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College at Beloit, well endowed, and in successful operation : and similar Institutions at Milwaukee, Racine and Waukesha in Eastern Wisconsin, and at Appleton, in the North.
Indeed, in none of the new States, even in the Northwest, will the means of education be more ample; and in none is there a more rational appreciation of the importance of this paramount public interest.
In Wisconsin, as in the other States of the Union, there is, and ever will be, an entire freedom of ecclesiastical organization, and an equal protection of every religious institution and arrangement,
conservative of good morals, and protective of the highest and · most enduring interests of man.
In consideration of all these elements of prosperity, economical and social, such as have never, till now, gathered around the opening career of a new political community, there is little ground for wonder that the early growth of Wisconsin has been without a parallel in the history of States; and it may be very safely assumed, that the advent of men and capital to that favored portion of the Northwest, will continue, in increasing volume, for many years to come.
University Lands.—The following statement shows the counties in which the lands granted by Congress to the University of the State of Wisconsin, comprising two townships, or seventytwo sections, are located :
Counties where located. Acres. Counties where located. Acres. In Waushara county, .... ........ 640 In Jefferson county, ....
2,720 In Walworth " 1,280 In Dodge
2,960 In Racine · 640 In Fond du Lac"
2,400 In Rock 2,560 In Winnebago"
3,239 In Columbia 2,240 In Calumet »
1,920 In Dane 4,320 In Manitowoc »
1,700 In Green
2,560 In Lafayette 5,920 In Washington "
640 In Iowa 2,320 In other couuties,
These lands are being offered for sale at their appraised value, at the office of the State Treasurer, in Madison; ten per cent. being required in advance, and the interest at seven per cent. in advance, annually, on the balance, upon which ten years time is given.
School Lands.—The following table exhibits so much of the sixteenth sections as have been appraised, and are now for sale on the same terms and at the same place as University Lands:
Counties where located. Acres. Counties where located. Acres. In Adams county ....... 24,320 In Marquette county...
9,960 In Bad Ax »
...26,640 In Marathon " .... 25,600 In Brown » 3,200 In Milwaukee ”
5,120 In Calumet " 6,400 In Outagamie
13,800 In Chippewa » .45,440 In Portage
28,800 In Columbia » 14,080 In Racine
7,040 In Crawford » ... 8,960 In Richland
10,240 In Dane .21,760 In Rock
12,800 In Dodge
17,280 In Fond du Lac" ...13,440 In Sheboygan "
9,600 In Grant
10,249 In Iowa ....16,000 In Washington "
12,140 In Green ......10,240 In Waukesha”
10,240 In Kenosha ...... 4,480 In Waushara "
11,520 In Lafayette ” .. 9,600 In Waupacca »
13,440 In La Crosse » ......73,600 In Winnebago »
9,960 In Manitowoc » ---- ..........10,880 Total ...........
539,060 The grant of section 16, in each town, by Congress, to the State of Wisconsin, for Common School purposes, estimated upon an area of 55,404 square miles, the one thirty-sixth part of which is 1,539 square miles or sections, at 640 acres each, amounts, in acres, to....
........ 984,900 Deduct amount already offered for sale .....
Nearly all of which is yet among the unsurveyed lands of the State.
State Lands.—The following lands have been selected as a part of the 500,000 acres granted by Congress to the State of Wisconsin, and located in the following counties, to wit:
Counties where located. Acres. In Bad Ax county .....
...41,806,86 In Brown "
...10,773,35 In Calumet "
.28,027,84 In Columbia "
...22,073,00 In Crawford
... 4,517,20 In Dane
.16,760,96 In Fond du Lac"
... 320,00 In Grant
6,024,68 In Iowa
Counties where located. Acres. In La Crosse county ..........45,314,23 In Lafayette » ..........15,475,02 In Manitowoc"
...22,321,92 In Outagamie "
... 6,267,83 In Richland » ......17,538,76 In Sauk
........12,396,18 In St. Croix .. .........105,657,03 Rock River Canal grant, (Waukesha and Jefferson counties) 13,694,18
and are offered by the State for sale, at the same place as school and University Lands, on a credit of thirty years, at prices varying from $1 25 to $300 per acre, with interest at seven per cent per annum, to be paid annually in advance.
