse, 249
Hylurgus piniperda, 329
Hypoxis stellata, 259
INDIAN Corn not profitable, 67; culture, 135
Indian rubber plant, 359
Ink for zinc labels, 272
Insects, foretelling weather, 149
Isotoma axillaris, 74
Italian Ray Grass, 159
Ivy, on timber, 259; torn down, 283; a

teacher, 119; berries, 204
Ixia seedlings, 82; sowing, 92, 125; viridi-

folia, 328; age of seeds, 148 ; offsets, 192
Ixoras, culture, history, and list of, 346, 347
JACKDAws clamoring, 249
Japan lilies, soil for, 12
Jasminum sambae, 350
Jennings' tube cocks, 67
Jerusalem artichokes turning black, 272 ;

culture, 78
Jessamine, training, 103 ; budding, 247
Jonquils, planting, 7, 67, 261
Justicia speciosa, 198
KALMIA LATIFOLIA, 82
Kidney beans, storing, 33; runners to winter,
54 ; sowing, 324 ; forcing 144, 262, 291

en garden, 200
Kites as weather guides, 261; soaring high,

273
Kohl rabbi, seed, saving, 160 ; culture, 316
LABELLING, importance of, 233
Labels, making, 200; for plants, 262; of

zinc, 359
Lancifolium culture, 55
Lantana crocea, wintering, 56
Larks soaring high, 273
Larkspurs, 175
Laurel hedge, moving, 192
Laurentia cervinaria, 37
Lawns dressing, 253; improving coarse, 316
Leat cutter bee, 217
Leaves, collecting, 6 ; cleaning, 19, 131 ; pre-

serving, 104 ; fall of, 119; on cuttings, 277 ;

for hotbed, 272 ; effect of gases on, 271
Leech, weather-wise, 285
Lechenaultia, formosa, 35; cuttings, 136;

culture, 167, 234
Leonotis leonurus culture, 105
Lettuces, mildewed, to cure, 132 ; (Malta),

12 ; culture, 225, 293
Light and germination, 206
Light for cuttings, &c., 328
Liliums, list of, 103
Lilium japonicum not flowering, 36; spe.

ciosum sowing, 303
Lilies, time of blooming, 305
Lily of the valley, removing, 136, 328
Lime and salt for potatoes, 192
Lime-tree, its uses, 90
Lime, super-phosphate of, 284, 303
Lined weevil, 101
Lineæ, 354
Loam-making, 204
Lobellia gracilis, erinus and ramosa, 321
Locust tree, 260
Loddiges, notices of the, 207
Lalia superbiens, 323
Lophosphermum cuttings, 82
Love-lies-bleeding culture, 321
Lisianthus Russellianus, 328

Lithospermum Hendersonii pruning, 36
Little matters, 333
Liquid manure, applied under-ground, 12;

modes of using, 35, 200, 303
Lucanus parallelipipedus, 105
Lucerne, 349
Luculia gratissima culture, 340
Lupine culture, 320
Lupinus Hartwegii, 84
Lychnis cæli-rosea, 203,
MAGNOLIA PURPUREA, moving, 14; layer-

ing, 359
Mallow moth (large), 37
Mandevilla suaveolens, 36, 358
Manettia bicolor, 198
Mangold wurtzel, 350 ; for seed, 104
Manures, to manage, 171
Manuring, 349
March dust and May sun, 305
Marigolds before rain, 317
Martagon, 91
Martin (yellow-breasted), 229
Martynia fragrans, sowing, 56 ; in borders,

117
Mathiola odoratissima, 12
Maurandya Barclayana, pruning, 36
Meadow rue, 175
Megachile centuncularis, 217
Mellilot clovers, 304
Melons, heat for, &c., 258; forcing, 331, 337:

culture, 348
Mesembryanthemum tricolor, 308 ; glabrum,

308
Mice to baffle, 191; destroying, 132, 227
Mignonette (tree) culture, 135, 303
Mildew, 254
Mild seasons, their consequences, 165
Milk indicative of weather, 93
Milkwort, 353
Mimulus tricolor, 35
Mint forcing, 214
Mistletoe on apple-trees, 302; to supply seed

of, 303; culture, 192, 229
Mole cricket, 205
Monkshood, 175
Moor hen, its habits, 145
Moon indicative of weather, 341
Mormodes Lentiginosa, 35
Mulberry-tree, root pruning, 12
Mulching, why useful, 305, 307
Mushroom culture, 33; beds, to make, 46,

