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Peter's, that it appears less than it is, this must be con- | pictures; and all these individual objects and actions lost sidered as a proof, not that its proportions are exactly what under an artificial heaven, whose grandeur and whose they ought to be, but that there is something wrong about beauties delight and distract the eye. Such is the interior them; for its magnificent dimensions are generally and of this glorious edifice,—the Mall of Rome; but religious justly regarded as one fit cause of our admiration, and sentiments are perhaps the last which it inspires." therefore that must be thought a defect which conceals “ The view of the interior of St. Peter's ” says Mr. Wiltheir immensity. If, on the other hand, it be a merit in liams “is perhaps, the best near the bronze statue of St. the proportions of St. Peter's that they diminish to the eye Peter. We saw it under the most striking effect, adorned its real size, then, that size must be a defect, and the ex. with the beams of the sun, playing upon its gorgeous pense and labour of producing it must have been more magnificence,,the noble dome with its various colossal than wasted. 'In truth, however, we doubt altogether the paintings in Mosaic, of angels, prophets, and apostles, the justness of the theory, which attributes to the general pro- latter, in the spandrils, at least twenty-five feet in height. portions of a building, unassisted by its darkness or light- In the transept of the cross are seen the noble sepulchral ness, the power of diminishing, or augmenting the whole monuments of the popes, by Canova, Bernini, Michel magnitude of a building. We think the true cause of the Angelo, and others; splendid pictures in Mosaic, designed apparent diminution of St. Peter's, in part at least, may be by Raffael, Domenichino, Guercino, and Guido, scarcely the great magnitude of the numerous statues in the church. distinguishable from the finest paintings; grand columns These are, in fact, all colossal, and as our eye is accustomed of marble, porphyry, and granite, the gigantic supporters of to statues more near the size of life, they serve as a false the dome, each of which, were it hollow, would contain standard, by which we measure the ehurch in which they hundreds of people. Numerous colossal statues of saints, stand. We suspect also that statues of white marble have, in niches at least thirteen feet high; the various and prefrom their brilliancy of colour, the appearance of being cious stones which impanel the walls of the whole building; much nearer the eye than they really are, which must of the richness of the ornamented roof; the galleries from course diminish their apparent magnitude, and render the which the relics are occasionally exhibited; the great altar scale afforded them still more fallacious. The great light of Corinthian brass, by Bernini, (the height of which is of St. Peter's, especially when contrasted, as it will be not less than that of the highest palace in Rome,) with its involuntarily by all foreigners, with the gloominess of their twisted columns wreathed with olive; the hundred brazen own Gothic cathedrals, contributes to the same effect of lamps continually burning, and surrounding the tomb of reducing its seeming dimensions."

the patron saint, with its gilded bronze gate, enriched to

the utmost with various ornaments; the massive silver GENERAL APPEARANCE OF THE INTERIOR.

lamps; the hangings of crimson silk; the chair of St. “A noisy school for children in one corner; a sermon Peter, supported by two popes, statues of great magnitude ; preached to a moveable audience at another; a concert in the pavement, composed of the most rare and curious this chapel; a ceremony half interrupted by the distant marbles, of beautiful workmanship; the statue of St. Peter, sounds of the same music in another quarter ; a ceaseless with a constant succession of priests, and persons of all crowd sauntering along the nave, and circulating through descriptions kissing his foot ;- form a whole not to be all the aisles ; listeners and gazers walking, sitting, kneel- paralleled on earth : especially when seen as I saw it, with ing; some rubbing their foreheads against the worn toes of the sun's beams darting through the lofty windows of the the bronze St. Peter, others smiling at them; confessors in dome, throwing all into mysterious light, tipping the gilded boxes absolving penitents; laquais de place expounding | and plated ornaments, and giving additional richness to

* If,"

THE DOME.

the colours of the Mosaic paintings, and to the burnished | grace of the great Saviour and benefactor have carried their silver lamps, which sparkled like little constellations ; while ineffable consolations to my heart; and I have longed for the effect of all was heightened by the sound of the organ the wings of a dove, that I might fly away and be for ever at vespers, swelling in notes of triumph, then dying upon at rest. The next hour, the scene has been wholly changed. the ear, and sinking into the soul; the clear melodious I have seen the multitude kiss the image which was that tones of the human voice, too, Alling up the pauses of the of Jupiter, and is that of St. Peter; I have heard the organ, diffusing, a deeper solemnity through this great addresses to God in a language which the people cannot temple, and making us feel an involuntary acknowledge- understand ; I have considered the repugnance of the ment to God, who had gifted man with such sublime con- government to education; the jealousy with which the dif. ceptions."