By the reports of the State officers, it appears that the capital of the school fund, December 31, 1852, was $819,200 50; of which amount $681,931 71 was due from sales of school lands, $132,491 64 from loans made, and $4,776 15 then in the treasury subject to loan. The interest upon this sum, at seven per cent., amounts to $57,274 03, of which $56,128 31 was paid in and apportioned to the several towns in this State, in March 1853. The whole amount of money raised from all sources was $127,718 42.
The Superintendent reports that for the year ending August 31st, 1852, 2,765 school districts and parts had made reports. In the districts reported, the average duration of schools was five and a half months; average monthly wages of male teachers $16 34; of female teachers $8 52. There are 66 school houses of brick, 74 of stone, 778 of logs, and 812 framed, all valued at $261,986 32. The highest valuation of any school house is $5,500, and the lowest $1 50.
GOVERNMENT.—The government of Wisconsin does not differ essentially from that of the other States of the Union—in many
respects it is more liberal. The qualification for electors is, one year's residence in the State ; and this applies as well to persons of foreign as native birth, subject only to the limitation that they shall have declared their intentions to become citizens, comformably to the laws of the United States, on the subject of naturalization. No distinction can be made, under the organic law, between aliens and citizens in reference to the possession, enjoyment, or descent of property. Imprisonment for debt is prohibited by the Constitution.
The legislative power is vested in the Senate and Assembly. The Senate consists of twenty-five members, who hold their offices for two years, and are chosen from single districts. Those from the odd numbered districts being chosen one year, and those from the even numbered the next.
The Assembly consists of eighty-two members, who are chosen annually, and hold their office for one year.
The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected by a plurality of votes, and holds his office for the term of two years. A Lieutenant Governor is chosen at the same time, and in the same manner. The usual executive powers are conferred upon the Governor; whose salary is $1,250. The Lieutenant Governor is President of the Senate, and receives five dollars a day, while in attendance, and the same mileage as members. In certain contingences he succeeds to the duties of the office of Governor.
The administrative powers are conferred upon the Secretary of State, salary $1,200; State Treasurer, salary $800; Attorney General, salary $800 ; and State Superintendent, salary $1,000. They severally hold their offices for two years, and are elected at the same time as the Governor.
Several offices for the performance of special duties have been established by law since the adoption of the Constitution.
The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, County Courts, and Justices of the Peace.
The Supreme Court, with few exceptions, has appellate juris
diction. It consists of one Chief Justice, and two Associates, who are elected by the people, and will hereafter be chosen for six years. [The Judges of the several Circuit Courts have heretofore comprised the Supreme Court.] A majority of the Judges appoint a Clerk, who continues during their pleasure. This Court has two terms a year at the Capitol, in Madison. The salary of each of the Judges is $2,000.
Circuit Courts have original jurisdiction in all matters civil and criminal, except such as is otherwise provided, and an appellate jurisdiction from all inferior Courts and tribunals. The Judges are elected by districts, holding their office for six years, and having a salary of $1,500. Two terms of this Court are holden annually in each county organized for judicial purposes in the State. The voters of any county so organized, elect a County Judge, who holds his office for four years, and has certain civil, original and appellate jurisdiction. He is also Judge of the Probate Court of the county.
Four Justices of the Peace are elected in each town, two annually, and hold their offices for the term of two years; they possess the powers usually conferred upon such officers.
CIVIL DIVISIONS.—The State of Wisconsin is divided into fortyfour counties, with about four hundred towns ; three Congressional Districts, and six Judicial Circuits.
Counties–Adams, Bad Ax, Brown, Calumet, Chippewa, Columbia, Crawford, Dane, Dodge, Door, Fond du Lac, Grant, Green, Iowa, Jackson, Jefferson, Kewaunee, Kenosha, La Crosse, Lafayette, La Pointe, Manitowoc, Marathon, Marquette, Milwaukee, Oconto, Outagamie, Ozaukee, Pierce, Polk, Portage, Racine, Richland, Rock, St. Croix, Sauk, Shawana, Sheboygan, Wal. worth, Washington, Waukesha, Waupacca, Wanshara and Winnebago.
Congressional Districts.—1st, DANIEL WELLS, jr., member; composed of the Counties of Kenosha, Milwaukee, Racine, Walworth and Waukesha.