144, 158, 189, 281, 348; too dry, 124 ; in
stable, 179; caused by salt, 337
Mustard, 242
My flowers, 11
Myrtle failing, 55
Nails, preparing, 95
Narcissi, planting, 7, 18
Narrow-winged, Red-bar moth, 81
Nectarine, root-pruning, 83 ; unpruined, 284
Nierembergia, 315
Neja gracilis, 84
Nemophylla insignis sowing, 35, 255
Netting for walls, 260
Night blooming stock, culture, 12
Nightmare, 217
Night-soil, 300; when too rich, 310
Nigger grub, 149
Noctua exoleta, 25
November Dagger moth, 57
Notylia bicolor culture, 143
Nut-tree suckers, 160
OAK, remarks on, 133
October weather, 1
Enothera, 344
Oleander buds, dropping, 14; cuttings, 55 ;

culture, 250
Old-fashioned plants, 345
Onions, sowing, 292 : tree, 298 : potato, 92;

culture, 169, 226 : transplanting, 22 :

ground for, 315
Orange-trees frozen, 284
Oranges, soil for, 272
Orchidaceae, culture, 9, 20 ; house for, 31;

October culture, 20; potting, 20 ; treat-
ment of fresh imported, 41; logs and soil
for, 45 ; British, list of and culture, 49;
orchid house, heating, shelves, &c., 64;
cistern in, 77: syringing, 77 : shading, 77:
November calendar, 78 : pots for, baskets
for, 87, 111 : peat for, 99 : for pot and
basket culture, 100 : for greenhouse, 104 :
orchids, blocks, for, 130 : moving from,
131 : December calendar, 131 : terrestrial,
144 : list of winter-blooming, 156 : ex-
hibited, 155 : amount of heat, air, and
moisture required, 168 : list of hardy,
169 : orchids giving air to, 224 : syringing
and dipping, 199 : winter blooming, 2003
culture, moisture, in, 187: leaf cleaning,
235; steaming and shading, 235: creepers

with, 236 : orchid-house, moisture of air,
212: orchid-culture, 256, 267, 279, 323, 310,
335 : resting, 257 : list of cheap, 272 :

calendar, March, 290
Orchises, time for moving, 251
Orchis seed, 192
Orobanche, 249 : minor and caerulea, 342
Otiorchynchus sulcatus, 125
Our village walks, 22, 33, 62, 66, 79, 90, 102,

119, 133, 145, 158, 176, 189, 201, 214, 226,

243, 258, 269, 281, 295, 312, 354
Oxalis tricolor, 234
Oxalises, various, 259
Oxygen necessary for germination, 192 : ab-

sorbed by sced, 218 : by soils 330,
Paint, not hurtful to flowers, 123; a cheap,

247
Pansy, planting, 88; list of new, 101, 215 ;

seedlings in pots, 35; under shrubs, 259
Paper-maker's refuse, 136
Parsley sowing, 348
Parsnips, 349; preserving, 46; cankered, 92;

sowing, 292; parasite, 249
Passion flowers, for south wall, 124
Passiflora, culture for dessert, 342 ; edulis or

incarnata, quadrangularis, 342, 343 ; cæ-

rulea, 342; training, 356
Pea beetle, 13
Peach, forcing, 73, 297, 319; root pruning,

83 : not bearing, 103: blossom screening,

247: house heating, 204 : unpruned, 284
Pea-fowl cramped, 340
Pear, root pruning, 27; over vigorous, 82 ;

pruning, 106, 220, 223, 284 ; barren, 148; two
good ones, 227 : tree training, 260; blos.

som grub, 261; unfruitful, 284, 328
Peas, 350 ; time of growth, 2; winter sowing,

24; sticking, 104; Grimstone's Egyptian,
122 ; sowing, tall, 312 ; sowing, 200, 227, 228,
230, 269, 292, 324 ; history of green, 193 ;
list of 194; early 259; varieties, 257;
select lists of, 274 ; sheltering, 281; Bur-

bidge's Eclipse, 302; culture, 337
Peat for potting, 36
Pelargoniums, in Australia, 124 : standard,