fusion of the Scriptures is regarded ; and all the previous The inside of St. Peter's has fewer faults than the out- enchantment has vanished from my mind I have been side. “One is astonished," says Mr, Hope," " to find so compelled to turn from the magnificence of art, from the much splendour, and even glitter, united with such an air beauty of sculpture, from the lofty aspirations of an outward of repose, of majesty, and of quiet. There is a serenity of edifice, from the balmy breath of a fragrant atmosphere, look, and an equability of temperature in this vast edifice, from the fine emblems of heaven and eternity, to the ap which throws over all its parts an inexpressible charm; | palling consideration, that the beams of truth have feebly and in many of its finishings, by peculiar good luck, have irradiated these walls; that the chillness of a moral death been avoided a number of blemishes in architecture, that reigns eternally within them; that the very structure were in high yogue, at the time it was finished, One won- which had given the former enchantment to my senses and ders, for instance, how its ceiling should have escaped my heart, owes its existence to the ambition and despotism allegorical paintings. Bernini, however, who had the worst of human crime, and that in very truth, these magnificent taste of any man who ever acquired the reputation of a buildings are, in the words of an energetic writer, 'as tri- . great artist, was still in time to exhibit some of his wretched umphal arches, erected in memorial of the extermination of conceits. Treating the adorning of the first church of that truth, which was given to be the light of the world and Christendom in the same tawdry flippant style as he would the life of men !' How fearful is the consideration, that all have done that of a temporary stage, he contrived not only the best faculties of the mind and the hand have thus been to introduce at one end of the vestibule a theatrical exhibi- seized by a foreign force, and made instrumental against tion of Constantine starting at the vision of the cross, but the happiness of their possessors, and against the glory and to place in the central point of the church a transparency authority of Him who called them into existence." of the Holy Ghost, surrounded by a glory of rays of plaster exclaims another writer, "we could imagine a momentary gilt. Yet such is the immensity and splendour of St. visit from Him, who once entered a fabric of sacred denoPeter's that this defect and that of the twisted columns of mination with a scourge, because it was made the resort of the altar-piece, and a hundred others, are absorbed in the a common traffic, with what aspect and voice,with what galaxy of beauties with which they are mingled.

intliction, but the rebuke with tlames of fire, would be " Yet has not St. Peter's, among all its magnificence, have entered this mart of iniquity, assuming the name of above one or two excellent works of art. Michel Angelo his sanctuary, where the traffic is in the delusions, crimes, has left his name on a small and pitiful Pietà: Algardi and the souls of men. It was even as if, to use the prophet's, has intrusted his celebrity to an immense bas-relief which language, the very stone cried out of the wall," and the imitates a painting, and consequently fails in its effect; 'beam out of the timber answered it' in denunciation; for and on every side you see gorgeous mural monuments, a portion of the means of building was obtained as the price which being neither mere decorations of walls, nor positive of dispensations and pardons." sarcophagi, encroaching too much for the former, and too little detached and fanciful for the latter, have not the imposing appearance of the most uncouth Gothic tomb.

T'he dome, the vaet and wondrous dome, Among these, however, that of Paul the Third, by Gugli

To which Diana's marvel was a cell. elmo della Porta is much spoken of, and that of Pope It is usually said to have been the boast of Michel Angelo Rezzonico by Canova deservedly admired. To judge of that he would elevate the Pantheon in the air. “Whatever the size of this enormous pile, two hundred feet longer, merit may attach to this idea, is certainly due to Braand a hundred feet higher, than St. Paul's, one should mante, since the cupola designed by him was certainly in ascend the cupola, and look down upon the inside. It is pendentive, while that of Brunelleschi, at Florence, bears here that, suspended over an immense abyss, not hollowed perpendicularly on its foundations. Perhaps to put it upon out by the potent hand of nature, but formed by the slow stilts would have been a more correct expression, and it is manual operation of man, that man himself looks like an certainly better on the ground." "To be convinced of this," insect creeping within his own work.”

