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2d. BEN C. EASTMAN, member; composed of the counties of Adams, Bad Ax, Chippewa, Crawford, Dane, Grant, Green, Iowa, Jackson, La Crosse, Lafayette, La Pointe, Marathon, Pierce, Polk, Portage, Richland, Rock, St. Croix and Sauk.
3d. JOHN B. MACY, member; composed of the counties of Brown, Calumet, Columbia, Dodge, Door, Fond du Lac, Jefferson, Kewaunee, Manitowoc, Marquette, Oconto, Ozaukee, Outagamie, Shawana, Sheboygan, Washington, Waupacca, Waushara and Winnebago.
Judicial Circuits.—1st. Green, Kenosha, Racine, Rock and Walworth counties.
2d. Dane, Jefferson, Milwaukee and Waukesha counties.
3d. Adams, Columbia, Dodge, Marathon, Marquette, Ozaukee, Portage, Sauk, Waushara and Washington counties.
4th. Brown, Calumet, Door, * Fond du Lac, Kewaunee, * Manitowoc, Oconto,* Outagamie, Shawana* Sheboygan, Waupacca and Winnebago.
5th. Grant, Iowa, Lafayette and Richland counties.
6th. Bad Ax, Chippewa,* Crawford, Jackson,* La Crosse, La Pointe, Pierce,* Polk,* and St. Croix counties.
IMPROVEMENTS.—Of the many railroads projected and chartered in this state, several are already under contract and rapidly progressing to completion. Plank roads have been constructed and are now in progress, connecting most of the leading towns of the interior with each other, and with the towns on the lake shore. A large grant of land has been made by Congress to aid in the improvement of the navigation of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, and to connect the same by a canal. This work is under the immediate supervision of a board of Public Works, comprised of three Commissioners, and a Register and Treasurer, who are elected yearly by the legislature. The Governor has the general control and supervision of the work. A large portion of
* Not organized for judicial purposes.
the Improvement is let out by contract, while some parts are carried on by the Commissioners. This work, when completed, will open steamboat navigation nearly through the centre of the State from the Gulf of Mexico to St. Lawrence.
The construction of the canal and the improvement of the Lower Fox, has been under contract for several years, but owing to various causes is as yet unfinished.
PUBLIC LANDS.—By a pre-emption law passed September, 1841, any person being the head of a family, widow, or single man over the age of twenty-one years, a citizen of the United States, or who has filed declarations to become so under the naturalization laws, who makes a settlement on any public lands in person, is entitled to enter, at the minimum price of $1 25 per acre, a quarter section, of 160 acres, or a less legal subdivision, at the district land office. Lands not entered by pre-emption are offered for sale, previous to which no person not having a pre-emption claim can purchase.
There has been granted to Wisconsin, by the General Government, for various purposes, the following amounts of public lands: Improvements ..
858,400 acres. Individuals and Companies..
5,705 " Public Buildings........
6,400 " Salines ........
46,400 « Educational purposes....
1,004,728 " Swamp Lands...
.. 1,259,269 " There is still undisposed of........
... 24,506,295 Public lands are laid out by the rectangular system of surveys adopted for the first time in 1785, by the United States, and are so simple that the position of any surveyed section or township is known at once, by observing the letters and figures applied to each. Each township of six miles has a number different from every other; and to follow the directions here given, it is only necessary to take the meridian as a straight line, extending due north and south, when reckoning east or west; and the base
extending due east and west, when reckoning north or south. Commencing at the base line, (which, in Wisconsin, is the south line of the State,) every six miles numbering to the north is called a town, and is numbered town one, town two, town three, &c. Commencing at the meridian, (which is the line separating Grant from Iowa and Lafayette counties,) every six miles is called a range, and is numbered range one east, range two east, or range one west, &c., as the case may be. It will be seen that this system divides the whole surface of the country into squares of six miles square, or thirty six square miles each. These squares are townships, and the figures are applied as follows: Madison is in town 7 N., range 9 E.; Fond du Lac, in town 15 N., range 17 E.; Lancaster, in town 4 N., range 3 W.; Hudson, in town 29 N., range 19 W., &c. Townships are divided into thirty-six squares of one mile each, called sections, and numbered as follows:
Each section contains 640 ares of land, and is divided into four equal parts, called quarters, by a line through the centre each way, each quarter consequently containing 160 acres, thus:
Each quarter is again subdivided into four equal parts, after the manner of the division of sections, each subdivision containing 40 acres:
The subdivisions are designated as quarters of quarters, thus the northeast 40 acre subdivision is known as the N. E. qr. of the N. E. qr. Madison is situated at the corners of sections 13, 14, 23 and 24; it is therefore on the S. W.qr. of sec. 13, S. E. qr. of sec. 14, N. E. qr. of sec. 23, and N. W. qr. of sec. 24.
MISCELLANEOUS.—The District Court of the United States for the district of Wisconsin, ANDREW G. MILLER, Judge, holds one term at Madison, and one at Milwaukee, annually.
HENRY Dodge, of Dodgeville, Iowa county, and Isaac P. WALKER, of Milwaukee, are United States Senators in Congress, from Wisconsin.
The following are the officers of the Wisconsin Militia :
BENJ. F. HOPKINS, Madison, C. C. WASHBURNE, Mineral Point, COLES BASHFORD, Oshkosh, CHARLES CLEMENT, Kenosha, Governor's Aids.
William L. UTLEY, Racine, Adjutant General, salary $300 ; DAVID ATWOOD, Madison, Quarter-Master General; JAMES B. MARTIN, Milwaukee, Pay-Master General ; JAMES RICHARDSON, Madison, Commissary General; JOHN W. HUNT, M. D., Madison, Surgeon General; N. BISHOP EDDY, Madison, Judge Advocate General; WILLIAM DUDLEY, Madison, Military Secretary.
ANDREW PROUDFIT, BENJAMIN ALLEN and Lucas M. MILLER, are Commissioners; R. P. EIGHME, Register, and JAMES MURDOCK, Treasurer of the Board of Public Works.
H. S. ORTON, is Private Secretary of the Governor, also Reporter of the Supreme Court. WILLIAM DUDLEY, State Libra
The following are the names of members of the Legislature:
Senators by Districts.—1st. H. N. Smith ; 2d. James. S. Alban; 3d. A. M. Blair; 4th. B. S. Weil; 5th. E. M. Hunter; 6th. D. C. Reed; 7th. J. W. Cary; 8th. J. R. Sharpstein; 9th. Geo. R. McLane; 10th. M. H. Bovee; 11th. T. T. Whittlesey; 12th. E. Wakeley; 13th. Charles Dunn; 14th. Alva Stewart; 15th. Levi