182, 1: shifting, 192
Penstemons, 344, 359
Periwinkle, 204
Persian iris, planting, 7: not blooming, 12,

192
Petunia, seedlings, 12: in autumn, 85: heat

for, 267 : cuttings, 358
Phaius, watering, 235
Phalænopsis amabile, culture, 122: watering,

290
Phlox culture, 232, 344
Physic garden, 52, 118, 174, 241, 325, 353
Physurus argentea culture, 257
Picotee, wintering, 21 : yellow, list of, 225 :

spot on, 257
Pieris Brassicæ, 1
Pig-keeping, 48, 49, 114, 117
Pig-styes, fumigating, 23
Pigs, their sagacity, 174; their diseases, 174;

and the wind, 217: fattening, 299
Pine apple, culture (Hamiltonian), 59, 92,

195: not fruiting, 103: Prince Albert, 156:
sowing, 228 : emitting roots, 260 : forcing,
263 : for market, 272 : reporting, 286: soil

for, 286 : in vinery, 358
Pink, 354 : after frost, 257: planting, 78
Pits, heating, 12, 82, 218 : plants near glass

in, 12, 36: of turf, &c., 154
Plant, cause of growing upwards, 218
Planting, rules for, 40, 82, 95
Planting season, 3
Platform planting, 192
Plough Monday, 181
Ploughing, depth of, 123
Plum, root pruning, 83 : over luxuriant, 91 :

trec pruning, 106, 316 : planting, 35 : un-
pruned, 284 : Chapman's Prince of Wales,

326
Plumbago Larpentæ, 75, 228, 303 : wintering,

56
Plunging materials, 135
Pædisca angustiorana, 81, 252
Pæony, tubers dividing, 82
Poinsettia pulcherrima, 186
Polyanthus, wintering, 7: culture, 268 : lists

of, 336
Polydrusus oblongus, 261
Polygaleæ, 353
Pomace, as a manure, 179
Pomegranate culture, 67
Pontia Brassicæ, i
Pork curing, 116
Porpuses, indicating weather, 93
Portulaca culture, 321
Potato planting, 36, 65, 71, 104, 269, 298, 303,

327 : golden rules for, 72: storing, 79 :

manuring for, 91: autumn planting, 129 :
culture, 135 : sets, 136 ; sprouted, 179, 247:
forcing, 291, 312; planting eyes, 300 :
earthing up, 302, 317 : cottage culture, 312 :
disease, 313: in frames, 337 : meaning of

early, 340
Pot plants, liquid manure for, 260
Pot Pourri, to make, 134
Poultry-keeper's calendar, 50, 172, 114, 238,

293, 350
Poultry keeping, 50 : setting hens, 50, cocks

and hens, relative number, 50: Dorking
breed, 50, 114: cramming, 50 : capons, 51:
indicating rain, 71 : Spanish, 115 : feeding,
117, 147 : bald, 192 : enclosure, 228 : los-
ing feathers, 246 : Cochin-China, size of,
283 : with diseased eyes, 284 : prices, 315 :

rearing, hatching, &c., slipping eggs, 359
Primrose, cuttings of China, 284
Primula Sinensis, sowing, 328
Prince's feather culture, 321
Principles of gardening, 2
Privet, moving large, 36
Propagating plants, 264
Protecting, plants, &c., 141, 154
Protection for kitchen vegetables, 169
Pruning, 90: orchard trees, 106: espaliers

and dwarfs, 274: wall trees, 275: trees,

302 : its principles, 209
Pumpkins, 204
QUICK PLANTING, 204
Quincunx order, 327
RABBIT keeping, 315, 353 ; dung, 339
Radishes in frames, 169; sowing, 225, 258,

337; culture, 236
Rain, average fall of, 13; its constituents, 59
Ranunculus, beds for, 45; sowing 82 ; various

species, 176; culture, 236, 272 ; list of, 236
Ranunculaceae, their medical qualities, 174
Rape cake as a manure, 136
Raspberry culture, 160 ; suckers, 327
Raspberry-stalk beetle, 229
Ravens soaring high, 273
Redbreast, its habits, 158
Refuse, vegetable, 227
Renanthera coccinea culture, 131
Rendle's catalogue, 182
Rhodanthe Manglesii, 308; sowing, 55
Rhododendron, its history, 11 ; seed of scar-

let, 68; not flowering, 103; moving, 194 ;

in clay soil, 272
Rhubarb forcing, 102; removing, 104 ; forcing

in beds, 123; planting, 11; dressing, 132;
roots, &c., exporting, 200; in open ground,