says Mr. Woods, “it is only necessary to mount into the The feelings excited by this edifice in a religious mind gallery, and observe how much superior it appears in size will be of a very mixed character, and at times of ten- and beauty than when seen from below." dency most painful. The vastness, the symmetry, the The dome of St. Peter's is double,--that is to say, there beauty and lightness, of the architecture, impart to it "a are in fact two domes, an innerand an outer one; between character of loftiness and perpetuity," perhaps unequalled the two is the staircase leading to the summit. The diaby any other edifice; yet to some it may seem the “presence- meter of the internal dome is 140 feet, of the external dome, chamber of the monarch of the world, rather than the scene 195 feet. From the cornice immediately above the pillars which a sinner would select in order to meet his God." to the aperture of the lantern the distance is 170 feet, from “ From this temple of high beauty and exquisite skill," to thence to the top of the cross, 110 feet ; the height of the use the words of an eloquent writer, “have any waters supporting piers themselves, is 178 feet, so that the total issued forth to heal the sickly places of the moral wilder- elevation of the top of the cross above the pavement of the ness ? Alas! is it not here that the slumbers of the soul church is 458 fect. are the most entire,-that the despotism of ignorance is the Much alarm has been felt at different times for the stamost cruel,--that the degradation of the intellect is lowest, bility of the cupola of St. Peter's. Towards the end of the and the darkness of the heart the most unbroken and pro- seventeenth century it was reported that the dome was found ? Is it not here that the deep warning falls the about to give way, but on being examined it was found that loudest upon the startled ear? Woe unto thee Chorazin! there was no cause for reasonable alarm. In 1742 the woe unto thee Bethsaida ! for if the mighty works which report again prevailed; mathematicians and architects were done in thee had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they were called in, and gave conflicting opinions. There are would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. now several bands of iron in the cupola; two were affixed Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Tyre when it was at first raised. There are cracks all round the and Sidon in the day of judgment than for thee.'

drum, and according to Mr. Woods, they denote some en" How perfect a contrast of feeling," exclaims the same largement in that part from the expansion of the dome. writer, “have I experienced sometimes, when standing “But, in spite of all the iron ties, the cracks in ihe hutwithin that majestic edifice of St. Peter's! This hour, the tresses are the most important, and from their direction, quietness, the warmth, the beauty, the fragrance, the light, almost uniformly outward and downward, indicate a settlethe solitude, the vastness of the scene, have placed me in ment of the whole drum upon the pendentives, while the an element with which earth has been scarcely connected. columns, resting upon the direct arches of the nave, have I have felt detached from all human and immediate in. retained, or nearly retained, their position. The great piers terests. The presence of God has cheered my spirit, and have therefore probably gone outward, and when in the united me to all the lofty objects of eternity. The love and building, by bringing my eye carefully, so as to compare

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the angle of a pilaster, not affected by this operation, with for a while) continued to shed its mild lustre orer the dark those of the central cupola, I think I can perceive that such ness of a cloudy night. The next day Rome appeared a an effect has taken place. Nor has the movement entirely | desert, and the universal silence was only disturbed by the ceased, since a dovetailed piece of marble, inserted to ascer- distant rattling of travelling carriages posting away to the tain the fact in 1810, was found broken in 1825. Perhaps north and to the south." there never was any just ground of alarm; yet, as one of the iron circles, intended to contain the thrust had given

CHURCHES OF MODERN ROME. way, there probably had been a considerable settlement, but It would far exceed our limits to describe even the principal not more than might have been expected, from the different of the many magnificent churches which, besides St. periods in which the work had been carried up, and the Peter's, are to be found in Rome; the whole number is repeated strengthenings which the solids had received. said to be 365. We shall content ourselves with some reNevertheless it was determined to insert five bands of iron, marks on their general style and appearance. One of the which were all let into the inasonry, and made tight and most remarkable of their characteristics is of a negative sound under the direction of Vanvitelli. The broken chain kind,--the almost total absence of the Gothic or pointed vas restored; but the other chain had been originally style of architecture; with the exception of a few fragments inserted in the thickness of the wall; this there was no and a few ornaments in this style, nothing of it is to be seen. opportunity for examining: in order to be perfectly secure, “The Roman architects," says Dr. Burton, “hare invaa sixth band was inserted in its neighbourhood, so that, in riably studied the Grecian models, and whatever fault may all probability, the dome and its drum are now secured by be found in separate parts, it must be allowed that the eight iron bands, five of which are in the drum, one at the churches of this city present some of the most splendid springing of the arch, and two on the surface of the dome specimens of architecture which can be found in modern itself. It is doubted among the Italian architects whether times." the insertion of all these bands did not do more harm than Forsyth says that they are admirable only in detail. any strength they could afford to the building can compen- “Their materials are rich, the workmanship exquisite, the sate." Dr. Burton says that the cupola of the Duomo, at orders all Greek. Every entablature is adjusted to the Florence, has cracked even worse than that of St. Peter's; axis of each column, with a mathematical scrupulosity yet no iron bands have been inserted into that.

which is lost to the eye. One visionary line runs upward, The ascent to the roof of St. Peter's is very easy. “You bisecting, superstitiously, every shaft, triglyph, ovolo bead will stare," says a modern writer, “ when I tell you that a denticle, mutile modillon, or lion's mouth, that lies in its broad paved road leads up to the top of St. Peter's, not, way. But how are those orders employed ? In false fronts perhaps, practicable for carriages from its winding nature, which, rising into two stages of columns, promise two but so excellent a bridle-road, that there is a continual stories within-in pediments under pediments, and in passage of horses and mules upon it, which go up laden segments of pediments—in cornices, for ever broken by with stone and lime; and the ascent is so gentle, and the projections projecting from projections-in columns, and road so good, that any body might ride up and down with pilasters, and fractions of pilasters, grouped round one perfect safety." When the visiter reaches the leads on the pillar. Thus Grecian beauties are clustered by Goths: thus roof, the immensity of the building appears very striking ; capitals and bases are coupled, or crushed, or confounded, "small houses and ranges of workshops for the labourers on each other; and shafts rise from the same level to diffeemployed in the never ending repairs are built here, and rent heights, some to the architrave, and some only to the are lost upon this immense leaden plain, as well as the imposts. Ornaments for ever interrupt or conceal ornaeighteen cupolas of the side chapels which are not distin- ments: accessories are multiplied till they absorb the guishable from below." From this roof staircases lead to principal: the universal fault is the too many and the too the ball, which is twenty-four feet in circumference, and is much. Few churches in the city show more than their said to be capable of containing eighteen persons. From fronts externally. Their rude sides are generally screened the balustrade on the outside of the ball, the adventurous by contiguous buildings, and their tiled roof by a false pedisometimes mount to the bottom of the cross by an iron ment, which, rising to an immoderate height above the ladder, which is in part quite perpendicular.

ridge, leads you to certain disappointment when you enter.

Every front should be true to the interior. Such was the ILLUMINATIONS OF ST. PETER's.

front of the ancient temples, a pediment resting on a periIt is the custom upon some occasions, and particularly on style and forming a fine pentagon: but such a figure would the eve of the festival of St. Peter, in the month of June, be too flat for those vaulted churches, and incompatible with to light up the exterior of this enormous edifice. Simond their aisles................ The Romans seem fondest of those gires a lively description of the scene and the preparations. | fronts where most columns can be stuck and most angles *Soon after sunset the whole outside of St. Peter's was projected. Some, as Santa Maria in Portico, the Propaoccupied, I might say, hung, with workmen, who were seen ganda Fide, &c., are bent out and in like brackets. Quadelimbing in all directions, along the ribs of the dome, the rangular fronts, like those of St. Peter's, the Lateran, &c., lantern above it, the gilt globe, and the very cross at the are fitter for a palace than for a church. How specifically top of all. The pediment in front, the architecture, the truer is the old Gothic front, which admits but one large colossal statues, the very acanthus-leaves of the Corinthian window, similar in form to the front itself!" capitals, swarmed with adventurous men, carrying lights, The principal churches of Rome," says the same writer, who, by means of ropes, slided and swung with great rapidity "however different their style of building and ornament and ease from one point to another of the edifice, forcibly may be, are distributed in the same manner. Their aisles recalling to my mind the fireflies of America, on a hot are generally formed by arcades : over these are sometimes Summer's evening. We understood that these men hear grated recesses, but never open galleries. The choir termass, confess, and receive the absolution before they begin, minates in a curre, which is the grand field of decoration, en account of the great risk they run of breaking their and loaded with curiosities and glories in brass and marble. necks. The business being well organized, the whole sur: The high altar stands in the middle of the cross. The face of St. Peter's and the colonnade before it, soon shone with chapels of the Holy Sacrament and of the Virgin are usually the mild effulgence of fifty thousand paper lanterns; but in the transepts. Those of the sailits are ranged on the in less than an hour, and at a particular signal, a great sides; and each being raised by a different family, has an change of scene took place; the whole edifice burst at once, architecture of its own, at variance with the church, which as by magic, into absolute flames. This is done by means thus loses its unity amid nests of polytheism." of pans full of pitch and pine shavings set on fire, and Among the churches of modern Rome there are seven simultaneously thrust out from all parts of the edifice : the which are called basilicas, and are supposed to possess a effect is quite wonderful, but of short duration. It was peculiar sanctity. The name basilica is derived from the scarcely over before the crowd moved off towards the river, circumstance of their being generally formed out of the crossing the bridge, in order to occupy a situation in front basilica of ancient Rome, which have been already menof the castle of St. Angelo, and we did not without difficulty, tioned. These seven are St. Peter's, Sta. Maria Maggiore, reach the house on the top of which we had provided places. St. John Lateran, and Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme, I certainly never saw fire-works at all comparable with which are within the walls,—and St. Paul's, S. Lorenzo, these, for their inexhaustible variety,---their force, loudness, and St. Sebastian's, which are without them. The reason and duration. The huge mass of the castle seemed a vol-assigned for the preference is the following. Upon a certain cano, pouring its ceaseless deluge of fire above, below, and occasion the four patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, Jeruall around; and the Tiber in front seemed itself a sheet of salem, and Constantinople, came to Rome; and four fire. Long after all this had ended, St. Peter's (forgotten principal churches were assigned to them during their