312
Ridging, best mode of, 92, 113
Roofs, angle of, 92
Rooks, 355 ; their habits, 243
Roots, in cold soil, 25; pruning, 26, 83 ;

storing, 47; grubbing up, 258; deeply
buried, 153; propagating from, 154; why
grow downwards, 206; increase of, 230;
travel for food, 230 ; their excretions, 330 ;

oxygen, beneficial to, 330
Rose, quickly blooming, 12: Manetti, 36 :

China wintering, 36 : selection of, 68 : bud-
ding, 82: classifying, 82: not flowering, 103 :
Cloth of gold, 103: pegging down, 104 :
stocks worm-eaten, 123 : on north aspect,
123: for trellis, 124: pruning transplanted,
stocks, moving, 147: pruning budded, 148:
yellow Banksian, 148, 159: list of new, 157 :
groups of, 180: Harrisonii, 180 : Banksian,
not blooming, 159, 160 ; cuttings, 204 :
pruning, 204, 209, 338: for arbour, 191:
Queen of the Prairies, 192: from seed, 192:
protecting and pruning, 221, 228 ; yellow
Persian, 288: for pillar, 260 : grub-eaten,
260: list of, 272: converting standard to.

299 : budded in hedgerow, 303 :
Rose beetle, 341
Rose fly, 21
Roup in poultry, 328
Salts atfecting germination, 58; and lime as

a manure, 82, 157, 281; to bulbs, 284
Salvias, wintering, 5; not flowering, 23
Salvia fulgens, patens, chamadryoides, and

prunelloides, 84; splendens, 129 ; fulgens

and gesneræflora culture, 130
Sand, 24
Sanvitalia Procumbens, 74
Saponaria Calabrica, 74
Scarabæus auratus, 341
Scotch fir, picturesque, 145
Scotch pine bark beetle, 329
Scuticaria Steelii culture, 143
Scurvy grass, 242
Saucers, porous, 104
Sea-kale, beds dressing, 22; forcing, 76, 82,

102 ; moving, 82, 104; bleaching, 123, 136;
ful, 160; Hautbois culture, 160; British

Queen culture, 23; forcing, 38
Stove plant seed, 136
Suckers, to prevent, 62
Succulent weevil, 125
Succulents, their culture, 167
Sulphuric acid on dung, 221
Sulphur fumigation, 360
Swallows, latest appearance, 136
Swede storing, 47
Swedes for seed, 104
Sweeping of flues, 82
Sweet Alyssum, 345
Sweet pea sowing, 288, 321
Sword grass moth, 25
Switzer, Stephen, 182
Synchronisms of nature, 26, 37
Syringe budding, 247
Syringing, 266
TACSONIA PINNATISTIPULA, 359
Tagetes tenuifolia, 74 ; fragrans, 74
Tan for heating, 302
Tanner's bark as a manure, 82, 160
Taps, water tight, 67
Tares, after barley, 136
Tea of herbs, 270
Tenthredro Cerasi, 71
Thalictrum flavum, 175
Thermometer registering, 179
Thomas (St.), 192
Thunbergias, in window, 24
Thrips, to destroy, 284
Tigridia pavonia culture, 135
Tillandsia splendens, 156; stricta culture, 160
Tinea Novembris, 57
Tinea mellonella, 193
Tobacco fumigation, 301
Tomatos, 359
Tortrix Angustiorana, 81
Training, horizontal and fan, 219
Tree seeds for exportation, 124
Trees, order of leating, 37; newly planted, 140
Trenching, 113
Trigridias, ripening their bulbs, 38
Tritoma culture, 68
Tropæolum azureum culture, 36
Tropaeolum tricolorum treatment, 104; tu.

berosum, 328
Tropæolum lobbianum, 260
Truffles, 230
Tulips, planting, 7, 21, 78; list of early, 17 ;

arrangement of, 36; protecting, 290 ; beds

to ornament, 244
Turf, under trees, 24; laying, 108
Turkeys, 239, 349 ; feeding, 51; fatting, 115
Turnip saw fly, 149
Turnips, 349; sprouts, 112
Tutsan, 295
Tying-up plants, 260
Typographer bark beetle, 329
VANDA TERES, culture; tricolour, culture, 155
Verbenas, wintering, 24; in their bed, 55 ;

cuttings, 32, 210, 254; bedding out, 75;

WOODCUTS.

over-

284 ;

forcing, 158, 177, 214; culture, 280, 321 ;

cutting, 359
Sea-weed, as a manure, 147
Seeds, temperature for germinating, 2; their

speed of growth, 2; heat they endure, 3 ;
packing, 58; papers, 163; raising shrubs
from, 166 ; germinating in light, 206 ;

bearing decreased tubers, 231 ; buying, 237
Selandria Ethiops, 71
Semasia Wæberana, 285
Senecio, or American groundsel, 344
Shalot culture, 338
Shanking of grapes, 82
Shelters for orchards, 107
Shreds, preparing, 95
Shrubs, for a damp place, 12: moving large,

14 ; newly planted, 140
Shrubbery, dressing and pruning, 165
Sisyrinchium Bermudianum, naturalized, 23,54
Sitona tibialis and lineata, 161
Slater (The), 303
Slimy grub, 71
Blipper-worts, 42
Sloping banks, 213
Slug mixture, 315; to destroy, 348
Snap-dragon, or antirrhinum, 344
Sobralia macrantha culture, 335
Soils, their texture, 3; their temperature, 14;

improving sandy, 36; improving light, 82;
improvement of texture, 171; peat and sand

to improve, 171
Soiling, 348, 349
Solanum jasminoides on wall, 260
Soot as a pea protector, 216; water, to make,

244, 315
Sour krout making, 160
Sowing, influence of depth upon, 162; sugges-

tions for, 218; depths, 316
Spading in, 145
Sparrows, to frighten, 216
Spinach, 293 ; turning yellow, 91
Spiranthes autumnalis, 54
Sprekelia formosissima culture, 123
Spruce, 358
Squash, Ohio, 203
Squirrels, their habits, 281
Stag beetle, 105
Standard shrubs, mode of raising, 61
Staphylea pinnata, 82
Statice latifolia, 328
Stations for fruit-trees, 151, 315
Steaming, 266
Store-house, cold, 81
Swcdes, for seed, 104
Stove for greenhouse, 35; consequences of,

247: heating by, 247; for conservatory, 358
Stove-plant seed sowing, 136
Stove plants, bottom heat for, 327, 346
Stock, sowing, 104
Strawberry moving, 136; forcing, 138, 306 ;

temperature for, 267 ; unfruitful, 192, 284;
blooming unseasonably, 91; kinds for forc-
ing, 139; Elton pine, failing, 148; unfruit-

temperature for, 267 ; pulchella, 344 ; cut-

tings, 358
Vegetable marrow, 359
Vegetable refuse, i92
Veronicas, New Zealand, 342
Violaceæ, 325
Violets, culture, 109; Russian, 110; double,

Tree and Neapolitan, 110, 303, 340
Virgin's bower, 196
Vinery, fruit for back wall, 160 ; grapes for,

160; flowers in, 260*
Vines, exposing to cold, 24; in greenhouse,

68, 322; forcing, 72, 195, 286, 319; its his-
tory, 79; sweet water in pots, 82; out-
doors, 126 ; border making, 126 ; manures
for, 127 ; for south wall, 136;
luxuriant, 136; pillar, to build, 179; graft-
ing, 179; planted too deep, 179; in pots,
231, 247 ; in Andalusia, 251 ; on back
wall of vinery,

271; scale, 273; and
greenhouse plants,

disbudding,
287 ; covering, roots, 298; for greenhouse,

303
Vriesia speciosa, 156
Wall, heating a flued, 92; plants for south-

west, 148
Wall-flower cuttings, 121
Wall-trees mulching, 148; planting, 148;

unfruitful, 12; protecting, 216
Walks, 253
Walnut planting, 259
Wasps, catching, 23
Water, the best for plants, 58; to cure hard,