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residence. These were St. Paul's, Sta. Maria Maggiore, “In some of the principal churches, where you have S. Lorenzo, and St. Peter's. The pope, who was supe- before you in one view, a great number of altars, and all rior to them all, reserved for himself St. John Lateran, of them smoking at once with steams of incense, how which was then, and is still, higher in rank than St. natural is it to imagine oneself transported into the temple Peter's, being in fact, the metropolitan church of Rome, of some heathen divinity, or that of the Paphian Venus and “the principal temple of the Catholic world," as Vasi described by Virgil ? says. This circumstance imparted a peculiar sanctity to

Her hundred altars there with garlands crown'd, the five churches, and the people frequented them more

And richest incense smoking, breathe around than any others. St. Sebastian and Sta. Croce were subse

Sweet odours," &c. quently ailded to the number, because in going from St. Under the pagan emperors, the use of incense for the Paul's to the Lateran, it was necessary to pass by St. Sebas- purpose of religion was thought so contrary to the obligatian, and in continuing the visitation from the Lateran to tions of Christianity, that in their persecutions the very S. Lorenzo, Sta. Croce had the like good fortune to be in method of trying and convicting a Christian was by rethe way. "Such," says Dr. Burton, “is the reason assigned quiring him only to throw the least grain of it into the by an antiquary and dignitary of the Romish church, censer, or on the altar. which, perhaps will not seem very satisfactory."

Under the Christian emperors, on the other hand, it was looked upon as a rite so peculiarly heathenish, tbat the

very places or houses where it could be proved to have been RELICS OF PAGANISM IN MODERN ROME.

done, were by a law of Theodosius confiscated to the MIDDLETON, in his celebrated Letter from Rome, after government. expressing the resolution which he had taken to employ The Rev. Mr. Blunt, in his Vestiges of Ancient Manhimself, during his stay in the capital, chiefly in observing ners and Customs, &c., points out several marks of resemits antiquities, and to lose as little time as possible in blance between the ancient and the modern superstition. taking notice of the fopperies and ridiculous ceremonies of Not the least curious is the analogy which may be observed the present religion of the place, goes on to say, “ But between the names of the pagan temples of Ancient Rome, I soon found myself mistaken; for the whole form and out- and the Catholic churches of Modern Rome. Of temples, ward dress of their worship seemed so grossly idolatrous there are said to have been formerly in Rome four hunand extravagant oeyond what I had imagined, and made so dred and twenty sacred to the pagan gods; of churches strong an impression on me, that I could not help consider there are now in the modern city and its suburbs, upwards ing it with a particular regard; especially when the very of a hundred and fifty sacred to Christian saints. And reason which I thought would have hindered me from as heretofore many temples," to use the words of Mr. Blunt, taking any notice of it at all, was the chief cause which en- were consecrated to the same deity under different titles, gaged me to pay so much attention to it: for nothing, I so now are there many churches devoted to the same saint, found, concurred so much with my original intention of or to the Madonna, distinguished only by a diversity of conversing with the ancients; or so much helped my ima- epithets." Thus in Ancient Rome, there was a temple of gination, to fancy myself wandering about in old heathen Jupiter Castor, of Jupiter Feretrius, of Jupiter Sponsor, of Rome, as to observe and attend to their religious worship; Jupiter Stator, of Jupiter Tonans, of Jupiter Victor, &c. , all whose ceremonies appeared plainly to have been copied of Venus Calva, Venus Capitolina, Venus Erycina, Venus from the rituals of primitive paganism; as if handed down Cloacina, Venus Victrix. So in Modern Rome we find a by an uninterrupted succession from the priests of old to church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Santa Maria di Arathe priests of new Rome; whilst each of them readily ex- celi, Santa Maria Imperatrice, Santa Maria Liberatrice, plained and called to my mind some passage of a classic Santa Maria della Consolazione, Santa Maria Egyptiaca, author, where the same ceremony was described as trans- Santa Maria dell' Anima, &c.; S. Pietro in Vaticano, S. acted in the same form and manner, and in the same place Pietro in Montorio, S. Pietro in Vincoli, S. Pietro in Carwhere I now saw it executed before my eyes : so that as oft cere, &c. Again, the heathen temples were often dedicated as I was present at any religious exercise in their churches, to two divinities, as to Castor and Pollux, to Venus and it was more natural to fancy myself looking on at some Cupid, to Venus and Rome, to Honour and Virtue, to Isis solemn act of idolatry in old Rome, than assisting at a wor- and Serapis, &c. In like manner, there are now churches ship instituted on the principles and framed upon the plan to SS. Marcellinus and Peter, to Jesus and Maria, to of Christianity."

Dominicus and Sistus, to Celsus and Julianus, to SS. Vin“Many of our divines," he adds, “have, I know, with centius and Anastasius. Upon this same point we refer the much learning and solid reasoning charged and effectually reader to the remarks which we quoted from Middleton's proved the Crime of Idolatry on the Church of Rome ; but Letter, in our description of the Pantheon, which from their controversies, in which there is still something being formerly dedicated to all the gods of pagan Rome, plausible to be said on the other side, and when the charge is now dedicated to all the saints of Catholic Rome. is constantly denied, and with much subtilty evaded,) are Mr. Matthews remarks, that some traces of the old not capable of giving that conviction which I immediately heathen superstitions are constantly peeping out fron'under received from my senses; the surest witnesses of fact in all their Catholic disguises. “What is the modern worshipcases; and which no man can fail to be furnished with ping of saints and images but a revival of the old adoration who sees popery as it is exercised in Italy, in the full paid to heroes and demi-gods ;—or what the nuns, with pomp and display of its pageantry; and practising all its their vows of celibacy, but a new edition of the vestal arts and powers without caution or reserve. The similitude virgins ? Wherever we turn, indeed, all is old, and of the popish and pagan religion seemed so evident and nothing new. Instead of tutelary gods, we find patron clear, and struck my imagination so forcibly, that I soon saints and guardian angels, and the canonization of a resolved to give myself the trouble of searching to the bot- saint, is but another term for the apotheosis of a hero...... tom; and to explain and demonstrate the certainty of it, by The very same piece of brass which the old Romans adored, comparing together the principal and most obvious parts of now with a new head on its shoulders,-like an old friend each worship." He then expresses an opinion that he shall with a new face,-is worshipped with equal devotion by have matter enough to tire both himself and his correspon- the modern Italian. dent, “in showing the source and origin of the popish It is really surprising to see with what apparent fervour ceremonies, and the exact conformity of them with those of of devotion, all ranks, and ages, and sexes, kneel to, and their pagan ancestors." We select his remarks on the use kiss, the toe of this brazen image. They rub it against their of incense :

foreheads, and press it against their lips, with the most "The very first thing that a stranger must necessarily reverential piety. I have sat by the hour to see the crowds take notice of, as soon as he enters their churches, is the of people who flock in to perform this ceremony,—waiting use of incense or perfumes in their religious offices; the for their turn to kiss;—and yet the Catholic would laugh first step which he takes within the door will be sure to at the pious Mussulman who performs a pilgrimage to make him sensible of it, by the offence that he will imme- Mecca to wash the holy pavement, and kiss the black stone diately receive from the smell as well as smoke of this of the Caaba ;-which, like his own St. Peter, is also a relic incense, with which the whole church continues to be filled of heathenism." for some time after every solemn service,-a custom received directly from paganism; and which presently called to my

LONDON mind the old descriptions of the heathen temples and altars JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. which are seldom or never mentioned by the antients without

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