92; necessary for germination, 38; its value,

145; stagnant, 359
Water-cress in gardens, 117, 241
Wax melting, 134 ; flowers, 156
Wax moth, 193
Weather indications : falling stars, thrushes,

moles, 329
Weigela rosea transplanting, 148; pruning,

328; culture, 68
Weekly Calendar, 1, 12, 25, 37, 57, 71, 81, 93,

105, 125, 137, 149, 161, 181, 193, 205, 217,

229, 249, 261, 273, 285, 305, 317, 329, 341.
White garden butterfly, I
Willows moving, 148
Wintering border flowers, 4; plants in pots,

12; plants in frames, 35; cuttings, 16, 35 ;
China rose and cistuses, 36; geranium cut-

tings, 24, 36
Wind indicating weather, 93
Wireworm, 93; trapping, 336
Wistaria sinensis alba, 31; removing, 103
Woodcocks, their arrival, 122
Woodlice, trapping, 67, 303
Worms ur turf, to destroy, 179
XYLEUTES COssus, 137
YAMS, 358
Yew, its use, 176
ZAUCHSNERIA CALIFORNICA, 74
Zieria macrophylla, 103
Zinnia culture, 136

Large White butterfly
Pea beetle
Large Sword Grass moth
Large Mallow moth
Dorking fowls
Complementary colours.
November Dagger moth
Cherry Saw fly
Narrow-winged Red-bar moth.
Hamilton's flower supporter.
Wireworm and Beetle
Compound hothouse
Small Stag beetle..
Spanish fowls

Page

2
13
25
37
51
54
57
71
81
91
93
94
105
115

Succulent beetle
Goat moth and caterpillar..
Turnip Saw tiy..
Flower pots
Lined beetle.
Cochin-China fowls.
Ghost moth and caterpillar
Honey Comb moth.
Mole cricket ..
Leaf Cutter Bee
Seed germinating
Raspberry Stalk beetle
Spangled Hamburgh Fowls
The Rose Fly

Page

125
137
140
150
161
172
181
194
205
217
218
229
239
219

Pear-blossom Beetle
Plant labels
Vine Scale...
Apple Tortrix
Death Watch
Artichoke Tortoise Beetle
Typographer Bark Beetle
Scotch Pine Bark Beetle
Geometrical flower beds.
Rose Beetle
Aylesbury Duck
Heating apparatus

Page
261
262
273
285
305
317
329
329
332
341
352
355

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N.B. In the above table of the weather near London in 1848, the highest and lowest state of the (B)arometer and (T)hermometer is shewn

for each day, and the (R)ain which fell in decimals of inches. St. Faith, a virgin martyr, and native of Pais de Gavre, in France, has a powerful influence over those which closely succeed to it. Thus suffered whilst Dacian presided over that country, about the year 290. it is an observation, founded on long experience, that “ if the latter She appears to have been a favourite saint in England during the end of October and the beginning of November be for the most part prevalence here of the Roman Catholic religion; many churches warm and rainy, then January and February probably will be frosty being dedicated to her memory,

and cold, except after a very dry summer. But if in October and

November there be snow and frost, then January and February are St. Denys, or Dionysius the Areopagite, was converted at Athens likely to be open and mild" If the summer and autumn have been by the preaching of St. Paul (Acts xvii. 34). It is said that he be- hot and dry, and the heat and the dryness extend far into September, came first Rishop of Athens, and that he suffered martyrdom there; as they have in the present year, then probably the early part of the but little of his history that can be relied upon is known. St. Denys winter will be mild, but the close of the winter and the beginning of has been chosen by the French as their tutelar saint.

the spring following will be cold. METEOROLOGY OF THE WEEK.-This is one of the periods of the In the latitude of London the night temperature of October most year most uncertain in its weather in this our uncertain climate. usually ranges between 350 and 51°, and the day temperature between

50° and 650 From a register kept at the Chiswick Gardens, and from which we

The mean height of the barometer is 29.7 inches, and chiefly take our meteorological tables, it appears that during 22 years,

its range or variation about one inch and a half. The average depth and of the 154 davs occurring between the 4th and 10th of October,

of rain during the month is 2 inches, and the averare evaporation both included, in those years, 71 days have been more or less rainy, and from the earth's surface one inch and six-tenths. Yet, let no one 83 have been fair. The greatest amount of rain that fell on any one day suppose that this depth of rain is the same throughout England. during those 71 was about three-fourths of an inch; the average

The variableness of the rain in different places of our country is one of highest temperature during these seven days in those 22 years is the most remarkable of the phenomena attendant upon our climate. 61.7°; and the average lowest temperature 43,5. The thermometer Thus, at Gosport, the average fall of rain in October is 3.25 inches; during these days never rose above 64.2, nor fell below 41.1°The at Exeter, 3.1; at Aberdeen, 2.0; at Bath, 2.9;, at Carlisle, 3.0; and highest temperature of which we have any record as occurring on any on the western coast it is far greater. Thus, in the October of 1811 of these days was on the 6th, in the year 1834, when the thermo- there fell at Liverpool more than 8 inches of rain, whilst at Thetford, meter reached 77° in the shade. The only instance we know of in Norfolk, there fell but 3 inches. snow falling during these days was in 1829, when during the night of the 7th it occurred in many parts of England; but, when our climate NATURAL PHENOMENA INDICATIVE OF WEATHER.-Under this was very different, we find in the Chroniclers that a frost lasted in head we shall give Mr. Forster's observations, amplified with those the year 760 from the 1st of October to the 26th of February. In made by many other naturalists, being fully convinced that the com

bined testimony of these never deceive in foretelling an approaching order to keep the warmth in the soil about the roots of vines intended for early forcing, it is a good plan to keep the border covered with change of weather. “If, after continued fine weather in summer, we litter, and a tarpaulin at night, uncovering it during fine warm days.

perceive the sky streaked with clouds, called Mares Tails, and it gra

dually gets more obscured; if the swallows skin low over the surface Having thus observed upon the days more particularly under our of the meadows; if the cattle snuff the air with distended nostrils ; consideration, we will refer briefly to the meteorology of the month. and if spiders come out in unusual numbers, we should say rain was In October, it has been truly said by an accurate observer, Mr. coming ; " and we never knew such aggregates of indications prove Webster, great and important changes take place in the whole atmo- deceptive. sphere, from the equator to the poles, for it is the shifting of the

Ants.-When there is a general bustle and activity observed in antscasons throughout every region of the globe. Winter and darkness

hills, and the ants appear all in motion carrying their eggs, appabegin to shroud the arctic circle, whilst light and warmth return to

rently for better shelter, it generally intimates approaching rain. cheer the southern pole; what is withdrawn from one hemisphere is This observation was made by many of the ancients, as Aratus, immediately transferred in an equal degree to the other hemisphere.

Varro, Pliny, and Virgil. The last-named (Georg. I., 379) saya, the The rains no sooner cease in one tropic than they begin in the other;

shower never comes unforeseen, but that before it arrives, aniong as soon as snow falls in October on the mountains of Greece, and the

other intimations, may be seen-autumnal rains begin at Algiers, Madeira, &c., the dry seasons set in at the Cape of Good Hope, Swan River, Valparaiso, &c. In England

Ants, as from secret cells their eggs they bear, there is no doubt that the weather which occurs during this month

Each following each, the tract continuous rear,

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two black spots on the middle. The under side of the under wings pillar seem injured that it was thought he might survive, but he died is light yellow. Breadth, when expanded, two inches. The cater- during the night. pillar is blueish-green, thinly haired, and sprinkled with black dots, having a yellow stripe on the back, and the same on the sides. These caterpillars are found, throughout the summer and autumn, on all the sorts of cabbage, on horse-radish, radishes, mustard, and similar plants, as well as on water-cresses. The pupæ are yellowish green, with black dots, with a point on the head, and five on the back. The best way to destroy them is picking off and killing the caterpillars, as well as the pupæ, as far as it is possible ; the latter are found attached to adjacent trees, hedges, and walls. But care must be taken not to destroy those pupæ which have a brown appearance ; because they are full of the larvæ of ichneumons, and other allied parasites, which are the great scourge of these caterpillars. A lady, and an entomologist, gentle as the Lepidopteræ she studies, saw, a few weeks since, about thirty grubs of the Ichneumon fly (Micrograster glomeratus) actually eat their way out through the back of one of these caterpillars. So little did the cater

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.

10

91

.

In our last number we brought down our consideration of the principles of gardening to the point where it is necessary to consider the circumstances essential for the germination of a seed. Now a certain degree of warmth is essential, for no cultivated plant, has seeds that will germinate below or at the freezing point of water. A temperature above 32° of Fahrenheit's thermometer, therefore, is requisite ; and the plants of which the seeds will germinate nearest to that low degree of temperature, in this country, are the winter weeds. For example, we have found the seeds of the Poa annua, the commonest grass of our gravel walks, germinate at 35°, and the seeds of groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) would probably require no higher temperature. But, on the other hand, the temperature must not be excessively high. Even no tropical seed, probably, will germinate at a temperature much above 120 F., and we know from the experiments of MM. Edwards and Colin, that neither wheat, oats, nor barley, will vegetate in a temperature of 113°

Every seed differing in its degree of excitability, consequently has a temperature without which it will not vegetate, and from which cause arise the consequences that different plants require to be sown at different seasons, and that they germinate with various degrees of rapidity.

For example, two varieties of early pea, sown on a south border on the same day, and treated strictly alike throughout their growth, were about a fortnight differing in all their stages of vegetation.

Sown. In bloom. Gathered from Cormack's Prince Albert Jan. 4. April 1. May 14. Warwick

Jan. 4. April 13. May 28. In another set of experiments, of the following varieties all sown on the 28th of March, Prince Albert bore peas fit for table June 19–3 ft. high, fine early sort. Bishop's Early dwarf, do. June 26-9 ins., inferior in every way. Early Racehorse, do. June 29—3 ft., nothing meritorious. Shilling's Grotto, do. June 29—3 ft., most excellent. Dwarf Green Marrow, do. July 10-3 ft., large pea, fine quality, full

Adanson found that, under the most favourable circumstances, various garden seeds might be made to germinate in the following very different spaces of time. Spinach, Beans, Mustard .

3 days.
Lettuce, Aniseed .
Melon, Cucumber, Cress 5
Radish, Beet

6
Orache

8
Purslain.

9
Cabbage.
Hyssop

30
Parsley

40 or 50 do. Almond, Chesnut, Peach

1 year. Rose, Hawthorn, Filbert In one instance M. Adanson certainly must have experimented with old seed, for we have found good new parsley seed, sown on fresh fertile soil in May, had germinated in two days, and its leaves were above the surface within a week from the day of sowing Then again in the case of rose seed,-at all events, in the case of that of the dog rose,—if the hips be allowed to endure the frosts of winter before they are gathered, the seed will germinate in much less time than is named by M. Adanson. This lesson was probably taught the gardener by nature, for the hips of roses never shed their seed in this country until they have been frosted. The gardener should always bear in mind that it would be a very erroneous conclusion, because a seed does not germinate at the accustomed time, that therefore its vegetating powers are departed, No two seeds taken from the same seed-vessel germinate precisely at the same time; but, on the contrary, one will often do so promptly, while its companion seed will remain dormant until another year. M. De Candolle relates an instance where fresh tobacco seedlings continued to appear annually for ten years on the same plot, though no seed was sown after the first sowing; and the same phenomenon usually occurs for two or three years when the seed of either the peony or hawthorn are sown. Why one seed is more easily excited than another is as yet unexplained, but the wisdom of this one of many provisions for avoiding the accidental extinction of a species in any given locality is readily discerned. An ungenial spring may destroy the plants arising from those seeds which first germinated,

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Blue Prussian, do. July 10—2 ft., good.
Matchless Marrow, do. July 17-3 ft., immense pods, large pea,

good quality, full crop.
Lynn's Wrinkled Marrow, do. Aug. 1–4 ft., good late sort.
American Marrow, do. July 17-2 ft., fine pea, full crop.
Blue Scymitar, do. July 25—3 ft., good bearer.
Bedman's Blue Imperial, do. July 30-good pea, full crop.
Flack's Victoria, do. July 17–24 ft., large pea,
Victoria Marrow, do. July 25—6 ft., large pods.
Auvergne, do. July 17–4 ft., fair crop.
Groom's Superb Blue, do, July 17—2 ft., thickly set with pods, full

of fine peas.-Gardener's Chronicle.

full

сгор. .

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